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The IoT Hunger Games 2015

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The iot Hunger games 2015 ONE TECHNOLOGY IS DRIVING A NEW WAVE OF INNOVATION FOR THE INTERNET OF THINGS …


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WHO WE ARE We began driving innovations in the internet of things over 10 years ago at our last company, Savi Technology and believe that the best way to connect networks with many battery-powered sensors is not through WiFi, Bluetooth, or cellular, but via something better. We invented a better way of connecting things using very low power and over long distances, a technology called DASH7. Our company also builds tools, API’s, and software to make DASH7 more accessible to developers. We recently began receiving inquiries about a new class of IoT modulation technologies called Low Power Wide Area Networks. We think LPWAN’s are exciting and this presentation tells you why.


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LOW POWER STATUS QUO 30 feet 300 feet 3 miles Short Range / “WPAN” Medium Range


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NEW CHALLENGERS 30 feet 300 feet 3 miles Short Range / Local Area up to 30 Miles Long Range / “LPWAN” Medium Range


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RANGE IS MASSIVELY BETTER 30 feet 300 feet 3 miles Short Range / Local Area up to 30 Miles Long Range / “LPWAN” Medium Range


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FOR THE SAME PRICE Low Power Wide Area Networks Very long range • Multi-year AA battery life • Low cost: sub-$10 per node • 30 feet 300 feet 5 Kilometers Short Range / Local Area up to 30 Miles Long Range / “LPWAN” Medium Range


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We believe most wireless sensor networks will be LPWAN- THE FUTURE OF THE IOT based, as LPWAN’s offer comparable pricing and power consumption to legacy WPAN/WLAN options, but with: • Significantly improved range and signal coverage • Better monetization opportunities for customers 10 meters 100 meters 5 Kilometers Short Range / Local Area up to 50 Kilometers Long Range / “LPWAN” Medium Range


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KEYS TO LPWAN LONG RANGE Sub-1GHz Radio Bands Longer wavelengths allow vastly longer range and lower power consumption Common bands include 915, 868, 433, and 169 MHz. + Frequency Spreading Technology being deployed in most LPWAN modulation schemes use some form of spreading to combat interference + Really Low Bit Rates Low data rates of just a few hundred bps increase range, but as a result the packets get very “long”, which leads to new challenges.


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KEYS TO LPWAN LONG RANGE These technologies for achieving long range are Sub-1GHz Frequency Really Low + old and + well-established. Advances in Rates Radio Bands Spreading Bit semiconductor technology over the last 40 years Longer wavelengths allow vastly longer range and lower power consumption Technology being deployed in most LPWAN modulation schemes use some form of spreading to combat interference Low data rates of just a few hundred bps increase range, but as a result the packets get very long. This leads to new challenges. are what enable low-cost and low-power. Common bands include 915, 868, 433, and 169 MHz. So barriers-to-entry are also low …


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COMPETITION ARRIVES … 30 feet 300 feet 3 miles Short Range / Local Area up to 30 Miles Long Range / “LPWAN” Medium Range


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… AND INTEGRATORS 30 feet 300 feet 3 miles Short Range / Local Area 50 Kilometers 50 30 Miles up up to Kilometers to Long Range / “LPWAN” Medium Range


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AND DOZENS OF STARTUPS 30 feet 300 feet 3 miles Short Range / Local Area Medium Range


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so the games begin …


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BUT DEVELOPERS HESITATE 1. Choosing wisely among multiple LPWAN suppliers, including some which may disappear in a year or two, 
 is difficult. 2. There is no LPWAN PHY standard. 
 In fact, the three prominent PHYs are radically different. 3. No standardized networking stack. 4. Market is dominated by high cost, single-vendor silicon. 5. Scalability of some LPWAN technologies


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MOST LPWAN TECH IS PHYSICAL LAYER ONLY Example LPWAN PHY’s OSI Layer 7 Application Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 6 Presentation Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 5 Session Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 4 Transport Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 3 Network Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 2 Data Link Partial Definition Undefined Partial Definition Undefined 1 Physical “PHY” LoRa @ 
 169 - 960 MHz Various @ 
 315 - 930 MHz SigFox @ 900, 868 MHz 15 SigFox and Generic PHYs


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MOST LPWAN TECH IS PHYSICAL LAYER ONLY Example The physical layer definesLPWAN PHY’s bits are the way converted into radio signals: encoding, signal OSI Layer modulation, the radio frequency to use, and Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 7 Application related low-level parameters. Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 6 Presentation 5 Session Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 4 Transport Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 3 Network Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined 2 Data Link Partial Definition Undefined Partial Definition Undefined 1 Physical “PHY” LoRa @ 
 169 - 960 MHz Various @ 
 315 - 930 MHz SigFox @ 900, 868 MHz 16 SigFox and Generic PHYs


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YET CUSTOMERS NEED MORE THAN JUST PHYSICAL LAYER UNDEFINED IN PHYSICAL LAYER • Addressing Options • Authentication • Location-based Services • Networking Options • Encryption • Sensor Options • Session Options • Device Filesystem • Application API’s • Device Wakeup • Power Management • Device Management Partial Definition 1 Physical “PHY” LoRa @ 
 169 - 960 MHz Partial Definition Various @ 
 315 - 930 MHz SigFox @ 900, 868 MHz SigFox and Generic PHYs


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HISTORIC OPPORTUNITY Example LPWAN PHY’s OSI Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link Partial Definition 1 Physical “PHY” LoRa @ 
 169 - 960 MHz Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Partial Definition Various @ 
 315 - 930 MHz SigFox @ 868, 915 MHz 18 SigFox and Generic PHYs


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HISTORIC OPPORTUNITY Standardizing layers 2-6 will Example LPWAN PHY’s accelerate LPWAN adoption worldwide and basically make many people happy. OSI Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link Partial Definition 1 Physical “PHY” LoRa @ 
 169 - 960 MHz Undefined Undefined Undefined Undefined Partial Definition Various @ 
 315 - 930 MHz SigFox @ 868, 915 MHz 19 SigFox and Generic PHYs


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THIS IDEA MAKES SENSE 1. Avoids fragmentation. Too many competing stacks over different PHY’s = slow growth. 2. Proprietary stacks are not portable across PHY’s. For example, SigFox’s stack only works with SigFox’s own unique PHY and operating configuration. Similarly, stacks like LoRaWan are limited to a single provider of silicon. 3. “Roll-your-own” stack inhibits developers and customers. A common stack gives developers and customers the option to choose among PHY technologies and focus on the application layer, while lowering maintenance and support costs. 4. Interoperability. Standardizing provides key elements of interoperability, creating new product and application opportunities like multi-PHY gateways and endpoints, similar to WiFi. 5. Performance improvements. Roll-your-own stacks will be slower to respond to marketplace innovations as well as among PHY layer suppliers. A common stack makes the trajectory of LPWAN’s more assured!


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WHAT THIS STACK HAS TO DO (At a minimum) Requirement Provide Robust 
 Networking Features P2P, broadcast, multicast, and IP addressing. Ad-hoc networking. Rapid device discovery. Deployable across global ISM bands, not just USA or EU. Improves network capacity. Real-time locating system support. Real-Time Data Collection Some IoT technologies achieve long battery life using huge time intervals between messages. Customers want their data when they want it and want to be able to “Google” their network for a diverse range of criteria and data types. Preserve or Improve 
 Long Range Messaging Sounds obvious, but not all stacks can support the long range or cellular-like design of LPWAN’s with a fully two-way system that does not compromise battery life or network capacity. Provide Maximum Practical Security & Privacy Preserve or Improve 
 Battery Life This is a big topic, but a LPWAN stack must at a minimum support a) MAC-layer address encryption, b) AES, RSA, or ECC data encryption standards, and c) devices must remain silent until awoken by an authorized device. It’s not enough to support long-range messaging. A stack must have a neutral or positive effect on battery life without compromising latency or range.


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HOW TODAY’S STACKS MEET FUTURE LPWAN REQUIREMENTS Requirement 6lowPAN LoRaWAN Actility Linklabs Haystack/ DASH7 Provide Robust 
 Networking Features Yes Some Some Some Yes Real-Time Data Collection No No No No Yes Preserve or Improve 
 Long Range Messaging No Yes Yes Yes Yes Provide Maximum Practical Security & Privacy Yes No No No Yes Preserve or Improve 
 Battery Life No No No Some Yes For a more detailed comparison, click here.


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BASIC ARCHITECTURE • Combination of low-power, longrange, low-latency, high security, universal interoperability, and IP-like data model is unique to DASH7. • Lower Layers provide low-power, long-range, low-latency, high security. • Filesystem & Session are “glue” that provide universal interoperability. No Application Profiles • Works with any application protocol that can ride on UDP, SCTP, or NDEF/ NFC (e.g. CoAP, MQTT, AllJoyn… many others). RF Physical Networking (M2NP) Transport (M2QP) Lower Layers M2DEF Session Module Filesystem Module (M2FS) Data Link Application Layer ALP Framework Standard Apps Custom Apps UI (opt.)


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some technical background on three important haystack / dash7 features 24


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1. ERROR CORRECTION Error Correction Technology None Reed Solomon
 (RS Code) Voyager Code Turbocode LDPC Used By SigFox, ZigBee, 6LoWPAN, etc. LoRa, 
 Data Storage Voyager 2,
 Haystack/DASH7 3G Cellular 4G Cellular Signal Gain
 (10-6 BER) None 4 dB
 (250%) 8 dB
 (630%) 9 dB
 (794%) 9.5 dB
 (891%) Supports Variable Length Packet Yes Yes Yes No No Concatenated Viterbi Code 
 with Base-256 RS Code Fully Recursive Convolutional Code Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) 1980’s
 (NASA) 1990’s
 (Cellular) 2000’s (Cellular) Underlying Technology None Iterated Base-32 
 RS Code Introduction Date 1850’s (Morse Code) 1960’s
 (Data Storage) 25


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1. ERROR CORRECTION Error Correction Technology Reed Solomon
 (RS Code) Voyager Code SigFox, ZigBee, 6LoWPAN, etc. LoRa, 
 Data Storage Voyager 2,
 Haystack/ DASH7 Signal Gain
 (10-6 BER) None 4 dB
 (250%) 8 dB
 (630%) Supports Variable Length Packet Yes Yes Yes Underlying Technology None Iterated Base-32 
 RS Code Concatenated Viterbi Code 
 with Base-256 RS Code Introduction Date 1850’s (Morse Code) 1960’s
 (Data Storage) 1980’s
 (NASA) Used By None 26 • Haystack developed the Voyager Code on ARM • All things being equal, a message transmitted using DASH7 arrives in less than half the time of a LoRaWan message, or at worst 1/6th of a 
 SigFox message. • Reduce power by transmitting less. • Increase capacity of cell by transmitting less.


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If you like LPWAN’s but are concerned about channel capacity or possible tradeoffs between power consumption and network latency, here is a way to accelerate LPWAN message speeds while preserving LPWAN’s low power profiles. 1. ERROR CORRECTION Error Correction Technology Reed Solomon
 (RS Code) Voyager Code SigFox, ZigBee, 6LoWPAN, etc. LoRa, 
 Data Storage Voyager 2,
 Haystack/ DASH7 Signal Gain
 (10-6 BER) None 4 dB
 (250%) 8 dB
 (630%) Supports Variable Length Packet Yes Yes Yes Underlying Technology None Iterated Base-32 
 RS Code Concatenated Viterbi Code 
 with Base-256 RS Code Introduction Date 1850’s (Morse Code) 1960’s
 (Data Storage) 1980’s
 (NASA) Used By None 27 • Haystack developed the Voyager Code on ARM • All things being equal, a message transmitted using DASH7 arrives in less than half the time of a LoRaWan message, or at worst 1/6th of a 
 SigFox message. • Reduce power by transmitting less. • Increase capacity of cell by transmitting less.


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2. REAL-TIME DATA SigFox &
 LoRaWAN
 Model 1. DASH7
 Model 5. 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 4. 3. 2. 2. • WAN Endpoints send data to base station at predefined intervals, at least 10 minutes. • WAN base station can send bidirectional queries to any or all endpoints at any time. • A cloud service buffers the data. • Queries typically run in 1-30 seconds. • User API is the cloud service, so user gets data that’s at least 10 minutes old. • User API can schedule queries, so user can get data that is only seconds old.


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2. REAL-TIME DATA SigFox &
 LoRaWAN
 Model 1. This Model Fails For… • Mobile Asset Tracking:
 10 minute old data is useless 5. 2. 4. 3. • WAN Endpoints send data to base station at predefined intervals, at least 10 minutes. • A cloud service buffers the data. • User API is the cloud service, so user gets data that’s at least 10 minutes old. • Public Safety Applications:
 10 minute old data is useless • There Are Multiple WAN Operators:
 Difficult to know who’s cloud is proxying the data you care about. • If Base Station is Mobile:
 Synchronized WAN model doesn’t even work for this.


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When an endpoint (tag) gets a query request, the algorithm it uses for flow & congestion control is based on the quality of the query. This is a technology unique to DASH7, which allows very large numbers of devices to coexist without interference. Core Layers Work Together
 for Maximum MAC efficiency HOW DASH7 QUERIES WORK 30 OSI Layer 7 Application 6 Presentation 5 Session 4 Transport 3 Network 2 Data Link 1 Physical Core-apps + NDEF + UDP DASH7 Core
 low power low latency low cost Long range, Low Power


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HOW DASH7 QUERIES WORK DASH7 Applications vs. 6loWPAN Applications DASH7 Apps Ask: 
 “What are you looking for?” 6loWPAN Apps Ask: 
 “Who gets it?” I need data from all sensors within 5 miles that check for vacant parking spaces. Deliver a message to the device with address 05:85:245:192:96:0:147:1 to turn its lights off. I need to find everyone, now, who wants to go to floor 10. Deliver a message to the devices with group address 124:0:8:255:37:160:0:1 instructing them to report sensor logs. All devices that came off the boat from Taipei shall go to RF Channel 04 and await further instructions. Ping device 63:102:0:80:128:0:17:44 to see if it is still in the network.


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HOW DASH7 QUERIES WORK If you envision a future with thousands or even millions of IoT nodes in a metropolitan area, here is a way to query many nodes without receiving thousands of unwanted messages from nodes that you never needed to hear from vs. 6loWPAN DASH7 Applicationsin the first placeApplications DASH7 Apps Ask: 
 “What are you looking for?” 6loWPAN Apps Ask: 
 “Who gets it?” I need data from all sensors within 5 miles that check for vacant parking spaces. Deliver a message to the device with address 05:85:245:192:96:0:147:1 to turn its lights off. I need to find everyone, now, who wants to go to floor 10. Deliver a message to the devices with group address 124:0:8:255:37:160:0:1 instructing them to report sensor logs. All devices that came off the boat from Taipei shall go to RF Channel 04 and await further instructions. Ping device 63:102:0:80:128:0:17:44 to see if it is still in the network.


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REAL-TIME MAKES A 
 BIG DIFFERENCE LoRaWan Haystack / DASH7 Data Access Method Periodic Beacon Event-based
 Query Data Latency: Best Case 2 minutes 1 second Data Latency: Worst Case 4.5 hours 10 seconds System power for Best Case Latency
 (150 mW active power) 1.05 mW 0.075 mW Data Latency for equivalent power 34 minutes 1 second 33


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3. A “HADOOP" FOR THE IOT The DASH7 file system provides a consistent data model & API allows distribution of data and query jobs, interoperably, in real-time, across a WAN-full of Endpoints • • It’s a non-relational distributed database engineered for sub-$1 microcontrollers. It’s built-into the data stack, so it works directly with DASH7 networking to provide unmatched data collection efficiency. DASH7 Data Stack Applications Filesystem Sessioning Transport Layer • Example: “Tell me the names and location of every cow on my ranch that has not moved in the past 8 hours” • Example 2: “Send me a notification whenever a 3+ year old cow moves” 34 PHY/MAC/NET


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3. A “HADOOP" FOR THE IOT The DASH7 file system provides a consistent data model & API allows distribution of data and query jobs, interoperably, in real-time, across a WAN-full of Endpoints • • It’s a non-relational distributed database engineered for sub-$1 microcontrollers. It’s built-into the data stack, so it works directly with DASH7 networking to provide unmatched data collection efficiency. A common filethe names and location of • Example: “Tell me system for the every cow on my ranch IoT would allow us that potentially to has not moved in the past 8 hours” spider & search an open IoT. • Example 2: “Send me a notification whenever a 3+ year old cow moves” 35 DASH7 Data Stack Applications Filesystem Sessioning Transport Layer PHY/MAC/NET


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3. A “HADOOP" FOR THE IOT The DASH7 file system provides a consistent data model & API allows distribution of data and query jobs, interoperably, in real-time, across a WAN-full of Endpoints • It’s a non-relational distributed database engineered for sub-$1 microcontrollers. DASH7 Data Stack Applications • It’s built-into the data stack, so it works directly with DASH7 networking to provide Filesystem Sessioning If you ever envisioned an IoT with endpoints that are more like smart, unmatched data collection efficiency. Transport Layer data rich information servers than “dumb” terminals, here is the state-of•the-art way“Tellquerying at the edge of the network while minimizing Example: of me the names and location of PHY/MAC/NET every cow on my ranch that has not moved network latency, channel crowding, and unnecessary power in the past 8 hours” consumption. • Example 2: “Send me a notification whenever a 3+ year old cow moves” 36


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so you can either play the lpwan hunger games …


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OR USE HAYSTACK & DASH7 1. Real Time Performance 2. Increased Range 3. Increased Battery Life 4. Increased Network Capacity 5. Increased Privacy and Security 6. More Use Case Options 7. Lower Costs


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ABOUT OUR COMPANY 1. Authors of the DASH7 specification, the most advanced low power networking protocol available. Download it here. 2. Authors of OpenTag, the open source firmware stack for DASH7 that compiles into less than 20kb. 3. Creators of Haystack DASH7 developer tools, API’s, sample code, reference designs, and more. 4. Creators of HayTag (in development) and other DASH7 products. 5. Founders of the industry non-profit DASH7 Alliance. www.haystacktechnologies.com


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see you soon! SEE YOU SOON! Contact: Patrick Burns pat@haystacktechnologies.com @patdash7 www.haystacktechnologies.com


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