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Концепция и принципы разработки образовательных стандартов бакалавра и магистра по направлению «Информационные технологии»

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Концепция и принципы разработки образовательных стандартов бакалавра и магистра по направлению «Информационные технологии» МГУ им. М.В. Ломоносова Проф. В.А. Сухомлин Суздаль, май 2003


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Аннотация В докладе рассматриваются цели и базовые принципы построения новых государственных стандартов подготовки бакалавра и магистра по направлению «Информационные технологии» (Computing). Данные стандарты характеризуются соответствием требованиям международных рекомендаций (Computing Curricula 2001), традиционной для российских университетов более фундаментальной и целенаправленной математической подготовкой, применимостью как для классических, так и технических университетов. Также рассматриваются организационные вопросы внедрения стандартов в практику и возможности их применения для развития международного сотрудничества.


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1. Три взгляда на область ИТ Научно-прикладное направление «Информационные технологии» (ИТ) относится к приоритетным направлениям развития науки, технологий и техники: Область информационных технологий представляет собой: Обширную научную область знаний, объединяющую десятки крупных научных направлений, таких как: искусственный интеллект, вычислительная математика, инженерия программного обеспечения, когнитивная наука, архитектуры компьютерных систем, автоматизация научных исследований, Web-технологии и пр. Обширную область профессиональной деятельности, характеризующуюся постоянно расширяющейся сферой применения, все возрастающим спросом на высокопрофессиональное кадровое обеспечение. Актуальное в мировой системе университетского образования образовательное направление («Информационные технологии» или «Computing») - одно из наиболее активно развивающихся, базовых для других научных и прикладных дисциплин.


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2. Взгляд со стороны индустрии: международнаая система стандартизации К середине 80-х сложилось понимание области ИТ как интегрированной научно-прикладной области (технологии):  ”Information Technology includes the specifications, design and development of systems and tools dealing with the capture, representation, processing, security, transfer, interchange, presentation, management, organization, storage and retrieval of information.  IT is based on many different modern industries, including computing, telecommunications, application and content industry, electronic home appliances, etc.” (ISO\IEC JTC1 N430, 1996 г).


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2.1. View from industry: missions and objectives The basic missions and objectives for the further development and standardization of IT are:  Design and development of IT systems and tools Performance and quality of IT products and systems Security of IT systems and information Portability of application programs Interoperability of IT products and systems Unified tools and environments Harmonized IT vocabulary User friendly and ergonomically designed user interfaces


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3. IT as a Scientific Discipline During the 50 years of its development, IT has become the defining technology («knowledge technology») of our time One of the fundamental changes in IT over the last ten years is the significant expansion of its borders and spheres of influence, including its influence on the development of various scientific fields In 2002, the Russian Academy of Sciences established a division of Informational Technologies and Computer Engineering, comprising more than 10 central scientific-research institutes


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3.1. Scientific and professional fields of IT Artificial intelligence Bioinformatics Cognitive science Computational science Computer science Database engineering Digital library science Graphics Human-computer interaction Information science Information systems Instructional design IT is a fundamental and applied scientific field of knowledge that embraces many independent scientific sub-disciplines [P.Denning. “Our Corn is Growing in the Commons”].


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3.1. Scientific and professional fields of IT Knowledge engineering Learning theory Management information systems Multimedia design Network engineering Performance analysis Scientific computing Software architecture Software engineering System administration System security and privacy Web service design


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4. IT – Education  IT (Computing) has won hard-fought recognition as a classical university-level discipline and has become one of the largest and most active areas in university education  IT has become a basic requirement in many areas of study, just as mathematics is basic to the study of the natural sciences.  The scientific and practical significance of IT creates both new and greater demands for the preparation of professional cadres


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5. Preparation of specialists in Russia Traditionally, in Russia, basic preparation of specialists was characterized as follows: -         In classical universities, study in the field of Computer Science (Application Math. and Informatics) included high-level preparation in mathematics (with an accent on classical mathematics) -         In technical universities, study in Computer Engineering focused primarily on engineering -         Both disciplines were conducted as five-year programs of study -         Master’s-level study was largely undeveloped


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6. IT Education: New Approach In 2002, by official order of Russia’s Ministry of Education, a new branch of education was created – «Information Technologies». Teaching according to an experimental curriculum will begin in the autumn of 2003. Six leading Russian Universities start the experiment: The M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University Sankt-Peterburg State University The N.I. Lobachevsky Nigegorodskij State University Sankt-Peterburg State Technical University (LETU) Moscow State Technical University Electronics and Mathematics (MIEM) Moscow State Technical University (MATI)


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7. Basic Principles of IT Education 1)      Preparation of IT Professionals (which was a basic principle for the development of document CC2001) 2)      Teaching according to the «baccalaureate-master’s model» (baccalaureate degree – 4 years of study; master’s degree – 2 years of study 3)      Compliance with the recommendations contained in document CC2001, which are necessary to meet international educational standards 4)      Thorough, IT-focused preparation in mathematics 5)  Accent is placed on discrete mathematics, mathematical logic and mathematical methods that are directly applied in the formation of the scientific-methodological bases for IT


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7.1. Basic Principles of IT Education 6) Considerable amount hours for computer practicum 7)      Significant attention is paid to developing Master’s Degree programs in all of the important sub-disciplines of IT, as well as in mixed disciplines 8)      A transitional one-year «bridging program» will be introduced to ensure compliance with standard baccalaureate requirements in «Information Technologies» and educational programs related to the sub-discipline «Computing»


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8. Content of the Programme 1)      Total hours in the Programme – not more 7300 2)    Amount of the Math. Disciplines Set hours is equal amount of the IT Disciplines Set hours : V[M] = V[IT] = 1800-1900 3)      Math. Disciplines Set contains the following groups of the disciplines: -         Discrete Mathematics (DM) -         Classical Mathematics (CM) -         Mathematical methods (ММ) 5)   Distribution of hours:         V(DM) = 650 (440) -         V(CM) = 900 (580) ? = 1750 (1160) -         V(ММ) = 200 (140)


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Math. Disciplines


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8. IT-part of programme IT-part of programme includes the following group of disciplines: -         Informatics Theory - 140 (70) -         Common Professional Disciplines (CPD) - 1150 (750) -         Advanced Disciplines – 300 (170) -         Choosing Disciplines – 200 (100)


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9. Working teaching Plan Inclusion in the Programme of a significant number of hours (approximately 500) devoted to practicum, which will enable students to develop the necessary professional skills and knowledge depth of contemporary IT. In accordance with the common requirements of educational standards IT Baccalaurean programme should include:  - The humanities, sociology, economics (1800 часов), - Unit of natural sciences : Physics – 250 (150) - Military Training– 450 часов - Preparation of diploma work (430 часов)


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9. Total Let see the Working teaching Plan


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10. Master’s-level study Principles: - covering all Scientific and professional fields of IT - combined type of the Master’s-level study scientific work plus coursework - participation of Research Institute of the Academy science in developing and implementation Master’s Degree Programmes


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Bridge-Programme


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Conclusion 1. Systematic approach to development of IT education in hole 2. The «baccalaureate-master’s model» 3. Preparation of IT Professionals (which was a basic principle for the development of document CC2001) 4. Compliance with the recommendations contained in document CC2001 5. Thorough, IT-focused preparation in mathematics with accent on discrete mathematics, mathematical logic and mathematical methods that are directly applied in the formation of the scientific-methodological bases for IT 6. Wide set of Master’s Degree Programmes corresponding the main Scientific and professional fields of IT 7. Possibility to cooperate with different Programmes on Computing


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