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The Tragedy of Bias in Technical Hiring in Five Acts Kelsey Foley Oct 10, 2014 #GHC14 2014
Why are there so few women in tech? “The Pipeline” – not enough trained women
Why are there so few women in tech? “The Pipeline” – not enough trained women Industry doesn’t know how to recruit and hire women. Industry doesn’t know how to retain women. (Hint: Industry must hire women before retaining them!)
Synopsis The Birthplace of Bias – and how to combat it How bias manifests in: Job descriptions The Interview Process The Hire or No-Hire Decision
Act 1: The Players “All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players.” - William Shakespeare, As You Like It
Meet Julie Ette: BS in CS from StateU 5 years work experience with two mobile software companies Looking for a new job
Meet Monty and Ben: Monty Gue, Engineering manager at hot mobile startup Roam.io Ben Volio, Technical recruiter at Roam.io
Will Julie find a match with Monty’s team? Let’s find out…
Act 2: The Birthplace of Bias “Wisely and slow. They stumble that run fast.” - William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet
The Two-Systems Model of Judgment and Choice System 1 Thinking: Fast Effortless Automatic, involuntary Takes mental short cuts Driven by impressions, patterns, intuitions, memories, and feelings Prone to error and bias unless checked by System 2 System 2 Thinking: Slow Effortful, limited energy budget Conscious engagement required Can be lazy Applies methodical, reasoned, and coherent thinking to the System 1 raw data (Kahneman, Daniel. Thinking, Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2011.)
System 1 Source Data Comes from the cultural soup we experience every day since infancy: Role models - parents, teachers, siblings, and caregivers TV, books, music, and cultural memes Peers and their own source data! System 1 creates a meaningful story from our senses and experiences! (Efforts to fix The Pipeline change the next generation’s patterns.)
The Birthplace of Bias Cognitive bias happens when System 1 decides without System 2 helping to catch errors, assumptions, biases, and mental short cuts! (We all do this! Don’t feel bad. It’s part of being human!)
Tech Company Culture Exacerbates Bias “People who are cognitively busy are also more likely to make selfish choices, use sexist language, and make superficial judgments in social situations…. but of course cognitive load is not the only cause of weakened self-control. A few drinks have the same effect, as does a sleepless night.” - Dr. Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, pp.41
Common Biases in Hiring Casuistry using specious reasoning to rationalize behavior or decisions The Halo Effect First impressions influence later experience Affect Heuristic People answer an easy question with System 1 instead of a harder one with System 2
Common Biases in Hiring Confirmation Bias Seeking data that confirms our ideas Fundamental Attribution Error, or the Negativity Effect Over-emphasizing traits in others while under-emphasizing situations (luck) in ourselves
Common Biases in Hiring Predicting by Representativeness Making decisions using association with a stereotype Projection Bias Unconsciously assuming that others share our own perspectives, thoughts, and values
So… How do we overcome our biases? “What can be done about biases? How can we improve judgments and decisions, both our own and those of the institutions that we serve and that serve us?... The way to block errors that originate in System 1 is simple in principle: recognize the signs that you are in a cognitive minefield, slow down, and ask for reinforcement from System 2. Unfortunately, this sensible procedure is least likely to be applied when it is needed most.” - Dr. Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow, pp.417
System 1 in Interviews “The optimal time to make a decision about the candidate is about three minutes after the end of the interview…. I ask interviewers to write immediate feedback after the interview, either a “hire” or “no hire”, followed by a one or two paragraph justification. It’s due 15 minutes after the interview ends.” “Never say “Maybe, I can’t tell.” If you can’t tell, that means No Hire. It’s really easier than you’d think. Can’t tell? Just say no! If you are on the fence, that means No Hire… Mechanically translate all the waffling to “no” and you’ll be all right.” - Joel Spolsky, The Guerrilla Guide to Interviewing v3.0, Oct 25, 2006 http://www.joelonsoftware.com/articles/GuerrillaInterviewing3.html
Act 3: Attracting Diverse Candidates
Subtle Cues in Job Descriptions The purpose of a job description? Internal: communicate hiring requirements External: promote the job and company How can the job description project bias? (See also: Gaucher, D., Friesen, J., & Kay, A. C. (2011, March 7). Evidence That Gendered Wording in Job Advertisements Exists and Sustains Gender Inequality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. )
Bad (and real!) examples “Do you have a passion for quality gaming and auto racing? XXXX Game Studios is hiring! You are a Senior Software Development Engineer with broad game development experience and world-class software engineering skills. You’re the kind of person who drives projects to completion, sometimes across multiple functions and groups.” (See any Projection Bias? Casuistry? Representativeness?)
Bad (and real!) examples “The Application Programmer Analyst plays a vital role on the ZZZZ Medical Group Support team, demonstrating our values of patient-centered care and service; respect, caring and compassion; teamwork and partnership; continuous learning and improvement; and leadership. In this position you will: Enhance existing computer programs to add value throughout the organization…” (Representative stereotypes exist for female-dominated roles too)
Bad (and real!) examples “QQQ Software runs a developer paradise: the latest technologies and platforms and an elite team of great developers. No resume needed! Great work speaks for itself. We'd love links to your GitHub or StackExchange profile! Your Profile: You live, eat and dream about code and test! Your drive to know more and do better makes you evolve...” (Projection Bias and Representativeness)
Some recent (real!) examples Education Required: BS (Technical ), Masters preferred Experience Required: Prior experience at the Director level or equivalent Physical Requirements: Must be able to execute a two-handed reverse dunk on a ten-foot rim without the aid of a trampoline.
Who wants these as coworkers? (And why are they all holding weapons?)
To Attract More Diverse Candidates: Be aware of the impact of language. Write job descriptions that don’t create role biases! Look carefully for values, traits, behaviors, and motivations Find gender-neutral ways to “sell” the job Circulate several versions to attract candidates with diverse motivations and career objectives. Get people with different perspectives to edit job descriptions – how would someone in marketing write an engineering job description?
Monty’s JD Ben’s JD Roam.io is hiring versatile software engineers with a passion for making products that impact our customer’s lives. Our developers support and challenges each other to continuously learn and improve. We believe in working at a sustainable pace following Agile philosophies. Roam.io offers flexible schedules and a respectful and fun work environment. Join us and make a difference! Do you live, breathe, eat, and dream about coding and mobile? Do you crave fanfare and adulation from users? Roam.io is hiring! We’re looking for software geeks who can thrive in our high-energy open office environment. We offer great benefits, free food and beer, foosball, and tons of fun. Come join our elite team and push the barriers in mobile technology! (Which one would Julie apply for? What about Julio?)
Act 4: The Interview
The Classic Software Interview Short call with a recruiter A technical phone screen, some coding On-site interview with 4-6 sessions, all with heavy coding Many tech companies do no training on how to interview Some focus on legal areas of questioning A few give training but do not monitor how these techniques are used in interviews
How effective are tech interviews? “For the record, we don’t think that the way interviewing is done today is necessarily the way it should be done. The current paradigm puts too much emphasis on the ability to solve puzzles and familiarity with a relatively limited body of knowledge, and it generally fails to measure a lot of the skills that are critical to success in industry.” - Mongan, John, Eric Giguere, and Noah Kindler. Programming Interviews Exposed: Secrets to Landing Your Next Job, 2013, pp. xxvi
Schmidt, F.L. & Hunter, J.E. (1998) The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings,” Psychological Bulletin, 124, 262–274.
What can this look like in practice? Train interviewers about cognitive biases Ask some coding questions Also ask behavioral, work habits, and job knowledge questions to assess all the other success factors A great resource for technical managers to use with their teams is this book: Rothman, Johanna. Hiring Geeks That Fit. Rothman Consulting Group, Inc. 2013.
Julie’s interview: Welcome with recruiter Ben Volio Software lifecycle, Agile, communication style, personal work habits with Merlin Cutio Petra Escalus: CS fundamentals - complexity, networks, threads, databases, OS Ty Balt and Amy Bram: lunch at Cafe Verona and behavioral and culture fit Cindy Paris: mad programming skillz - languages, algorithms, data structures, coding Phil Laurence: Debugging and testing in mobile & embedded Finish with Hiring Manager Monty Gue
Interviewing is bi-directional! Julie is also evaluating: The manager Potential coworkers The company The workplace environment The technology stack The interview experience will impact Julie’s final decision!
Act 5: The Decision
The Post-Interview Debrief Review job requirements first Avoid the Affect Heuristic! Ask: “What evidence did you see that Julie has the skills for job requirement #1?” Don’t ask: “What did you think of Julie?” Watch for cognitive landmines: personality traits, intuitions, impressions, or stereotypes, Slow down, engage System 2 Dig into possible bias with questions Give a numerical score for each job requirement Numerical scores engage System 2 Don’t use “hire” or “no hire” which uses System 1.
Epilogue “If this were play'd upon a stage now, I could condemn it as an improbable fiction.” - William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night
Outcomes Changing technical interviews won’t convert every hire from a tragedy to a romance… But, it sets the stage for candidates of all kinds to audition on equal terms.
And what of Julie and fair Roam.io?
Thank you! Want to use #System2Hiring in your workplace? Or: Want to experience #System2Hiring yourself? My team is hiring! Kelsey Foley email@example.com @EnigmaticKelsey
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