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The Future of Diversity and Inclusion in the Workplace

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the future of diversity & inclusion 5 next practices @joegerstandt #SHRM15


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Bayard Rustin We need in every community a group of angelic troublemakers.


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joegerstandt.com joe.gerstandt@gmail.com linkedin.com/in/joegerstandt youtube.com/joegerstandt twitter.com/joegerstandt slideshare.net/joeg 402.740.7081


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1.mature language & logic 2.authenticity 3.decision making 4.relational networks 5.behavioral science


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1.mature language & logic 2.authenticity 3.decision making 4.relational networks 5.behavioral science


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“Well, I could be wrong, but I believe diversity is an old, old wooden ship that was used during the Civil War era.” -Ron Burgundy (Anchorman)


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Inclusion! @joegerstandt #SHRM15


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Inclusion?


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Inclusion? What does that mean?


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Inclusion? What does that mean? Who…


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Inclusion? What does that mean? Who is included…


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Inclusion? What does that mean? Who is included in what?


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Inclusion? What does that mean? Who is included in what? What kind of things do you do to be inclusive?


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What looks like resistance is often a lack of clarity. -Dan and Chip Heath, Switch


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The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment. It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual.


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The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment. It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual.


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Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research Lynn M. Shore Amy E. Randel Beth G. Chung Michelle A. Dean Karen Holcombe Ehrhart Gangaram Singh San Diego State University Journal of Management Vol. 37 No. 4, July 2011


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low belongingness low value in uniqueness high value in uniqueness high belongingness


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low belongingness low value in uniqueness high value in uniqueness high belongingness


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low high belongingness belongingness low value in uniqueness high value in inclusion: uniqueness Individual is treated as an insider and also allowed/encouraged to retain uniqueness within the work group.


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low high belongingness belongingness low value in exclusion: uniqueness Individual is not treated as an organizational insider with unique value in the work group but there are other employees or groups who are insiders. high value in inclusion: uniqueness Individual is treated as an insider and also allowed/encouraged to retain uniqueness within the work group.


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low high belongingness belongingness low value in exclusion: uniqueness Individual is not treated as an organizational insider with unique value in the work group but there are other employees or groups who are insiders. high value in differentiation: inclusion: uniqueness Individual is not treated as an organizational insider in the work group but their unique characteristics are seen as valuable and required for group / organization success. Individual is treated as an insider and also allowed/encouraged to retain uniqueness within the work group.


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low high belongingness belongingness low value in exclusion: assimilation: uniqueness Individual is not treated as an organizational insider with unique value in the work group but there are other employees or groups who are insiders. Individual is treated as an insider in the work group when they conform to org. / dominant culture norms and downplay uniqueness. high value in differentiation: inclusion: uniqueness Individual is not treated as an organizational insider in the work group but their unique characteristics are seen as valuable and required for group / organization success. Individual is treated as an insider and also allowed/encouraged to retain uniqueness within the work group.


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1 2 3 assimilation Individual is treated as an insider in the work group when he/she conforms to dominant culture norms and downplays uniqueness. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 inclusion Individual is treated as an insider and is allowed and encouraged to retain uniqueness within the work group.


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do stuff! • formal business case • clear, concise definitions • consistently known • informal narrative


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1.mature language & logic 2.authenticity 3.decision making 4.relational networks 5.behavioral science


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Top Regrets of The Dying Bronnie Ware palliative care nurse


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Top Regrets of The Dying 1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me. 2. I wish I hadn’t worked so hard. 3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings. 4. I wish I had stayed in touch with my friends. 5. I wish that I had let myself be happier.


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Top Regrets of The Dying 1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me. 2. I wish I hadn’t worked so hard. 3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings. 4. I wish I had stayed in touch with my friends. 5. I wish that I had let myself be happier.


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Top Regrets of The Dying 1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me. 2. I wish I hadn’t worked so hard. 3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings. 4. I wish I had stayed in touch with my friends. 5. I wish that I had let myself be happier.


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Top Regrets of The Dying 1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me. 2. I wish I hadn’t worked so hard. 3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings. 4. I wish I had stayed in touch with my friends. 5. I wish that I had let myself be happier.


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Top Regrets of The Dying 1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me. 2. I wish I hadn’t worked so hard. 3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings. 4. I wish I had stayed in touch with my friends. 5. I wish that I had let myself be happier.


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Top Regrets of The Dying 1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me. 2. I wish I hadn’t worked so hard. 3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings. 4. I wish I had stayed in touch with my friends. 5. I wish that I had let myself be happier.


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Fear of Being Different Stifles Talent Harvard Business Review March 2014 Kenji Yoshino, Christie Smith


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•29% altered their attire, grooming or mannerisms to make their identity less obvious •40% refrained from behavior Please be commonly associated with a given less of identity yourself so •57% avoided sticking up for their identity group that I can be •18% limited contact with members of more a group they belong to comfortable.


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66% of these employees said that it significantly undermined their sense of self


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50% stated that it diminished their sense of commitment


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do stuff! • start with yourself • make “inclusion” more tangible • reward initiative, expression & risk taking • provide variety of ways to participate & share • provide employees with more choice @joegerstandt #SHRM15


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1.mature language & logic 2.authenticity 3.decision making 4.relational networks 5.behavioral science


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These theorems that when solving problems, diversity can trump ability and that when making predictions, diversity matters just as much as ability are not political statements. They are mathematical truths. -Scott Page


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How do you make decisions?


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Groups often fail to outperform individuals because they prematurely move to consensus, with dissenting opinions being suppressed or dismissed. -Hackman, Morris Advances in Experimental Social Psychology


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groupthink: mode of thinking that happens when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints.


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dysfunction!


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dysfunctional agreement dysfunctional disagreement


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also dysfunction


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If everyone is thinking the same thing, someone isn’t thinking at all. -George S. Patton


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dysfunctional dysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement


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always disagree lack of trust dysfunctional dysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement us vs. them personal conflict


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always agree lack of honesty always disagree lack of trust dysfunctional dysfunctional dysfunctional agreement agreement disagreement avoid conflict meeting after the meeting us vs. them personal conflict


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sweet dysfunctional agreement spot


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Group intelligence is not strongly tied to either the average intelligence of the members or the team’s smartest member. -Thomas Malone, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence


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do stuff! • explicit framework for decision making and disagreement • promote, teach, reward respectful disagreement and assertive communication • conflict management as a core management competency @joegerstandt #SHRM15


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1.mature language & logic 2.authenticity 3.decision making 4.relational networks 5.behavioral science


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Maybe this looks more familiar?!


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consider a ten person team 1 3 2 4 5 9 6 7 10 8


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1 7 2 10 3 9 6 5 4 8


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social network analysis From time to time people discuss important matters with other people. Looking back over the past six months, who are the people with whom you discussed matters important to you?


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social network analysis Consider the people you communicate with in order to get your work done. Of all the people you have communicated with during the last six months, who has been the most important for getting your work done?


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social network analysis Consider an important project or initiative that you are involved in. Consider the people who would be influential for getting it approved or obtaining the resources you need. Who would you talk to, to get the support you need?


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social network analysis Who do you socialize with? (spending time with people after work hours, visiting one another at home, going to social events, out for meals and so on) Over the last 6 months, who are the main people with whom you have socialized informally?


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analysis • • • • • • • • group proximity expertise hierarchy gender age race ethnicity


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analysis • • • • • • • • group proximity expertise hierarchy gender age race ethnicity What do you have? What do you have a lot of? What do you not have? What do you need to do differently?


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do stuff! • prioritize relationships • make social time and space • deliberate efforts to build bridges • social tools @joegerstandt #SHRM15


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1.mature language & logic 2.authenticity 3.decision making 4.relational networks 5.behavioral science


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It requires no hatred or fear to assign meaning to (or judge) the things that we see, we do it automatically. The problem is that we forget, do not realize, or deny that this even happens.


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This is a good person. good


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This is a good person. good bad


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This is a good person. good bad


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“Time and again, the research shows that interviews are poor predictors of job performance because we tend to hire people we think are similar to us rather than those who are objectively going to do a good job.” -Ori Brafman, quoted in “Overcoming the ‘Sway’ in Professional Life”. The New York Times July 15, 2008.


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Less than 15% of American men are over six foot tall, yet almost 60% of corporate CEOs are over six foot tall. Less than 4% of American men are over six foot, two inches tall, yet more than 36% of corporate CEOs are over six foot, two inches tall. Timothy A. Judge, Ph.D., University of Florida, and Daniel M. Cable, Ph.D., University of North Carolina


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judgment w/o question


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mental shortcut judgment w/o question


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automatic association mental shortcut judgment w/o question


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What is Unconscious Bias? automatic associations without: • awareness • intention • control These often conflict with our conscious attitudes, behaviors, and intentions.


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What does a pilot look like?


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amygdala: processing and memory of emotional reactions, especially fear


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anterior cingulate cortex: autonomic functions, rational functions (decision-making, empathy, reaction to reward, emotion, etc.)


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System One Thinking “Fast Brain”


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System One Thinking “Fast Brain” automatic, incredibly fast, with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control: • detect that one object is more distant than another • orient to the source of a sound • complete the phrase “bread and…” • detect hostility in a voice • answer 2+2=? • drive a car on an empty road • automatic responses Fast. Efficient. Not terribly accurate.


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Where did you sit?


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pre-frontal neocortex: perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness


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System Two Thinking “Slow Brain”


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allocates attention to the effortful mental activities that demand it…concentration, effort, intention are involved: • look for a woman with white hair • monitor the appropriateness of your own behavior • fill out a tax form • answer 97+23+19=? • park in a narrow space • intentional responses Slow. Inefficient. Very accurate. System Two Thinking “Slow Brain”


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System One Thinking System Two Thinking “Fast Brain” “Slow Brain”


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stereotype An idea or image; a mental framework that contains our knowledge, beliefs, expectations and feelings about a social group. Stereotypes allow for no individuality.


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If you do not intentionally, include, you will unintentionally exclude.


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do stuff! • do your own work • help your organization come to an accurate understanding of human nature, including appreciation for the fact that we are naturally biased • intentional efforts to mitigate bias in decision making about individuals (interviewing, hiring decisions, evaluation, etc.) @joegerstandt #SHRM15


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Everyday Bias | Howard Ross Thinking Fast and Slow | Daniel Kahneman The Social Animal | Elliot Aronson Social Cognition | Ziva Kunda The Hidden Brain | Shankar Vedantam Incognito | David Eagleman Subliminal | Leonard Mlodinow The Invisible Gorilla | Chabris & Simons The Halo Effect | Phil Rosenzweig


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Using data from actual auditions for 8 orchestras over the period when screens were introduced, auditions with screens substantially increased the probability that women were advanced (within the orchestra) and that women were hired. These results parallel those found in many studies of the impact of blind review of journal article submissions. Caffrey, M. (1997, May 12). Blind auditions help women. Princeton Weekly Bulletin. Based on Goldin, C & Rouse, C. (2000). Orchestrating impartiality: The impact of “blind” auditions on female musicians. American Economic Review, 90, 715–741.


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joegerstandt.com linkedin.com/in/joegerstandt youtube.com/joegerstandt joe.gerstandt@gmail.com twitter.com/joegerstandt slideshare.net/joeg 402.740.7081 Thank you!


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