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Emerging Trends in Digital Media and Technology for 2016

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2016 TREND REPORT Emerging technology trends that will influence consumer behavior, our society and your organization’s strategy in the coming year.


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ABOUT WEBBMEDIA GROUP DIGITAL STRATEGY Webbmedia Group is one of the world’s leading forecasting and strategy firms. We investigate emerging technology and trends in digital media in order to forecast the future. We answer “What’s the future of X?” for a global client base using our data-driven, six-part forecasting methodology. Our promise is to inspire smart people to imagine what’s next and to help them make better, more informed decisions, ensuring the vitality of an organization in the face of disruption. We apply our forecasting model to advise Fortune 500 companies, technology and media companies, government agencies, large nonprofits, universities, established startups and foundations.  For further information about this report and how Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy can help your organization, please contact: Amy Webb Founder and Futurist Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Email: trends@webbmediagroup.com Tel: +1-267-342-4300 2 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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We’ve included this visualization to help you find the trends that will matter most to your industry sector or field in 2016. For your convenience, each list follows the order of the trends as they are presented in this report. News | Journalism | Media 50 Intelligent Cameras 43 Digital Frailty 57 Internet of Things 25 Attention 15 Bots 51 Virtual Reality 44 Synthetic Data Sets 58 Robots 26 Personality Analytics 17 Algorithms: Natural Language Generation 52 Augmented Reality 45 Real-Time Fact Checking 61 Space 27 Drone Lanes 54 Wearables 46 Blockchain 63 Internet of X 28 Net Neutrality 17 Algorithms: Generative Algorithms For Voice 58 62 63 66 47 Torrents 66 Data 33 Security 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 17 Algorithms: Personality Detection 17 Algorithms For Design 18 Algorithmic Curation 19 Deep Learning 20 Cognitive Computing 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 23 Ambient Proximity Robots Deep Linking Internet of X Data 49 Drones 50 Intelligent Cameras 53 Augmented Knowledge Government | Politics | Legal | Policy 54 Wearables 15 Bots 58 Robots 16 Algorithms: Zero-Knowledge Proofs 61 Space 57 Internet of Things 63 Internet of X Infrastructure | Transportation 19 Deep Learning 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 23 Ambient Proximity 24 Ambient Interfaces 26 Personality Analytics 27 Drone Lanes 32 Anthropocene and Climate 24 Ambient Interfaces 17 Algorithms: Generative Algorithms For Voice 25 Attention 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 26 Personality Analytics 17 Algorithms: Personality Detection Law Enforcement 27 Drone Lanes 17 Algorithms For Design 15 Bots 40 Consolidation 28 Net Neutrality 18 Algorithmic Curation 49 Drones 29 Internet Mob Justice 19 Deep Learning 16 Algorithms: Zero-Knowledge Proofs 33 Security 20 Cognitive Computing 52 Augmented Reality 35 Privacy 21 Quantum Computers 17 Algorithms: Generative Algorithms For Voice 37 Artificial Intelligence For News 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 38 Web RTC 24 Ambient Interfaces 38 Cord Cutting 25 Attention 38 Personalized Video 26 Personality Analytics 38 Holograms 27 Drone Lanes 39 One-to-Few Publishing 28 Net Neutrality 40 Consolidation 29 Internet Mob Justice 41 Transparency in Metrics 42 Intentional Rabbit Holes 31 Technology Policy 43 Digital Frailty 32 Anthropocene and Climate 44 Synthetic Data Sets 33 Security 45 Real-Time Fact Checking 35 Privacy 47 Torrents 38 Personalized Video 49 Drones 3 30 Complicated Legal Decisions 40 Consolidation © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy 66 Data 67 Genomic Editing 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 17 Algorithms: Personality Detection 20 Cognitive Computing 27 Drone Lanes 28 Net Neutrality 29 Internet Mob Justice 30 Complicated Legal Decisions 31 Technology Policy 33 Security 35 Privacy 47 Torrents 49 Drones 50 Intelligent Cameras 53 Augmented Knowledge 54 Wearables 33 Security 35 Privacy 38 Cord Cutting 50 Intelligent Cameras 35 Privacy 38 Cord Cutting 38 Personalized Video 38 Holograms 39 One-to-Few Publishing 40 Consolidation 41 Transparency in Metrics 42 Intentional Rabbit Holes 43 Digital Frailty 45 Real-Time Fact Checking 49 Drones 50 Intelligent Cameras 51 Virtual Reality 52 Augmented Reality 54 Wearables 57 Internet of Things 56 Gestural Interfaces and Biointerfaces 58 Robots 57 Internet of Things 61 Space 58 Robots 63 Internet of X 59 3D Printing 64 Lendership and Sharing 61 Space 66 Data 63 Internet of X Travel | Entertainment 15 Bots 64 Lendership and Sharing 66 Data 17 Algorithms: Discrimination Education 17 Algorithms For Design 15 Bots 19 Deep Learning 17 Algorithms: Generative Algorithms For Voice 20 Cognitive Computing 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 23 Ambient Proximity 24 Ambient Interfaces 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 17 Algorithms: Personality Detection 18 Algorithmic Curation webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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19 Deep Learning 29 Internet Mob Justice 59 3D Printing 26 Personality Analytics 33 Security 20 Cognitive Computing 33 Security 61 Space 27 Drone Lanes 35 Privacy 21 Quantum Computers 35 Privacy 64 Lendership and Sharing 29 Internet Mob Justice 51 Virtual Reality 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 38 Cord Cutting 65 Collaborative Software 33 Security 52 Augmented Reality 23 Ambient Proximity 38 Personalized Video 66 Data 35 Privacy 53 Augmented Knowledge 24 Ambient Interfaces 38 Holograms 67 Genomic Editing 44 Synthetic Data Sets 54 Wearables 25 Attention 39 One-to-Few Publishing 46 Blockchain 26 Personality Analytics 44 Synthetic Data Sets 56 Gestural Interfaces and Biointerfaces 28 Net Neutrality 49 Drones 29 Internet Mob Justice 51 Virtual Reality 32 Anthropocene and Climate 52 Augmented Reality 33 Security 58 Robots 17 Algorithms: Natural Language Generation 35 Privacy 62 Deep Linking 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 66 Data 63 Internet of X 38 Web RTC 63 Internet of X 19 Deep Learning 38 Personalized Video 64 Lendership and Sharing 20 Cognitive Computing Human Resources 67 Genomic Editing 38 Holograms 66 Data 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 43 Digital Frailty 44 Synthetic Data Sets 49 Drones 51 Virtual Reality 52 Augmented Reality Trade | Professional Associations| Interest Groups 17 Algorithms: Generative Algorithms For Voice 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 53 Augmented Knowledge 17 Algorithms: Personality Detection 58 Robots 20 Cognitive Computing 59 3D Printing 63 Internet of X 65 Collaborative Software 66 Data Marketing | PR 17 Algorithms: Natural Language Generation 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 23 Ambient Proximity 25 Attention 26 Personality Analytics 27 Drone Lanes 28 Net Neutrality 29 Internet Mob Justice Financial Services 15 Bots 16 Algorithms: Zero-Knowledge Proofs 23 Ambient Proximity 24 Ambient Interfaces 26 Personality Analytics 33 Security 35 Privacy 38 Web RTC 44 Synthetic Data Sets 46 Blockchain 58 Robots 62 Deep Linking 63 Internet of X 64 Lendership and Sharing 66 Data 17 Algorithms: Discrimination Professional Services 17 Algorithms: Personality Detection 35 Privacy 17 Algorithms For Design 40 Consolidation 16 Algorithms: Zero-Knowledge Proofs 19 Deep Learning 44 Synthetic Data Sets 20 Cognitive Computing 46 Blockchain 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 49 Drones 23 Ambient Proximity 51 Virtual Reality 25 Attention 52 Augmented Reality 26 Personality Analytics 57 Internet of Things 27 Drone Lanes 4 33 Security 58 Robots © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy 17 Algorithms: Natural Language Generation 49 Drones 54 Wearables 58 Robots 64 Lendership and Sharing 65 Collaborative Software 57 Internet of Things 58 Robots 59 3D Printing 61 Space 66 Data 15 Bots 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 17 Algorithms: Personality Detection 19 Deep Learning 20 Cognitive Computing 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 23 Ambient Proximity 25 Attention 26 Personality Analytics 29 Internet Mob Justice 33 Security 35 Privacy 54 Wearables 58 Robots 65 Collaborative Software 66 Data Medical | Health | Life Sciences 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 17 Algorithms: Discrimination 17 Algorithms For Design 17 Algorithms: Personality Detection 19 Deep Learning 17 Algorithms For Design 20 Cognitive Computing 20 Cognitive Computing 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 22 Smart Virtual Personal Assistants 25 Attention 26 Personality Analytics webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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INTRODUCTION The future isn’t something that just happens passively to us. Rather, we are creating it in the present tense. And so, with the right framework in hand, it is possible to anticipate new technologies and their impact in order to map what’s yet to come. At the end of each year, Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy applies our forecasting model to surface the most important emerging trends in digital media and technology for the year ahead. When it comes to technology, it is helpful to organize the evolution of trends along six general time zones. They are not arbitrary; they follow the pattern of acceleration across various sectors of the tech ecosystem. For example, consider the evolution of cars: NOW NEAR-TIME MID-RANGE LONG-RANGE FAR-RANGE Within the next twelve months Five - ten years Ten - twenty years Twenty - thirty years By the end of 2017, cars will be equipped with software updates and new sensors that perform more functions for the driver, such as parking and adaptive cruise control. 5 One - five years By 2022, most cars will be equipped with crosspath cameras to sense nearby objects and they will have adaptive cruise control for driving in stop-and-go traffic. By 2027, advanced WiFi technology will transmit your vehicle’s location and will recognize other vehicles sharing the road. This will begin to enable cars to drive themselves. By 2037, the highway system will have been upgraded to work in symbiosis with semiautonomous vehicles. Human drivers will take over on smaller streets. On mandated autonomous highway lanes, people will be free to read, watch videos or conduct work. By 2047, we will no longer own cars and cities will no longer operate busses. Instead, automated buses will be subsidized through taxes and will be offered at no cost. Those with the means to do so will subscribe to a transportation service, which operates pods that are fully automated. Pods will transport us to destinations as required. © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy DISTANT More than thirty years By 2055, pods will be connected to a series of high-speed maglev trains, which have started to supplant commercial air routes on the East and West coasts. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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INTRODUCTION This 2016 Trend Report offers 81 key insights from the first two categories: Now and Near-Term, and they represent the immediate trends that will matter most to you in the coming year. Webbmedia Group is vendor-neutral. While we do advise numerous companies, universities and R&D labs similar to those mentioned, we do not have a financial interest in any company in this report. Instead, they are organizations we’re following, and we have included them to illustrate our key insights. We make our annual report freely available. If you plan to use any of the concepts, terms, examples or forecasts used in this report, please remember to cite our work. For specific questions about citing this report, please contact trends@webbmediagroup.com or call 267-342-4300. 6 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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THE FUTUREPRINT METHODOLOGY Our forecasting model–– the FuturePrint––helps us analyze consumer behavior, microeconomic trends, government policies, market forces and emerging research within the context of the continually evolving tech and digital media ecosystem in order to understand how the future is taking shape in the present. We start at the fringe and look for patterns and attributes that help us to identify a set of possible trends on the horizon. 7 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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WHAT IS A TREND, EXACTLY? Mapping the future for your organization begins with identifying early signposts as you look out on the horizon. In order to chart the best way forward, you must understand emerging trends: what they are, what they aren’t, and how they operate. At any moment, there are hundreds of small shifts in digital media and technology––developments on the fringes of science and society––that will impact our lives in the future. A trend is a new manifestation of sustained change within an industry sector, society, or human behavior. A trend is more than the latest shiny object. Fundamentally, a trend leverages our basic human needs and desires in a meaningful way, and it aligns human nature with breakthrough technologies and inventions. 8 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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WHAT IS A TREND, EXACTLY? All trends share a set of conspicuous, universal features: A trend is driven by a basic human need, one that is catalyzed by new technology. A trend is timely, but it persists. A trend evolves as it emerges. A trend can materialize as a series of unconnectable dots which begin out on the fringe and move to the mainstream. Identifying something as a trend means connecting the dots, or relating changes in the present to what’s coming in the future. To map what the future holds, seek out the early adopters, the hackers, the developers with seemingly impossible ideas. It’s within these circles that meaningful changes begin. As the trend evolves, the work of these disparate groups begins to overlap, until it converges in a single point––before perhaps evolving once again. Because trends are a different way of seeing and interpreting our current reality, they provide a useful framework to organize our thinking, especially when we’re hunting for the unknown and trying to learn something about which we do not yet know how to ask. 9 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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WHAT IS A TREND, EXACTLY? There are ten modern sources of change in society with technology as the primary connector. 01 02 03 04 05 Wealth distribution Education Government Politics Public health Media Demography Economy Environment Journalism 06 07 08 09 (our individual and collective use of social networks, chat services, digital video channels, photo sharing services and so on) 10 Therefore, if we want to forecast the future of anything, we would need to plot out the intersecting vectors of change––their direction and magnitude––as they relate to new developments in emerging technology. These features are what make up a trend. Together they distinguish a trend from a fad, which will invariably pass. Trends are what help us to forecast the future. 10 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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HOW TO USE THE 2016 TREND REPORT Our 2016 Trend Report reveals how your organization should act in the coming year. Our annual Trend Report helps ensure that your organization is better positioned to understand changes and proactively plan for what’s past the horizon. You can use it to identify near-future business disruption and competitive threats while simultaneously finding new collaborators and partners. Most importantly, it should spark new ideas and opportunities to help your organization innovate and grow. Explaining why these trends matter. Rather than simply offering an overview of the trends we think will matter in 2016, our annual report takes the additional step of explaining why and how these trends will impact your organization. In some cases, you will see very specific use cases and descriptive illustrations, so that you can more clearly envision the potential outcomes of these trends during the next 12 months. 11 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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HOW TO USE OUR REPORT Each trend offers five important pieces of information. We recommend using our 2016 Trends Report as part of your organization’s ongoing strategic digital assessment and planning process. Webbmedia Group assists dozens of companies every year with their strategic digital and technology planning. To learn more about how we can help you, please call 267.342.4300 or email hello@ webbmediagroup.com. KEY INSIGHT: Short, easy explanation of this trend so that you can internalize it and discuss with your colleagues. EXAMPLES: Real-world use cases, some of which will sound familiar. WHAT’S NEXT: What this trend means for you and your organization in the coming year. WATCHLIST: Notable companies, founders and researchers working in this trend space. YEARS ON THE LIST: We’ve noted how many years we’ve been tracking the trend, even as it has evolved. This is an indication of how the trend is progressing. 12 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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ADVISING YOU AND YOUR ORGANIZATION Webbmedia Group is a forecasting consultancy that advises numerous organizations on emerging trends in technology and digital media using a cross-disciplinary approach. We offer three services to our clients: 01 Foresight Program: This program ensures that an organization knows all of the near-future trends on the horizon so that they can influence what’s to come. Clients receive: 02 Project-Based Advising: 03 Individual Workshops: • Concise, custom reports on all of the emerging trends you should be aware of (about 2 hours of reading per month). • Quarterly customized on-site trends presentations for you and your staff (4 per year). • Invitations to our two Big Ideas Summits a year (2 seats for you and anyone you choose). • Our annual trends report (the one you’re reading now!) 30 days before it’s released to the public. • Ability to talk with us throughout the month for advising, insight and inspiration. 13 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Forecasting for a specific area or to enable strategic business decisions in the present. (Examples: What should a future car do/ offer/ feature in 10 years? How will decisions made today about Internet policy impact our democracy in the near-future? How will the youngest Millennials consume the news?) Presenting an overview of trends that will impact an organization, association, company or group. To learn more about becoming a Webbmedia Group client, contact trends@webbmediagroup.com or call 267-342-4300. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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2016 FORECAST: TROUBLE AHEAD Now more than ever, emerging technology breakthroughs are outpacing the evolution of our public policy and discussions regarding ethics. As human beings, our evolutionary response to complicated technologies we don’t understand is either to ignore them or to fear the worst. As a result, 2015 was a year marked by poor decisions made by several companies and governmental agencies, many of which advocated for short-sighted policy. Businesses didn’t work hard enough to secure their data. News organizations published lots of incendiary pieces about jobkilling robots and AI-powered supercomputers who might eradicate our species. Retailers made deals for our medical data. Researchers figured out how to edit and re-implant DNA. Facebook ran experiments on our news feeds. Technology can be simultaneously exciting, bewildering, thrilling, confounding and terrifying in the present. We must continue to think ahead to how our actions (or lack of actions) today will impact the future of our societies, businesses and global communities. We hope you’ll view this year’s list of trends through an omni-focus lens, simultaneously looking for opportunities in 2016 while planning for farther-future implications on society. 14 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 1 BOTS First year on the list KEY INSIGHT Software applications that run automated tasks are called “bots.” 2016 will bring a host of creative bots that will supercharge our productivity, keep us company, and possibly make us fall in love. What’s new: you’ll have the opportunity to use and program them yourself. EXAMPLES In the 1960s, Joseph Weizenbaum wrote a computer program called Eliza that was capable of simulating a conversation between a psychiatrist and patient. It offered up plausible responses to common questions. More recently, we’ve seen Twitter bots like @OliviaTaters, which was created accidentally by a researcher experimenting with language manipulation of real-life teenagers. At the SXSW festival last year, hundreds of Tinder users found themselves having a text-message conversation with a woman named Ava, who turned out to be a promotional tool for the sci-fi movie Ex Machina. WHAT’S NEXT Microsoft’s experimental Mandarin-language bot, Xiaolce, is akin to Samantha in the movie Her. She lives inside a smartphone and has intimate conversations with her users, because the program is able to remember details from previous conversations and because it mines the Chinese Internet for human conversations in order to synthesize chat sessions. Roxxxy the robot is a real-life manifestation of a chatbot, an interactive sex bot that is designed by its owner and then implanted with a set of base personalities to match. Owners can then further customize Roxxxy, designing her personality attributes in myriad ways, so that they reflect the exact wants and desires of her owner. Bots do more than offer conversation. News organizations will soon use bots to sort and tag articles in real time. We’ll see advanced bots manipulating social media and stocks simultaneously. The intelligence community might deploy bots for surveillance and for digital diplomacy. HR managers can use bots to train employees. Meantime, as Slack continues to grow in scale and popularity, bots within that environment will help automate meetings and status updates and more, saving time and increasing productivity. WATCHLIST Microsoft, New York Times, Slack, Twitter, fringe experimenters 15 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy @OliviaTaters is a popular Twitter bot. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 02 - 09 ALGORITHMS Second year on the list Automated Insights’ algorithm turns data into narrative stories. KEY INSIGHT At its essence, an algorithm is simply a set of rules or processes that must be followed in order to solve a problem. For thousands of years (Euklid’s algorithm is 2,500 years old!) algorithms have been used to increase speed and efficiencies, and they’ve been applied to assist with our everyday tasks. Algorithms are increasingly used to design our news, our products, our experiences, our relationships…and even people. The data we create is being used in algorithms, often with great outcomes, but sometimes to society’s future detriment. In the coming year, we’ll see advanced techniques that allow the processing of secret information and language recognition. As the election cycle heats up, we’ll watch algorithms target the behaviors of voters to predict how they’ll act at the polls. We’ll also seriously question the ethics of how algorithms can be used and we’ll scrutinize the tendency of some algorithms to go awry. How can we push the limits of data and algorithms without accidentally creating future socio-economic, religious and ethnic divides? 02 ZERO-KNOWLEDGE PROOFS A Harvard University professor discovered that Google ads for arrest records were significantly more likely to be shown when searching for distinctively black names or names or historically black fraternities. With all of the hacking scandals that plagued us in 2015, some organizations are turning to zero-knowledge proofs, which allows one party to verify data without conveying any additional information (like how or why the mathematical statement is true). In essence, this eliminates the need for a company to store private identity data during the verification process. Zero-knowledge proofs aren’t new, but deploying them to protect our credit cards and online identities is an emerging application. Irish startup Sedicii will launch its new zero-proof software, which promises to reduce fraud, in 2016. Researchers at Microsoft and Princeton University are working on a zero-knowledge proof so that inspectors can identify something as a nuclear weapon without requiring them to take it apart, which would spread information about how to build one. The KnitYak scarf, which was designed using an algorithm. 16 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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ALGORITHMS 03 Trend 02 - 09 NATURAL LANGUAGE GENERATION 06 Did you know that some life insurance underwriters are attempting to assess your personality––via your magazine and website subscriptions, the photos you post to social media, and more––in order to determine how risky an investment you are? Some lenders have used personality algorithms to predict your future financial transactions. (The data show that if you look at two people with the same professional and personal circumstances, the one with a higher college G.P.A. will be more likely to pay off a debt.) Algorithms will harness your data in order to assess your predicted success at work, how likely you are to bounce around jobs and more. Algorithms can transfer data into a narrative using natural language generation. Last year, organizations such as the Associated Press, Comcast and Yahoo began experimenting with Automated Insights, which mines data and is capable of writing more than 2,000 stories per second. Most organizations use natural language generation to produce stories about fantasy football, earnings reports and the like. Narrative Science uses its NLG system to build narratives out of big data sets, to help non-data science people make better sense of what’s happening within their organizations. See also Trend 17: Personality Analytics. 04 GENERATIVE ALGORITHMS FOR VOICE Researchers at MIT are studying how children learn new words in order to train computers on automatic speech recognition. As humans, we are able to master a new concept from just one or two examples; for machines, this is a more difficult task when it comes to language. In the coming year, we expect to see more research emerging in this area. 05 ALGORITHMIC DISCRIMINATION We are creating troves of data every day, explicitly (uploading and tagging photos) or implicitly (searching online for an OBGYN). That data is used, often without our direct knowledge or understanding, to create advertising, to help potential employers predict our behaviors, to determine our mortgage rates and more. Researchers at a number of universities––including Carnegie Mellon, MIT, Princeton, University of California-Berkeley, International Computer Science Institute, among others––are uncovering bias in algorithms. In 2015, Google was shown to display high-income job ads to men six times more often than women, while searching for “C.E.O.” in Google Images returned 89% men. (The first instance of a woman was actually a marketing photo for the CEO Barbie doll.) Part of the problem is machine learning: computers are trained using a limited initial set of data, and the training programs are built by humans. Often, the training sets reveal unacknowledged bias hidden within us. So if the training data predominantly shows white male CEOs, algorithms won’t recognize people who look different. We anticipate more and more cases of algorithmic discrimination in 2016, and we recommend training humans to recognize and prevent against problematic initial data sets. 17 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy ALGORITHMIC PERSONALITY DETECTION 07 ALGORITHMS FOR DESIGN Algorithms are coming to runways soon. Startup KnitYak uses elementary cellular automata to create one-of-a-kind scarves out of merino wool. Designs are based on a perpetually-changing algorithm. Similar techniques are being used to create unique fabrics and 3D-printed clothing, shoes and jeans that fit. Project Dreamcatcher from Autodesk is another example of a computational design system. While it doesn’t replace a designer herself, it does give her the ability to feed a project’s design requirements, constraints and exemplars into Dreamcatcher, whose algorithm will then return possible design concepts. Within the coming year, robotic 3D printing company MX3D will use Dreamcatcher to design, print, troubleshoot and install a working bridge. What if an algorithm could design our biology? Mapping the human genome has been a long and difficult process. Recently, sequencing technology has become more accessible and affordable to research labs, which would enable them to work towards personalized medical treatments for vexing diseases like cancer. Five years ago researchers unveiled a gene editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9, which allows scientists to edit and redesign precise positions on DNA using a bacterial enzyme. The implications are tremendous. Mosquitoes carrying malaria could be redesigned so that they no longer carry the disease through future generations, and so that millions of humans in high-risk regions no longer contract the disease. There are therapeutic possibilities in human medicine as well. Redesigning our genetic code could mean eradicating certain genetic diseases––like cystic fibrosis–– so they can’t be passed along to babies. In China, pigs are already being redesigned to be cuter as well as more muscular. (See Trend 80: Genomic Editing.) webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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ALGORITHMS 08 Trend 02 - 09 ALGORITHMIC CURATION Algorithmic curation is a process that automatically determines what content should be displayed or hidden and how it should be presented to your audience. Facebook’s NewsFeed already uses an algorithm to curate all the posts created in your network to serve only the content it thinks will engage you most. Facebook, along with Google and Yahoo will continue to refine their news algorithms, which use our online behaviors to determine which content to show. Content discovery engine Outbrain will begin deploying new custom homepage products, which personalize the stories, headlines and images based on the individual user’s behavior. In 2016 and beyond, we expect to see more predictive, algorithmic curation based on content as well as situation. Rather than delivering a full breaking news story to our mobile phones, algorithms will deliver the “waiting in line at Starbucks” version of that story, a more in-depth longread to our tablets, and a video version of that story once we’re in front of our connected TVs. As a result, news organizations and other content producers have thrilling opportunities in the year ahead to supercharge and personalize content in ways we have never seen before. 09 ALGORITHM MARKETPLACES Most organizations can’t staff a team of developers who have unlimited time to create, test and refine algorithms. As a result, communities of developers are offering up their algorithms in emerging algorithm marketplaces. Algorithmia recently launched to the public as a sort of Amazon for algorithms, where developers can upload their work to the cloud and receive payment when others pay to access it. DataXu offers a marketplace for its proprietary algorithms. PrecisionHawk just launched a marketplace for predictive agriculture algos. Look for more niche marketplaces in 2016. 18 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 10 DEEP LEARNING Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT Experimental, brain-inspired systems are capable of translating pixels into language. EXAMPLES Artificially intelligent computers are now capable of deep learning using human brain-like neural networks. Last year, Google was able to cram 20 new languages into its Translate app, enabling users to simultaneously listen and translate between different languages––without an Internet connection. The app is capable of distinguishing pixels and sounds until it recognizes a complete word. For example, engineers wanted to detect letters with a small amount of rotation (in case a user holds her phone slightly tilted to the right). This helps the program recognize the similarities between an S, $ and 5 without mixing them up in translation. WHAT’S NEXT Deep learning isn’t just used by Google, though researchers on the DeepMind team are working on a host of applications for neural networks. Internet searching will be aided by deep learning––we’ll have conversations and get to our desired answers far more quickly than we do today searching through pages of content. Facebook is using this technology to automatically generate faceprints––which is like a fingerprint, but using our photos instead. (The U.S. doesn’t yet have biometric data protection laws.) We recommend that you download your Facebook file if you haven’t already, as this will give you an indication of what data Facebook is storing and how it relates that information across user profiles. Scientists at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed a deep neural network that can automatically identify people’s faces using infrared cameras––law enforcement will soon be able to see as clearly in total darkness as they can in the bright daylight. DeepEar was developed by Bell Labs and is a neural network that listens via our smartphones without draining our batteries. Qualcomm is developing neuromorphic chips, which have been used in robots to help them recognize objects they haven’t seen before, or navigate themselves to a new location. In 2016, early experimentation in deep learning will begin to lay the groundwork for all that’s to come. WATCHLIST Google; Amazon; Microsoft; Facebook; Baidu; Karlsruhe Institute of Technology; Stanford; Bell Labs; University of Toronto; University of California - Los Angeles, University of California - Berkeley; NSA; Qualcomm 19 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Karlsruhe Institute of Technology’s technology recognizes your face, even in the dark. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 11 COGNITIVE COMPUTING Fourth year on the list KEY INSIGHT This trend has evolved from a key idea in our 2010 trend report: anticipatory computing. Cognitive computing systems use natural language processing and artificial intelligence in order to understand our intentions. EXAMPLES In his seminal 1950 paper, computer scientist Alan Turing asked “Can machines think?” According to IBM, the answer is yes. And increasingly, faster and better than humans. IBM’s cognitive computing platform Watson is best known for eviscerating the reigning human Jeopardy champions in 2011. IBM hasn’t built a clever computer gimmick, it has built a revolutionary cognitive computing platform capable of learning, adapting and proposing solutions to extremely difficult problems. Late in 2015, IBM announced that it had acquired the Weather Company’s data and digital properties. We believe that IBM is ushering in a new era of computing. WHAT’S NEXT In Australia, Watson will be used to help predict, source and manage natural gas facilities. Watson is learning how to read and interpret medical images––a job that was previously reserved for highly-trained radiologists. Watson is also being trained as a cancer expert, which will eventually advise community physicians and nurse practitioners. Watson and CVS have partnered to learn about patients and their medical histories in order to red-flag problematic behaviors, potentially transforming the role of your local pharmacist. Working together with Watson, your local pharmacist may begin to offer you holistic advice and interventions. IBM is now developing advanced data-centric supercomputing systems that will embed computing power everywhere data resides in a system, which means a convergence of analytics, modeling, visualization, and simulation, and driving new insights at very fast speeds. In 2016, IBM will make its big push into healthcare, part of which includes better patient access to their own health and prescription history. Watson––and for the time being, your doctor––will see you now. WATCHLIST IBM 20 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy IBM’s Watson is a cognitive computing platform. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 12 QUANTUM COMPUTERS First year on the list KEY INSIGHT In short, quantum computers can solve problems that are computationally too difficult for a classical computer, which can only process information in 1s or 0s. In the quantum universe, those 1 and 0 bytes can exist in two states (qubits) at once, allowing computations to be performed in parallel. Therefore, if you build two qubits, they are able to hold four values at the same time: 00, 01, 10, 11. Quantum computers are not only more powerful than anything built to date––they require special algorithms capable of doing new things. EXAMPLES Scientists have been researching quantum computing for decades. The challenge has been proving that a quantum machine is actually doing quantum computations. That’s because in a quantum system, the very act of observing information in transit changes the nature of that data. While we have been tracking quantum computing for many years, it finally makes our 2016 list because of some recent, important advancements. WHAT’S NEXT Researchers at IBM’s experimental quantum computing group have begun to unlock difficult problems in quantum computing, such as detecting errors. For example, classical computers can detect and correct errors using a system of copying and extracting the value from the correct bits. When a quantum computer tries to do the same thing, it alters the qubits just in an attempt to copy them. Recently, D-Wave Systems announced that it broke the 1000 qubit barrier, which would make it the most powerful computer on the planet. Google and Lockheed Martin are two companies that own a D-Wave machine. IBM, Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard and Google, as well as D-Wave, are trying to figure out how to advance and commercialize the technology. Quantum computers require special programs like Shor’s algorithm––invented by MIT’s Peter Shor––that can factorize any prime number. The National Security Agency is already predicting that the cryptography in use will be rendered completely obsolete once quantum computing comes online. WATCHLIST IBM, Google, D-Wave, Lockheed Martin, NSA, Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, MIT, Stanford, University of Southern California 21 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy The D-Wave recently announced that it broke the 1000 qubit barrier, which would make it the fastest and most powerful computer on the planet. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 13 SMART VIRTUAL PERSONAL ASSISTANTS (SVPAS) Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT SVPAs made our list last year because new consumer-facing products were leaving the fringe and entering the mainstream. They used semantic and natural language processing, mined data from our calendars, email and contact lists and used the last few minutes of our online behavior to anticipate what we want or need to do next...even before we know to ask. In 2016, we will see SVPA technology seamlessly integrate into the devices and services we already use. EXAMPLES Most of the earlier SVPA apps have now been acquired. Emu was acquired by Google, Donna was acquired by Yahoo, Cue was acquired by Apple... and the list goes on. When it was still active, Emu was a clever stand-in for a personal secretary. It would monitor the conversation and automatically make suggestions as two people texted. If you asked your friend to see a movie, Emu would immediately geolocate both of you, suggest a nearby theater and show films and times, then check your calendars for your availability. It would even display a preview for you to watch. Once it determined the best time for you to meet, it would help you purchase tickets and enter all the data into your calendar. And it did all of this inside a single mobile application. This illustrates what to expect soon. According to what we’ve learned from product teams throughout the tech industry, is that a new wave of virtual assistants will surface in the coming year. 22 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy WHAT’S NEXT These next crop of SVPAs are being designed with fluid, invisible interfaces, meant to be helpful but not necessarily stand-alone apps. Amazon’s Echo, the AI system running on Alexa, will soon work on your phone. Google Now will include more of your data points to surface exactly what you need just before you need it, and you’ll notice assistance in search. Microsoft’s Cortana will assist you on your PC. (For those in doubt, Cortana should get smarter as the year goes on.) X.ai promises to learn a user’s social relationships and preferences in order to help set up meetings. (The company’s SVPAs, named Amy and Andrew, listen to your tone, sarcasm, humor in order to react accordingly.) Another startup, Charlie, will comb your calendar for names and will then mine hundreds of information sources; a few hours before any meeting, it will send you a one-page dossier with professional and personal details. You’ll also see SVPAs hidden throughout other connected devices, such as your home thermostat, your refrigerator and your phone. Researchers at MIT, Stanford, and the University of Texas at Austin are building infrastructure so that our devices will be able to listen and watch: They’ll know the places we go, the people we interact with, our habits, our tastes and preferences, and more. Then they’ll use this data to anticipate our needs. Marketers, credit card companies, banks, local government agencies (police, highway administration), political campaigns and many others can harness SVPAs to both surface and deliver critical information. If you’re still hankering for an old-school concierge, look for Facebook’s M, a human-hybrid that went into private beta testing late 2015. WATCHLIST Stanford; Charlie; MIT; University of Texas at Austin; X.ai; Amazon; Apple; Google; Microsoft; Yahoo; Robin Labs Amazon’s Echo is an SVPA for your living room. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 14 AMBIENT PROXIMITY Third year on the list KEY INSIGHT New technologies can be programmed to push or receive information to/ from our mobile devices, tethering us to an always-on information network. EXAMPLES You’ve no doubt heard about beacons, which are tiny devices that can be programmed to push (or receive) information to/from mobile phones using Bluetooth. These beacons become aware once you’re near them. RFID and WiFi are also being used to sense our proximity to everyday objects. We are located on nearby networks, as sensors use our personal information and collect data about our experiences. WHAT’S NEXT A new Internet protocol (IPv6) is emerging and will power our Internet of Things over WiFi, so that soon, everything we own will have its own unique identifier. We expect to see WiFi-aware beacons enter the market. Beacons won’t be necessary once our mobile phones have the ability to interact with any connected device, whether that’s a classroom blackboard or your car’s rear tires. All of this will get more exciting once beacons are connected to the emerging Internet of Things, which will network data from everyday items to enable entrepreneurs to make smarter real-time decisions. For instance, beacons placed on an in-store display could report how many custom- 23 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy ers stop to look at a particular running shoe, and how many try on that shoe or merely skip over it and look at a different one instead. That data could be compared against what customers actually purchase, offering real-time feedback to the brand. Eventually, companies could launch new products in beta just as startups do online, forgoing costly focus groups and polls in favor of testing consumer response and recalibrating before rolling out to the general public. Some companies are experimenting with beacons in order to predict the likelihood of an employee leaving for a competitor. (It turns out that there’s a strong correlation between job satisfaction and the frequency an employee stops by a colleague’s desk or eats alone in the breakroom.) In order to help alleviate long security lines, JFK Airport is testing a system that pings and listens for mobile phones left in discoverable mode. When someone passes by a beacon––which may not be obvious or even visible to travelers––the system records, encrypts and timestamps the device’s MAC address. Time elapsed between beacons helps the airport to estimate the wait time in lines and to redirect passengers to less congested areas. In the coming year, we expect to see a new nearables ecosystem bloom, which provide value to both the consumer and the organization tracking data. But as with many emerging technologies, there is little discussion about privacy implications for the average consumer. WATCHLIST BlipTrack, Gimbal, Estimote, Google’s Eddystone, Apple’s iBeacon, Amazon, PayPal, Qualcomm This is how BlipTrak is used at JFK International Airport. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 15 AMBIENT INTERFACES First year on the list KEY INSIGHT Ambient music pioneer and visionary Brian Eno wrote in his liner notes for Music for Airports: “Ambient music must be able to accommodate many levels of listening attention without enforcing one in particular; it must be as ignorable as it is interesting.” Our modern interfaces are becoming more and more like ambient music––able to do more for us with fewer direct actions, yet still be able to captivate our attention. EXAMPLES You’ve seen an ambient interface if you’ve ever used Google Now, which automatically surfaces and displays the information you need to know, just as you need to know it, with virtually no actions required by you. If you’re getting off of a plane in Oslo, Now rearranges itself to tell you the local time and how to say a greeting in Norwegian. You only need to look at your phone’s screen. WHAT’S NEXT In our modern age of information, the average adult now makes more than 10,000 decisions a day––some big, like whether or not to invest in the stock market, and some small, like whether to glance at your mobile phone when you see the screen light up. What makes ambient design so tantalizing is that it should require us to make fewer and fewer decisions in the future. Think of it as a sort of autocomplete for intention. Our mobile devices and many of the wearables coming to market will be listening and observing in the background and will offer up either text, audio or haptic notifications as needed, and those will be decided by algorithm. In 2016, we expect to see ambient interfaces being embedded into productivity software and apps, tools used by law enforcement, customer loyalty apps, news apps and gaming systems. WATCHLIST Spotify, Mumble, IFTTT, Apple’s WatchKit, Google, BuzzFeed Google Now’s ambient interface delivers you just the information you need without having to search for it first. 24 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 16 ATTENTION Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT As technology has evolved, media organizations, marketers and advertisers have adapted their existing content for the screens of our ever-changing devices. However multiple studies show that our attention is continually split between what we’re doing in the real world and what we’d like to be doing online. As the two become more intertwined, capturing our attention is becoming more difficult than ever. EXAMPLES Making sure that content fits correctly on a screen is only solving part of the challenge––what about content fitting our needs and behaviors as both change throughout the day? In order to capture someone’s attention, you must consider a number of variables: where is she right now? What’s she likely to be doing in the next 60 seconds? What’s relevant to her in the next few minutes? What need can you fulfill for her at this moment? WHAT’S NEXT We believe that any organization that publishes content for any reason–– whether that’s a news organization, a social network, a brand or a branch of the government––must focus less on the device a customer is holding and more on what the customer herself is doing. Organizations should leverage emerging trends in SVPAs and Ambient Interfaces in order to distribute content based on a two-tiered, multivariate system, evaluating first the user’s activity (content preferences) and then her behavior (whether her accelerometer registers movement of >10mph, which would indicate sending her a short audio version of the story). In 2016, content creators should work alongside algorithms to syndicate different versions to different devices depending on a user’s individual needs, given that those needs will change throughout her day. The goal should be capturing our always-divided attention, rather than making sure a page fits neatly onto our latest mobile phones. WATCHLIST BuzzFeed, Google Now, Facebook, Chartbeat 25 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy’s Attention Matrix is a tool to help measure whether your strategy will command the attention of your desired audience. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 17 PERSONALITY ANALYTICS First year on the list KEY INSIGHT Emerging predictive analytics tools wrangle your data, behavior and preferences in order to map your personality––and predict how you’re likely to react in just about any situation. EXAMPLES IBM and Twitter recently built tools that mine Twitter feeds and weather data to identify consumers who are likely to fire off angry tweets if their cable service is disrupted. Those complaints aren’t empty threats: IBM’s data shows a correlation between disgruntled tweets and customer loss. IBM’s technology can scan individuals’ social media data and analyze their personalities to predict responses to an email or an ad. Combined with IBM’s cognitive computing platform Watson, organizations will some day be able to pinpoint our personalities and address our individual needs. WHAT’S NEXT IBM has been experimenting with another tool it built, which it calls Personality Insights. It uses linguistic analytics along with cognitive and social characteristics to better understand someone’s personality. Nashville-based startup Crystal culls thousands of public data sources to help you learn about someone’s personality before calling or emailing them. It even offers a kind of spell check for sentiment, autocorrecting phrases and making recommendations (“keep the message under 200 words, otherwise this recipient might ignore it”) so that the message resonates better with your intended recipient. In addition to analyzing our personalities, some tech companies are watching our behavior and exploiting the psychological system governing of how we make decisions. For example, Jawbone is building features into its products that are designed to get its users sleeping better and moving more. Programmatic ad buying platform Rocket Fuel will use our behavior and personality data to target us with online ads. WATCHLIST IBM, Rocket Fuel, Crystal, Stanford, Workday, GSN Games, Upstart, ZestFinance Crystal helps you learn about someone’s personality before calling or emailing them. 26 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 18 DRONE LANES First year on the list KEY INSIGHT With an increased number of drones dotting the sky, some are calling for new dedicated airspace. EXAMPLES In 2015, two drones inadvertently prevented firefighters from putting out a rapidly spreading California wildfire, which crossed over onto a freeway and destroyed a dozen vehicles. Currently, the FAA does not allow drones to fly near the airspace of airports––but while there are no-fly zones, there aren’t no-fly circumstances. Meantime, news organizations hope to use drones for reporting in the public interest, while commercial operators like Amazon want to begin drone deliveries. Law enforcement agencies in North Dakota will begin flying drones armed with anything from tear gas to Tasers, thanks to a new law passed late 2015. WHAT’S NEXT From the Valley to DC, everyone will be talking about whether or not the airspace should be regulated for hobbyists and commercial drone pilots, which will prompt difficult conversations between technologists, researchers, drone manufacturers, businesses and the aviation industry, since each has an economic stake in the future of unmanned vehicles. We anticipate the sky being divided soon: hobbyist pilots will have access to operate UMVs in the 200 and below space, while businesses and commercial pilots will gain exclusive access to 200 - 400 feet zone overhead. WATCHLIST FAA; Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld; Holland & Knight; McKenna Long & Aldridge; U.S . Department of Transportation; the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International; Northrop Grumman; Boeing; American Farm Bureau Federation; the state of Nevada; the Southwest Airlines Pilots’ Association; the American Civil Liberties Union; Airlines for America; the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association; Amazon; Google 27 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Commercial operators like Amazon want to begin drone deliveries. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 19 NET NEUTRALITY Third year on the list KEY INSIGHT In June 2015, the FCC’s newest set of net neutrality rules took effect, ensuring fair access to the Internet and prohibiting throttling and blocking to bandwidth-hungry sites and services. But there are plenty of interest groups and elected officials who are getting ready for a second round of arguments in early 2016. EXAMPLES For the past few years, the debate over how to meter the Internet has pit Internet companies against the White House and open technology advocates. Comcast and various ISPs want to restrict access to the Internet, while many people argue that charging additional fees to access bandwidth goes against the very nature of the Internet and how it was built. The best explanation we’ve seen to date was written by David Weinberger on Medium: “[The Internet isn’t] a broadcast medium, we are not mere consumers, and when content includes stuff that we make and that we partake in socially, calling it content is highly misleading. But it’s not misleading if you’re a cable company. You make your big money selling content. That’s why you want to prioritize some content over others. It’s one important reason you give your subscribers ten times more capacity for downloading than for uploading. If you’re a cable company, it’s all about content. That is the original sin of the way we get access to the Internet in this country.” We encourage you to read Weinberger’s piece here: https://goo.gl/hKLtWe. 28 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy WHAT’S NEXT Critics of the FCC rules will begin oral arguments at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit at the end of 2015. Interested parties from all sides are filing briefs. This debate is far from over––the FCC and those in support of its rules will respond by the fall, with more replies after that. Net neutrality rules should look different by the end of 2016 than they do today. WATCHLIST The FCC’s Chairman Tom Wheeler and Julius Genachowski; Former FCC Commissioner Harold Furthgott-Roth; the Center for Boundless Technology; Richard Bennett, co-inventor of Wi-Fi and modern Ethernet architecture; the Georgetown Center for Business and Public Policy; Multicultural Media, Telecom and Internet Council; Telecommunications Industry Association; Columbia University Law School professor Timothy Wu; AT&T chairman and CEO Randall Stephenson; Netflix CEO Reed Hastings; the White House; Senator Al Franken; Senator John McCain; CEO of the Internet Association Michael Beckerman; Comcast CEO Brian L. Roberts; the Chamber of Commerce; the Business Roundtable; Facebook; Google; the National Association of Manufacturers; the United Telecom Association; the National Cable and Telecommunications Association; Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Ca); various economists The FCC voted new rules in 2015, however we anticipate much debate and additional arguments in 2016. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 20 INTERNET MOB JUSTICE First year on the list KEY INSIGHT #GamerGate. Cecil the Lion. The two Florida men––hearse drivers––who stopped at a Dunkin Donuts en route to a funeral. Our connected culture has made it easier than ever to band together in support of a cause––often with terrifying results. EXAMPLES When Minnesota dentist Walter Palmer killed a beloved lion in Zimbabwe, a lot of people were enraged. Really enraged. They found his home and office address and organized social media into action. They hacked his website and posted thousands of vitriolic reviews across Yelp and Google. They threatened physical violence on Twitter and Facebook. Earlier, members on one side of the Gamergate movement targeted women in technology, who were stalked, harassed and threatened in public. Increasingly, activism is turning into digital vigilantism. The legal system is being sidestepped entirely––while the tools enabling Internet shaming grow ever more ubiquitous and easy to use. WHAT’S NEXT Internet mob justice doesn’t follow a set playbook––there are no rules to be broken, and there is no system for determining culpability. The prevailing notion, that the crowd is always right in its judgement, shouldn’t mean that the crowd is justified in its reaction. The Internet was architected to be abstract and open, with few rules governing our behaviors. But this means that we are all, potentially, in danger. One misstep and the Internet mob could target you or your organization next. Whether or not you think Palmer is a bad man for killing Cecil the Lion, the reality is that the mob’s actions ultimately impacted the lives of his staff who lost their jobs, as well as their families, who relied on that income. And his neighbors, who most likely lived in fear during the height of the story. In 2016, we will no doubt see new cases of mob justice, which will lead to fresh calls for regulation, and which could ultimately lead to the social construct of the Internet being completely undone. WATCHLIST After it was discovered that Minneapolis dentist Walter Palmer killed Cecil the Lion, hundreds of people banded together online, posting threatening comments across multiple sites. The FCC, the ACLU, the EFF, law enforcement, Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube 29 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 21 COMPLICATED LEGAL DECISIONS First year on the list KEY INSIGHT Technology––and the various ways we use and exploit it––is inextricably tied to governing and being governed. Those in the courts will find it increasingly difficult to make decisions in the present that won’t cause unintended consequences in the years to come. EXAMPLES What does it mean if APIs, which have traditionally been open for all to use, can be protected under copyright? Recently, a U.S. Court of Appeals ruled in favor of giving Oracle a copyright on its Java APIs. Google had used some of the code in its Android operating system against the wishes of Oracle. Advocates decried the court’s decision, saying it would impede innovation. There are thousands of public-facing APIs and more than a hundred thousand private APIs currently in use. Another example: The Random Darknet Shopper is an art project and automated shopping bot. It was programmed to spend $100 in bitcoin every week on a random purchase within a specific online marketplace. However, in 2015 it bought 10 ecstasy pills and a falsified Hungarian passport. Who do you arrest? The bot? The bot’s well-meaning developer? How should law enforcement and courts deal with unintentional cybercrime? WHAT’S NEXT Those who work in the courts must study not just what’s on the horizon but everyday technology found in the private sector today. It’s vitally important for those making important decisions to understand that merely reacting to existing technology in the present is not the same thing as planning for tomorrow. WATCHLIST U.S. Department of Justice; U.S. States Attorneys; U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security; FBI; the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs; House Intelligence Committee; House Science, Space and Technology Committee; Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee; Senate Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee; Senate Rules Committee. 30 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Those making decisions must study emerging technology in order to make good decisions for the future. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 22 TECHNOLOGY POLICY First year on the list KEY INSIGHT In 2015, there were a number of notable technology-related bills that went before Congress. Those involved in creating the bills were attempting to solve problems as they exist in the present day, but they did not consider the longer-term potential ramifications for society. EXAMPLES Complicated legislation, including the Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act, the Cyber Threat Sharing Act, the National Cybersecurity Protection Advancement Act and the Protecting Cyber Networks Act went before Congress in 2015. All of these bills stood to dramatically impact the future of American citizens and how they interact with technology and digital media. Cybersecurity is certainly a vitally important national security issue. But at what cost to the public? WHAT’S NEXT Without meaningful discussion about the long-range implications of legislation like this, policy and lawmakers may cause drastic (if untended) consequences for their constituents in the decades to come. WATCHLIST Congress 2016 is a presidential election year. Technology policy intersects many areas of governing, including immigration, healthcare and national security. 31 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 23 ANTHROPOCENE AND CLIMATE Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT Scientists and geologists are in the middle of a heated argument about whether we are living in a new geological epoch, one that we’ve created ourselves in many ways because of the technologies we’ve created and use every day. EXAMPLES Depending on whose research and definitions you prefer, we are either in the “Holocene” epoch (from the Greek for “totally new), which began 11,700 years ago just after the last ice age––or we are in a new epoch, called the “Anthropocene” (anthro for “man,” and cene for “new”). At the beginning of the Holocene, the global human population was estimated between 1 - 10 million. Today, many smaller American cities boast 1 million citizens. The new geological layers we are creating are riddled with chemicals and industrial waste, everyday garbage, pesticide runoff and more. We’ve caused our sea levels to rise and our lakes and rivers to dry up. Ecologist Eugene Stoermer coined the term in the 1980s and Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen popularized it in 2000. Suddenly among earth-science researchers, the Anthropocene has found new momentum. WHAT’S NEXT In 2015 alone, scientific journals published more than 200 peer-reviewed articles. Traditionalists argue against using “Anthropocene,” suggesting that the debate about climate is relevant, but that geology data is still lacking. They want to investigate when, exactly, humans began leaving a visible mark on the planet. There is no doubt that some of our technological advances have led to increased factory output and, as a result, pollution. The International Union of Geological Sciences convened a special group to study the world on and in which we live––the rock strata, the soil, the atmosphere––and will make a decision about what to call our current geologic time in 2016. Regardless of which term we use going forward, it is difficult to argue against the fact that humans are Earth’s first species to wield planet-scale influence. Many of us find a certain comfort in fatalism, so there is a possibility that in accepting this new epoch, we absolve ourselves of blame and accept that our destiny as a species was set in motion nearly 12,000 years ago. There is also an opportunity in acknowledging that humanity has a stake in the ongoing evolution of our planet. WATCHLIST The International Union of Geological Sciences; the Nature Conservancy; the Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions and other pre-publication forum and open-review journal sites; the Anthropocene Working Group; U.S. Geological Survey Are we in a new epoch called the Anthropocene? 32 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 24 - 31 SECURITY Third year on the list KEY INSIGHT A lack of planning and oversight led to significant cyber attacks in the past year. We predict even more sophisticated attacks in 2016. 24 ZERO-DAY EXPLOITS RISING IItalian spyware maker Hacking Team (HT) had been selling commercial hacking software to law enforcement agencies in countries all over the world––until it got hacked. Data leaked from HT, along with a massive dump of 400 gigabytes of internal emails, revealed a number of zero-day exploits. In the hacking community, zero days are prized tools because they are undisclosed vulnerabilities that can be exploited. Once the flaw is revealed, programmers have zero days to do anything about it. The HT breach helped to shine a light on a growing zero day marketplace, with some exploits being sold for as much as $500,000. 25 When Hacking Team got hacked, we learned about a growing zero day exploit marketplace. BACKDOORS MasterCard is experimenting with selfie-scans. While they sound malicious, backdoors aren’t necessarily bad. Often, developers intentionally install them into firmware so that manufacturers can safely upgrade our devices and operating systems. The challenge is that backdoors can also be used surreptitiously to harness everything from our webcams to our personal data. Some government officials will be advocating for a set of “golden keys,” which would allow law enforcement to break through the security using backdoors. Opponents argue that the simple act of creating a backdoor would leave ordinary people vulnerable to everyday attacks by even unskilled hackers. We expect this debate to continue through the year. See also Trend 21: Complicated Decisions. 26 GLITCHES Expect to hear more about “glitches” in 2016. They’re problems that don’t have an immediate, obvious cause but nonetheless can cause frustrating problems. In 2013, technical glitches caused a three-hour stop at the Nasdaq. Last year, a glitch caused 5,000 United flights to be grounded for two hours. Technical glitches halted trading at the New York Stock Exchange recently. Glitches cause temporary outages–– and big headaches––for streaming providers such as Dish’s Sling TV, which interrupted service during the premiere of Walking Dead spinoff Fear the Walking Dead. Glitches at Netflix have caused outages as well as strange mashup summaries for different films. A favorite: “Inspired by Victor Hugo’s novel, this Disney film follows a gentle, crippled bell ringer as he faces prejudice and tries to save the eyes of individual dinosaurs.” In many cases, glitches have to do with degraded network connectivity or a miscalculation of the bandwidth needed. But a lot of times, glitches have to do with newer technologies, which we are learning break in unexpected ways. 33 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy 2015 was a dramatically successful years for hackers. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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SECURITY 27 Trend 24 - 31 INTERNET OF THINGS 30 Most businesses do not realize this, but malicious software (“malware” for short) can be sent to anything that plugs into a wall or another machine. Malware is starting to turn up in unusual places, like USB drives (while still unopened in manufacturer’s boxes), home routers and connected refrigerators. As more devices join the IoT, they will need to be protected against would-be attackers. 28 29 DARKNETS Many people confuse the deep web––hidden parts of the Internet that aren’t usually indexed by search engines––with darknets, which are niche spaces promising anonymity often for illegal activities. There were ongoing, international pre-emptive strikes against darknet operations in 2015. In the coming year, we’ll see additional layers of protection for those wanting to access darknets, while law enforcement will receive training on how to navigate the dark web. For government and law enforcement, the challenge of training is that it is static. Those accessing darknets are typically also the ones building them. 34 In recent years, we have seen some devastating breaches in open-source projects: Heartbleed and Shellshock. Hackers exploited vulnerabilities that had existed for a long time but had been left unchecked and full of bugs. In the aftermath of Heartbleed, Dell, Google and other companies donated funds to help shore up OpenSLL. The Linux Foundation launched a Core Infrastructure Initiative to help stave off the next wave of attacks. Still, many organizations use open source tools, and in 2016 they must perform weekly–not occasional–security checks. SELFIE SECURITY In 2011, we forecasted that within five years, we would see the advent of two or three-factor authentication using a combination of biometrics and gesture instead of passwords. Our timing was correct: in an effort to combat weak passwords (and weak password encryption), some companies will be using two-factor sign-ons that sidestep passwords entirely. Apple was recently granted a patent for “low threshold face recognition,” which would help our phone cameras identify us, even if we’ve just dyed our hair blue. MasterCard is experimenting with selfie-scans: at the checkout, users have to hold up their phones to take a photo. Since launching its fingerprint scanning tools in 2013, Apple has had success with biometric security––and little customer protest. So MasterCard is following suit, using a combination of fingerprint scans and our faces, as a two-factor biometric authentication. We expect to see more companies moving away from standard passwords in the coming year. But it does raise an interesting question about the security of biometric databases. It’s easy to change your password if you get hacked. How would you replace your face, eyes or fingerprints? © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy OPEN SOURCE APP VULNERABILITIES 31 PRIZE HACKS Ashley Madison. CVS. Anthem. The IRS. The U.S. government. Because 2015 was a dramatically successful years for hackers, and because the coming year will bring an onslaught of new mobile technologies (and their payment systems), cybercriminals will target larger, more prestigious prizes: banks, corporations, governments, financial institutions, universities, health and medical records, marketing databases, our taxes. In 2016, they will relentlessly pursue government agencies as well as campaigns, as this is an election year. So far, attacks that have made big headlines have been about hackers taking data––but exploits can also mean infiltrating the computer systems in our cars, in our infrastructure (airplanes, trains), in our homes and offices (climate controls, locks) and more. Security expert Brian Krebs says that the “market for finding, stockpiling and hoarding (keeping secret) software flaws is expanding rapidly” and went so far as to advocate for a compulsory bounty program. In response, a number of white hat (read: good hacker) bug bounty programs are becoming popular. HackerOne is being used by Yahoo, Slack, Twitter, Square and MailChimp. Friendly hackers hunt down potential vulnerabilities and get paid for their work. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 32 - 40 PRIVACY Fourth year on the list KEY INSIGHT Ongoing breaches have continued to dismantle the public trust. According to a 2015 Pew Internet and Society poll, 88% of Americans say that they should not be surveilled without their approval, while 91% either agreed or strongly agreed that consumers have lost control of their personal information and data. Whether it’s fear of a third party monitoring our mobile phone activity or concern about the safety of online transactions, people are increasingly concerned about their privacy. Nine of out ten adults said that they value having the ability to share confidential matters with another person––but many are concerned with their ability to maintain their privacy in the future. 32 DIGITAL SELF-INCRIMINATION It is increasingly difficult not to be found. Technology is now much further ahead of the average person’s ability to understand it. One in five Americans owns a wearable device, but many do not know that by simply connecting the wearable to a network, they’re being monitored by a third party. Recently, a woman’s Fitbit data was used to unravel rape charges against her boss when it was discovered that she was awake and walking around during the time she claimed to be asleep. Privacy experts are raising questions about collecting our data and surreptitiously surveilling our movements. In the coming year, we expect to see growing demands for digital consent agreements and increased transparency. 33 ANONYMITY Anonymity is one of the digital trends we’ve been tracking as it has evolved during the past several years. The world needs anonymity, as it enables whistleblowers to come forward, and it shields those who otherwise might be persecuted for their beliefs. Digital anonymity allows us to band together in times of need, whether that’s to raise money for a good cause or to push back against injustices. However, just as we had predicted earlier, most anonymous sharing apps won’t survive––indeed, Secret shut down in the past year, while Yik Yak came under fire for allowing cyber-bullying and for failing to prove that users identities really are being protected. Our desire to post content anonymously won’t abate, even as our desire for verification grows. 35 Many people are increasingly concerned about their digital privacy. © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Snapchat is an ephemeral network, where content disappears after sharing. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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PRIVACY 34 Trend 32 - 40 AUTHENTICITY 38 Sometimes a trend becomes so powerful––like digital anonymity––that it causes a fork, a divergent trend. In 2016, we expect to see new networks and services launch that offer verification and authenticity, proving that the content and sources are reliable and accurate, even if they are anonymous. 35 36 ENCRYPTION MANAGEMENT What should encryption look like in 2016? We’ve seen dozens of big attacks in the past 24 months, and yet many of the organizations we entrust with our data are either not using encryption or are using tools that are out of date. Hackers know this, so we should expect more attacks in the coming year. While encrypting data makes it harder to hack, encryption can also make it harder for staff or consumers to make legitimate use out of the data. In 2016, companies will need to devote serious resources into shoring up their digital security, or risk losing multiple millions of dollars cleaning up after a breach. 37 Soon, drones will be smaller and they’ll make far less noise. Coupled with emerging camera technology, drones will be capable of capturing photos and video from 1,000 feet away––and identifying who we are––without our knowledge. Interconnected drones will enable the mass tracking of people at concerts, vehicles on the highway, and shoppers during the busy 2016 holiday season. REVENGE PORN Last year, two men in Japan surreptitiously took photos of a woman while she was changing and shared them on the popular messaging service Line. Police arrested the men, whose advances had been rejected by the woman. It was the first arrest made after the Japanese government passed anti-revenge porn legislation. In the U.S., there is no national law banning revenge porn, and it’s not technically illegal in 25 states. Even with new and proposed legislation throughout Europe, revenge porn cases are still on the rise. RIGHT TO EAVESDROP/ BE EAVESDROPPED ON DRONE SURVEILLANCE 39 PRIVATE NETWORKS In reaction to the ongoing flood of Facebook and Twitter posts and, at least in part, to security breaches early on at Snapchat, private networks will gain momentum during the coming year. Two to watch: Parlio, which promises a clutter-free, moderated discussion network for global issues and MeWe, which offers private social networking and file sharing. 40 OWNERSHIP Who owns all those videos you’re uploading to YouTube? Through its advertising program, a lot of individual people and organizations make substantial money from the videos they upload to YouTube, but there is nothing preventing someone from copying that video and uploading it to Facebook or another platform. Because of the inherent sociability of outside platforms, videos may garner millions of views––without any renumeration going back to the original content creator. As we continue to upload troves of personal data to social networks, photos and video sharing sites, wearable services and elsewhere, we will continue to question who owns the rights to our data. As we connect more and more devices to the Internet of Things––fitness trackers, mobile phones, cars, coffee makers––those devices are having extended interactions with each other and the companies who make them. Our devices aren’t just talking to each other anymore. They’re talking to one another, learning about us, and starting to talk about us. Increasingly, consumers are being left out of the conversation, unable to listen in and make sense of how their data is exchanging hands. A debate over consumer rights will heat up in 2016: should consumers be given the right to eavesdrop on what their own devices are saying? 36 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 41 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FOR NEWS First year on the list KEY INSIGHT In 2016, we will see a host of AI applications that can serve as newsroom aids. EXAMPLES Since 2013, we’ve included AI-powered robot-assisted journalism and contextual awareness as part of this report. Early experiments at the LA Times and at startups such as Narrative Science and Arria have proven that bots can transform raw data into narratives, crafting stories that seem as though they’ve been written by a human. This year, AI For News becomes its own trend. WHAT’S NEXT Our research shows that in the coming year we will see new innovations and experiments in how AI can be used in newsrooms. Knotch will help content producers understand the reach of their stories, while new methods are being developed to help reporters analyze complicated data sets. For example, an AI application might assist an investigative team to recognize handwriting, spot patterns in photos or tag speakers in an audio recording. WATCHLIST Researcher and academic Meredith Broussard at CUNY; Knotch; Arria; New York Times; Narrative Science; Automated Insights; researcher Andreas Graefe at the Tow Center For Digital Journalism We will see new innovations and experiments in how AI can be used in newsrooms. 37 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 42 - 45 VIDEO Fifth year on the list KEY INSIGHT U.S. adults now spend close to an hour a day watching online video, and increasingly we’re using our mobile phones to access that content. In 2015, YouTube and Facebook were the number one and two platforms respectively. Amazon beat out Google to acquire Twitch for $940 million; more than half of the platform’s viewers spend more than 20 hours a week watching videos. In the fall of 2015, Google launched its own Twitch competitor called YouTube Gaming. Video will continue to expand in 2016, but platform wars are just one piece of this bigger trend. 42 WebRTC WebRTC is the real-time communications technology powering Google Hangouts. WebRTC can be used to connect your smartphone to the articles you’re reading on your desktop or tablet, displaying different components depending on what offers the best user experience. If a video won’t display well on your current device, you could be offered a different version automatically. Because WebRTC works from the browser (Firefox or Chrome), it’s also part of one of the other trends we’re continuing to watch: connected machines. Rather than bridging computers to networks, which must route and relay information along various channels, WebRTC and similar peer-to-peer technologies help computers to talk to each other without obstruction. This may seem like a subtle change in Internet architecture, but consider the implications: you would no longer need a third-party operator, like Skype, to video conference with a friend. Games would load and play faster. Pandora and Spotify wouldn’t need to buffer. 43 CORD CUTTING In Q2 last year alone, traditional pay-TV distributors lost a staggering 566,000 subscribers. In the coming year, we 38 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Expect to see holographic displays in 2016. expect this trend to continue as more and more consumers cut the cord in favor of niche streaming services like Netflix, Hulu and Amazon Prime Instant Video. 44 PERSONALIZED VIDEO There are a number of startups in the personalized video space. One, Idomoo, recently launched its Storybuilder product to create individualized video billboards. Imagine yourself walking to work and seeing a personalized video ad come to life using your personal information. There are still a few details to be worked out––not the least of which is convincing consumers to opt-in to a service like this––but in a content-cluttered world, personalized videos could be an attractive alternative. 45 HOLOGRAMS Yes, holograms. At the end of 2015, holographic display startup Leia released its SDK and a bigger screen for a glasses-free viewing experience. Expect to see Leia’s displays in everything from smartphones to watches to connected cars by 2017. Meanwhile, Hologram USA will represent a new roster of “talent” in 2016––holograms that perform old shows on tour. The lineup includes Dean Martin, Whitney Houston, Redd Foxx and Andy Kaufman, among others. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 46 ONE-TO-FEW PUBLISHING Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT Newsletters, podcasts and niche networks that captivate smaller audiences made a huge comeback in 2015. What’s next is an expansion to capture more niche audiences. EXAMPLES One of the most talked about startups of 2015 was This.cm, a new kind of one-to-few social network where each member of the community can only share a single link each day with a smaller group of people. Coupled with a curated “best of” daily newsletter with just five links, This became known as much for the content users surfaced as for the difficulty of scoring an invite to its closed beta. Meantime, former MTV chief digital officer Jason Hirschhorn expanded his MediaREDEF newsletter in a full-blown news aggregation brand, attracting investor funding and launching REDEF.com along with several new topic-focused newsletters. The Information, a newsletter and website about the technology industry, expanded in 2015––charging subscribers $39 monthly. WHAT’S NEXT We anticipate seeing more and more niche networks launch, whether they are individual newsletters or podcasts. We also expect to see more niche-focused digital magazines in 2016. Smaller sites like Nautilus, Pacific Standard, Bitter Southerner, New Inquiry and Aeon produce exceptional content and command very attentive audiences. Our research shows that there is profit to be made, even though audiences may be smaller in size. As many of the one-to-few startups proved in 2015, an influential network with 90%+ regular engagement shows why dedicated attention matters more than a bunch of clicks, and that’s the metric that will matter most in the near future. Advertisers should take notice. We believe it is possible for brands to have 1:1 conversations at scale, and for news organizations to publish content as conversations. We also see opportunities for political watchers, makers, feminist activists, small business owners, IT lawyers and government agencies to chat in a personal, meaningful way with their communities. WATCHLIST Jason Hirschorn and his REDEF group; The Information; This American Life; Serial; This.cm (from Andrew Golis); PRX; TinyLetter writers; Nautilus; Pacific Standard; Bitter Southerner; New Inquiry; Aeon. Pacific Standard is a new breed of website with a highly engaged niche audience. 39 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 47 CONSOLIDATION First year on the list KEY INSIGHT In 2016 we will see increased fragmentation into niche audiences, but we will also see a divergent trend in media ownership––consolidation. EXAMPLES Re/code became part of Vox, which became part of NBC, which a while back became part of Comcast. Verizon acquired AOL. The Financial Times was acquired by Nikkei (for a staggering $1.3 billion). Will BuzzFeed be next? Will NewsCorp acquire Vice? Will Bloomberg buy the Atlantic? Will Facebook and Twitter merge? Or will Facebook eat the whole media landscape? WHAT’S NEXT The next 24 months will be about rapid product creation and monetization in a rush for investment and exits. By the year 2021, it’s possible that AT&T, Verizon, Comcast, Charter and Amazon will have replaced CBS, Viacom, the Washington Post, Hearst and Conde Nast as the biggest news and entertainment media brands in the U.S. WATCHLIST NewsCorp, Bloomberg, Disney, Comcast, Amazon, AT&T, Vox, Vice, HBO, Netflix, General Electric, BuzzFeed, Facebook, Twitter, Google, YouTube. Media companies will continue mergers, acquisitions and consolidation throughout the year. 40 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 48 TRANSPARENCY IN METRICS First year on the list KEY INSIGHT While most companies that publish content on the web are obsessed with metrics, historically they’ve kept audience data hidden from staff. We anticipate an attitudinal change in 2016. EXAMPLES Metrics are neither easy to find nor easy to understand for many working inside of content organizations. To be sure, metrics can influence editorial decision making. Writers at some websites are driven by clicks (or dismissed if they don’t generate enough traffic), while some newsrooms have traditionally kept all metrics hidden from writers. Traditional news organizations including Time Inc., the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times have hired audience engagement editors as go-betweens. WHAT’S NEXT Anyone creating content needs to understand the ebb and flow of traffic and how one piece of content fits into the broader scope of the organization. We expect to see news and other content organizations develop new models to bring transparency to metrics and to staff––without jeopardizing editorial integrity. WATCHLIST Crowdtangle, Vox, BuzzFeed, Gawker, Chartbeat, the New York Times, the Washington Post, the Wall Street Journal Metrics will become more transparent in 2016. 41 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 49 INTENTIONAL RABBIT HOLES First year on the list KEY INSIGHT WHAT’S NEXT EXAMPLES WATCHLIST For the past decade, the predominant view on digital content has been shorter is better, with links that don’t cause the user to bounce off a website. But sometimes stories need to be longer, and they need those additional links for context. In 2016, publishers will experiment with new tools in order to lead readers down intentional rabbit holes. In 2007, a startup called Apture tried to solve the bounce problem by allowing users to search and explore content without leaving the page. Highlighting a word or phrase could bring up a box with layers upon layers of information, as a sort of digital rabbit hole. Editors could manually insert additional information, or Apture’s algorithm would surface related content from trusted partners. It was a tremendous innovation––a news story with a lot of complicated terms and subjects could offer heady subset explainers as well as historic videos, dissenting viewpoints, detailed information about sources and more. Why would a reader leave the page when a smart editor had already anticipated and answered all of her questions? The entire Apture team was acquired by Google in 2011. We haven’t seen a similar contextual service launch since Apture went offline, though the Washington Post began experimenting with what it calls a “Knowledge Map” the summer of 2015. Its “Confronting the Caliphate” series offered special highlighted phrases that when clicked would reveal a column with additional information. The feature works on mobile as well. Media organizations are trying to keep people on their sites, so we anticipate seeing renewed interest in Apture-like services in the coming year. CloudFlare, Washington Post Apture was an early experiment in layering contextual information on websites. 42 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 50 DIGITAL FRAILTY First year on the list KEY INSIGHT In 2015, we saw the first widespread cases of important journalism being erased from the web because of media consolidation or because sites were no longer being maintained. Digital Frailty is the phenomenon in which those digital assets published to a news organization’s website are impermanent or easily broken. EXAMPLES One of the best digital journalism projects remains Rising From Ruin, an award-winning project by MSNBC. It tells the story of Katrina’s aftermath through the lenses of two small communities in Mississippi that weren’t covered by any other media outlet. It included a series of videos, maps, interactive elements, a forum for residents––and since it only exists as a website, there is no other way to see the stories. When Microsoft pulled out of its joint venture with NBC, the project went offline. It’s recently available again, but for how long? At the end of 2015, ESPN announced that Grantland, which has won numerous awards for commentary, was going offline. WHAT’S NEXT While some content can be retrieved via the Internet Archive, it is only taking snapshots of content at a particular moment in time. Libraries archive printed material, but there is no central repository for all of the digital content we are now producing. Perhaps we don’t need to save every listicle and quiz. But news organizations should have conversations about whether it is in the public interest to allow certain content to go dark forever. WATCHLIST NewsCorp, Bloomberg, Disney, Comcast, Amazon, AT&T, ESPN, Netflix, General Electric, BuzzFeed, Vox, Facebook, Twitter, Google, YouTube and many other news organizations. What happens when important journalism breaks on the web––or is removed entirely? 43 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 51 SYNTHETIC DATA SETS First year on the list KEY INSIGHT In the wake of privacy scandals, researchers are starting to experiment with synthetic data sets to perform meaningful analyses. This would increase the value of datasets that everyone uses––such as the Census––while protecting their confidentiality. EXAMPLES A number of agencies collect detailed information for the purpose of generating statistical models. For example, the U.S. Census Bureau gathers a wealth of information, such as age, gender and income. It also collects similar data on businesses, including annual payroll and employment. While this information is vitally important to researchers, allowing everyone access to it presents a privacy challenge. For example, programmers need data sets to create and test new algorithms. But the numbers matter––so creating a statistically identical set of 1000 people without divulging their exact details has been a difficult task. During the past few years, a number of new approaches have been tried, including the experimental Synthetic Longitudinal Business Database (SynLBD) from the Census Bureau. WHAT’S NEXT Even synthetic data needs to be verified. While some researchers argue that synthetic datasets aren’t useful beyond testing algorithms and computer models, we think that increased privacy concerns will lead to the creation and use of more sets like the SynLBD. The Data Observation Network for Earth (DataONE) is working on datasets that can be shared by researchers all over the world. There are applications for synthetic data sets across numerous fields, from bioinformatics to macroeconomics to international relations to data-driven newsgathering. WATCHLIST DataONE; U.S. Census; Purdue University; Duke University; University of New Mexico; U.S. Geological Survey; ESA Data Registry; Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity; SANParks Data Repository; U.S. National Science Foundation Synthetic data sets could help programmers build software without raising privacy concerns. 44 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 52 REAL-TIME FACT CHECKING First year on the list KEY INSIGHT Real-time fact-checking will be a priority in 2016, especially as we move into the upcoming election cycle. EXAMPLES Digital tools have made it easy to report on a live event and publish in real time, but adding context––such as whether or not a source’s statement is factually accurate––usually happens after. In 2009, the Tampa Bay Times won a Pulitzer for its PolitiFact project, which fact-checked the presidential election. In 2011, MIT student Dan Schultz launched Truth Goggles, which originally enabled users to fact-check stories on the Internet. (Truth Goggles eventually pivoted into a broader annotation tool.) In 2012, the Washington Post won a Knight News Prototype grant to build a real-time fact-checking application called Truth Teller. The project was born after a reporter listened to a candidate misspeak for 45 minutes; he knew that the information was either misleading or false, but many in the audience did not. PolitiFact is now an independent journalism website where reporters and editors fact-check statements made by the government, political candidates and advocacy groups. Truth Teller was mechanized, transcribing videos using speech recognition. WHAT’S NEXT The 2016 election will be streamed, via Periscope, YouTube and myriad news sites. An unprecedented number of people and their devices will cause some fragmentation. Videos can be cut and edited to change the context, while inaccuracies spread on social media sometimes have a habit of becoming the truth. News organizations have a tremendous opportunity to build tools for real-time fact checking, adding a critical editorial layer that’s both good for the public interest and good for building brand reputation. WATCHLIST News organizations 45 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy The Washington Post’s real-time fact-checking application, Truth Teller. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 53 BLOCKCHAIN Third year on the list KEY INSIGHT Bitcoin is a digital currency, and it promises complete anonymity while using a crowd-regulated public ledger system. EXAMPLES Bitcoins are mined using powerful computers and scripts, but it’s a competitive process. While bitcoin isn’t the only digital currency, and its volatility rules it out as a safe long-term investment, we are now seeing bitcoin being used by more businesses worldwide. In this digital currency system, bitcoin is the protocol participating on the block chain platform. Blockchain is the transaction database that’s shared by everyone participating in bitcoin’s digital system. WHAT’S NEXT Virtually everyone agrees that bitcoins probably aren’t the blockchain’s killer app. The block chain is a sort of distributed consensus system, where no one person controls all the data. Some say that the blockchain will soon herald a new kind of Internet. The cryptography team at Blockstream recently launched its first prototype “sidechain,” which functions as a separate ledger with its own code. Sidechains allow for easier authentication. Blockstream and the sidechain projects that follow will turn the blockchain into a universal platform that can be used for anything requiring signatures or authentication. It will therefore enable people to participate in “trustless” transactions, eliminating the need for an intermediary between buyers and sellers. But it potentially eliminates the need for all intermediaries in most transactions, even those outside of finance. There is such a thing as the 21 Bitcoin Computer, and it might soon force us to redesign how the Internet works. The 21 Bitcoin Computer, is a small, bare bones, Linux-based piece of hardware in which the bitcoin protocol is a feature of the operating system. Any products or services built with it––games or music or any online content––would have bitcoin built in as a component. It integrates Bitcoin so seamlessly into devices that you’d never know that your using the blockchain at all. Machines will talk to machines in the background. If it takes off, we’ll say good-bye to intermediaries like payment services companies and more. WATCHLIST Blockstream and Sidechain Elements, Boost VC, Kraken, Greylock Partners, Robocoin, Coinsetter, SecondMarket, Coindesk, Coinbase, Digital Asset Holdings 46 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Virtually everyone agrees that bitcoins probably aren’t the blockchain’s killer app. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 54 TORRENTS First year on the list KEY INSIGHT Torrent files include information how to download a larger file using the BitTorrent protocol. BitTorrent is a sidestep around centralized servers, instead moving data across the Internet in a more distributed way. EXAMPLES People use torrents for all kinds of reasons, from blocking an ISP’s ability to see your location on the network to sharing large files. BitTorrent makes it easier to distribute those large files without eating up lots of bandwidth. WHAT’S NEXT BitTorrent has applications beyond peer-to-peer file sharing. Think of it as a new kind of Internet that’s hosted in the crowd rather than the cloud. In 2015, it released a public beta of Project Maelstrom, a web browser built on the same underlying technology. Some argue that a distributed browser system could prevent an ISP from throttling certain sites or users. Maelstrom also allows content to be published that doesn’t actually live on a server––rather, your browser would connect to others online who are also viewing the site or who have viewed it recently. This could thwart would be denial-of-service attacks, which can take down a server. Torrent sites would be distributed between hundreds of thousands of browsers. Though what if that content was meant to harass someone instead? Or if it was incorrect? Or if a virus was embedded? It’s fascinating to think of the future, alternate Internet. WATCHLIST BitTorrent Project Maelstrom is a web browser built on BitTorrent’s underlying technology. 47 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 55 SOCIAL PAYMENTS Sixth year on the list KEY INSIGHT New social payment systems offer the ease of seamless transactions, but they’re also budding social networks in their own rights. Meantime, established players see users sharing photos, so why not money? EXAMPLES Venmo is a popular peer-to-peer (P2P) payment system, and it’s now owned by PayPal. Unlike PayPal, Venmo doesn’t charge transaction fees. It allows friends to pay each other or to easily split bills. When you make a payment to a friend, you can tag it with whatever you’d like. Which has made Venmo’s social feed a popular network itself. Just like a Facebook feed, Venmo shows photos of friends and what they’ve been spending their money on. Venmo is the fastest-growing mobile payment system around. WHAT’S NEXT Right now, social payments have primarily been about splitting taxi fares or dinner bills. Fastacash is a fintech startup that allows peer-to-peer payments via platforms we already use. This kind of backend technology will soon allow Facebook, Snapchat, Line, WeChat, Twitter and others to facilitate easy payments. We expect to see deeper third-party integrations with P2P APIs to allow us not just to pay each other, but to pay our bills, make charitable donations and potentially shop in virtual marketplaces. That said, social payment networks are probable targets for hackers. WATCHLIST Facebook, Snapchat, Line, WeChat, Kakao Talk, Venmo, Square, Ingenico, BOKU, PayPal, Fastacash, Square Venmo is a popular peer-to-peer (P2P) payment system. 48 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 56 DRONES Third year on the list KEY INSIGHT You’ve probably seen at least one in the wild. Drones are now available in an array of sizes and form factors, from lightweight planes and coptors to tiny, machines no bigger (or louder) than a hummingbird. Soon, they’ll include powerful sense and avoid technology, and the ability to fly on their own. EXAMPLES Robots harnessing neural networks and artificial intelligence can make inferences and decisions when programmed to do so. That’s because of sense and avoid technology. In 2016, drones will be programmed to navigate along the path of GPS waypoints––and they’ll make decisions midair about the best path to take and when to avoid objects like buildings, trees and mountains. Or other drones, for that matter. The DJI Matrice 100 is a consumer-grade drone that includes this technology, while Aerobo designs and builds drones for news and commercial projects. WHAT’S NEXT As sense and avoid technology becomes more refined in unmanned vehicles, we will see lots of new applications. Drones will make deliveries, they’ll inspect towers, and they’ll be used to issue parking tickets when we don’t pay the meter. We’ll see a host of different shapes and sizes to deal with a variety of payloads. Microdrones will autonomously navigate through tiny spaces to investigate collapsed buildings or areas with hazardous materials. Bigger drones will be more visible, but they’ll start to make less sound. A military drone could be programmed to find and hit a human target and report back to base, all on its own. In the coming year, we expect to see new legislation regulating the space overhead. See also Trend 11: Drone Lanes. WATCHLIST DJI; Walmart; Amazon; Aerobo; Yuneec; Prox Dynamics; AeroVironment; eBee; Sharper Shape; Google; DARPA; U.S. Department of Defense; U.S. Navy; the U.S. Airforce; the Micro Autonomous System Technologies (MAST) Group at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory; the General Robotics Automation Sensing and Perception (GRASP) Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania; MITRE Corporation 49 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy New drones have the ability to think and act on their own. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 57 INTELLIGENT CAMERAS Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT Cameras themselves are getting smarter. They can now connect with each other on a network for a variety of reasons, from monitoring traffic to creating immersive videos. EXAMPLES Engineers at the University of Washington have developed a system of networked cameras that can automatically track people as they move. Combined with facial and object recognition algorithms and artificial intelligence, smart cameras will provide unprecedented security opportunities. They will be used in our cars, bringing us one big step closer to hybrid-autonomous vehicles, where drivers will choose to take control of the wheel or allow the car to drive itself during stop-and-go traffic. WHAT’S NEXT We will continue to see this experimental technology taking shape in 2016. In addition to recognizing our faces, similar technology can be used to measure us in infrared––using heat to visualize us in the night. Recognition algorithms will do more than spot people, they’ll be capable of distinguishing between animals, objects and sudden movements, too. WATCHLIST University of Washington; Microsoft; Camera Culture Research Group at the MIT Media Lab; Institute of Anthropomatics & Robotics at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology; National Instruments; Electronic Frontier Foundation; Austrian Institute of Technology; University of Birmingham Frames from a moving camera recorded by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, show how UW technology distinguishes among people by giving each person a unique color and number, then tracking them as they walk. 50 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 58 VIRTUAL REALITY Third year on the list KEY INSIGHT In 2016, virtual reality headsets will finally hit the mass market. While VR is an exciting prospect, we probably won’t see it reach critical mass for a few more years. EXAMPLES Virtual reality is a computer simulated environment. As a tethered experience, VR is experienced wearing a pair of goggles, and it can stimulate sensations of being physically present in the scenes a user is viewing. VR can be experienced untethered as well, by slipping a mobile phone into a special mask. Before the end of the 2016, expect to see Oculus, Sony, HTC and MergeVR headsets for sale. WHAT’S NEXT 2016 will be an important year for the VR community. Analysts are predicting sales of 12 million VR headsets. But will there be enough opportunities for consumers to use them outside the gaming world? We have seen some early experiments in film, news storytelling, documentaries, government diplomacy, military training and even financial services. This coming year will be about consumer awareness and adoption more than anything else. WATCHLIST Oculus; Facebook; MergeVR; Google; Sony; Canon; MIT Media Lab; Stanford’s Virtual Human Interaction Lab; the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology’s Virtual Reality Laboratory; University of Maryland’s Clark School of Engineering; University of Southern California The Oculus VR headset will be available to consumers in 2016. 51 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 59 AUGMENTED REALITY Third year on the list (non-consecutive) KEY INSIGHT Augmented reality is back on our list, mainly due to Microsoft’s HoloLens and Magic Leap’s projects. EXAMPLES Augmented reality doesn’t simulate an entirely new environment, but rather overlays information right onto your field of vision. But you need a lens and screen of some kind, whether that’s a mobile phone or a pair of glasses. Google now uses AR as part of its Translate app, changing text in real-time from how its written into a language you understand. WHAT’S NEXT Microsoft’s HoloLens project offers mixed reality, and in 2015 it demoed a holographic version of Minecraft and the landscape of Mars. Meantime, Magic Leap, which continues to raise investment funding, launched its development platform––and it will be using a new kind of lightfield chip. HoloLens’s technology is a clever update on a century-old technique of showing an object with two different angles in each eye (“stereoscopic vision”), while Magic Leap projects light directly into the user’s eye instead, which makes it seem as though digital objects exist in the real world. We anticipate that HoloLens and Magic Leap will hit the market in 2016. WATCHLIST Microsoft, Magic Leap, Google, Apple, Facebook Magic Leap is launching a new kind of platform to augment reality in dazzling new ways. 52 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 60 AUGMENTED KNOWLEDGE First year on the list KEY INSIGHT Right now in a research lab, there are animals tethered together as part of a singular, networked brainnet, and they’re communicating via thought alone. That research will someday be used to augment human knowledge in real time. EXAMPLES We don’t recognize it as such, but we are actually living in an age of digital telepathy, where information can be transmitted via direct input. At the University of Washington’s Center for Sensorimotor Neural Engineering, researchers built a system allowing one person to transmit his thoughts directly to another person. Using electrical brain recordings and a form of magnetic stimulation, one researcher sent a brain signal to another person elsewhere on campus, causing his finger to tap a keyboard. Scientists at Barcelona-based Starlab fitted a brain-computer interface on a man in Kerala, India and instructed him to simply imagine how he was moving his hands and feet. His thoughts were sent to a man in Strasbourg, France wearing a TMS robot, which delivered electrical pulses to his brain. When the man in India thought about moving his feet, the TMS caused the man in France to see light, even though his eyes were closed. WHAT’S NEXT Scientists at the University of Southern California have been working on a cognitive neural prosthesis that can restore and enhance memory function. This research has a practical and altruistic purpose: to help victims of stroke or traumatic brain injury regain their cognitive abilities and motor function. Rather than having to relearn, they need only reload those memories. Someday you’ll be able to download and install the Manchester, England or Iwate Japan dialects, depending on your needs. Or you’ll read the New York Times using Ben Franklin’s perspective. Which begs the question: What does it mean to “learn”? What is the difference between having knowledge and simply acquiring it? WATCHLIST University of Southern California; University of Washington’s Center for Sensorimotor Neural Engineering; Johns Hopkins University; Carnegie Mellon University; Starlab; Case Western Reserve University; Penn State University Researchers at the University of Washington’s Center for Sensorimotor Neural Engineering built a system allowing one person to transmit his thoughts directly to another person. 53 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 61 - 69 WEARABLES Fourth year on the list KEY INSIGHT As of December 2015, Webbmedia Group is tracking 349 wearable devices, which have an average price point of $300. More than half are dedicated to fitness or biometrics, while others are intended for gaming, work and medical monitoring. Google’s Project Jacquard attaches conductive yarn to circuits and connectors. With the debut of the Apple Watch, advertisers, marketers, journalists and everyone else who’s even tangentially connected to the content business are motivated to capture wrist real estate, building apps and products that combine location, news or deals with notifications. Apple shipped 3.6 million watches Q2 of 2015, while Fitbit shipped 4.4 million units during that same period. The future of wearables is certainly promising, however we don’t think that wearables will be ready for meaningful content delivery for the next few years. Instead, nearly all wearables coming to market in 2016 will continue to service our fitness and lifestyle needs with our mobile phones as a hub. Still, there are several trends to consider in this space: 61 Doppel is a neuroenhancer. EARABLES In-ear computers, otherwise known as earables, will be here soon. Bose’s Bluetooth Headset 2 is an ear piece that includes noise-cancelling features and a microphone. Noble’s Savant promises clarity without wires. Last year, Apple filed a patent on earbuds that can be used to monitor temperature, perspiration and heart rate during exercise or sports––those earbuds could also be used to control electronic devices (like our phones) using head gestures. 62 THINKABLES Thinkables will soon allow more adventurous gamers to control games using only their thoughts. The 4D Force platform detects brain waves, capturing EEG/ EOG/ EMG signals and converting them into electric signals. 54 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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WEARABLES 63 Trend 61 - 69 CONNECTED FABRICS A new breed of weavables––textiles woven with sensors and other technologies––will provide haptic feedback to help us navigate cities as we walk. They will also automatically adjust to cold or heat, keeping our body temperatures consistently comfortable. Google officially announced Project Jacquard, which attaches conductive yarn to circuits and connectors. Navigate Paris is a location-enabled jacket, which helps the wearer get around Paris without burying her nose in her smartphone. CuteCircuit makes dresses that can change colors via smartphone. BioCouture is growing fabrics in a lab. Projects in the works include drug-releasing medical textiles and fabrics that regulate moisture in our skin. 64 WOMEN There are still relatively few wearables specifically designed with women in 55 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy KIDS We will see more wearables designed for kids in 2016, as developers are creating wearables for parents who want to monitor their infants and young children. Several smartwatches, such as the HereO and Kidswatcher and Filip, allow parents to track their children’s coordinates, send them messages and make calls to the device. The iBitz is a pedometer that incentivizes kids by rewarding them with virtual coins to use in Disney’s Club Penguin. Sproutling collects real-time data on infants, reporting their body temperature, heart rate, body movements, and sleep patterns as well as room temperature, humidity, and light. 68 PETS Is your dog lazy? That’s a question on the minds of some entrepreneurs who are designing wearables for pets. The FitBark Tracker monitors a dog’s activities and provides analytics on play and sleep. Trax and Iota are real-time GPS trackers for pets, and they work both indoors and outside. The Voyce Dog Monitor measures vital signs and overall health. WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) communicate information from your wearable devices back to medical servers, app manufacturers and your home computer. Sensors, such as devices to monitor your heart rate or oxygen level, collect data and send it back to a central hub (most often, your smartphone) which then relays the information to a medical team or health care monitoring service. There are a lot of benefits: rather than moving into an assisted living facility or spending a lot of time in the hospital, patients can instead move back home while being provided with virtual care. In the coming year, we’ll see several new ingestible and implantable wireless medical devices that deliver drug therapy, monitor our vital statistics, stimulate our brains, help manage pain and bladder control and more. While some of the established medical devices use strong encryption algorithms, many new wearable devices don’t. They’re sending a lot of unencrypted, unsecured personal data – including our locations – across the Internet. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has been investigating several cybersecurity cases related to WBANs, and we anticipate WBAN security growing as a trend in the coming year. 66 67 TATTOOABLES Medicine will start to look very different. Tatooables are going to clinical trials soon. Researchers at the University of Tokyo, Stanford and the University of California at San Diego are all working on electronic second skins. MC10 has already created microscopic, organic semiconductors and carbon nanotubes that stretch and flex and can be powered wirelessly. 65 mind. In 2014-2015 we saw some partnerships between popular designers and wearable tech companies, and we expect to see more soon. But for women, it isn’t just about design. Wearables that help track women’s health issues and personal safety stand to grab significant market share in the coming year. 69 NEUROENHANCERS Some wearables can help you become more productive and might even boost your mood. In the coming year, a number of intriguing devices are coming to market. Doppel, which is worn on the wrist, uses electric pulses to augment your energy. The pulsations, which you dial in based on your needs, are supposed to have a similar effect on your brain as music does. Thyc Vibes is a triangular device that you stick on to your head, and it also delivers low-grade electric pulses to influence either your sympathetic (fight or flight) or your parasympathetic (rest and digest) nervous system. The Emotiv Neuroheadset, Interaxon Muse and Mindwave can all be used to help us dial back (literally) our stress levels. The Melon headband monitors your brainwaves through electrical activity, collecting data over time and telling the wearer when she’s most able to concentrate, when she’s likely to be productive and when she should just take a nap. Rather than waiting to get home and unwind with a glass of wine after work, you could instead program your headband to kick on during your commute home and arrive pre-relaxed. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 70 GESTURAL INTERFACES AND BIOINTERFACES Third year on the list KEY INSIGHT Pressure-sensitive fabrics, optical sensors and bio-acoustic sensing arrays are transforming your hands, arms and legs into control pads. EXAMPLES Researchers at the Design Lab in Berlin have developed a glove that has embedded pressure sensors, which could soon give the gift of limitless communication to deaf-blind people, who currently rely on a system of tactile (hand-to-hand) sign language. Software translates the sign language alphabet into digital text and is connected to the Internet––meaning that anyone will be able to communicate freely with people who are deaf-blind. The Myo armband recently started shipping along with a virtual keyboard and mouse to control the computer screen and enter text. Meantime, sales of smart TVs with gesture control have increased year over year. WHAT’S NEXT Biointerface and gestural interfaces aren’t intended to compete with touchscreen environments, but are instead meant to help us communicate and operate our devices in new ways. The next iteration of gestures is to combine them with more sophisticated technologies. We expect to see more wearables offering biointerfaces––mainly serving as alternative remote controls and smartphone touchscreens––in the coming year. We’ll also see new interfaces in cars, which will allow drivers to use gesture to control the dashboard and will use in-seat sensors to determine whether a driver is falling asleep. Lexus recently released a concept car video showing how cars might recognize and react to our emotions. For many designers, the next evolution in tangible interfaces remains the ability to make traditional interfaces disappear entirely, instead allowing us to make small gestures and use our voices to control the machines in our lives. WATCHLIST Design Lab; Lexus; Carnegie Mellon; Microsoft; University of Michigan; University of Pennsylvania’s Nano/Bio Interface Center; the Center for BioInterface Resarch at Georgia Tech; Myo This Lexus concept car uses a driver’s biometric data to glow every time the driver’s heart beats. 56 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 71 INTERNET OF THINGS Fourth year on the list KEY INSIGHT Millions of smart digital devices, from the traffic light outside your home to the phone in your pocket to your HVAC system are talking to each other, monitoring your activity and automating tasks in order to make your life easier. These devices and their protocols make up the Internet of Things (IoT). EXAMPLES By some measures, there will be 25 billion connected devices and machines online in the next five years. It’s an incomprehensible number of things: thermostats, lights, fitness trackers, cameras, industrial printers, coffee machines, television sets, robots, cars, traffic lights, parking meters...the list goes on. The explosion is due to a sharply decreased component cost. The prices of sensors, bandwidth and processors has dropped significantly over the past decade, while ubiquitous WiFi and smartphones have opened up a new gateway for the everyday consumer. In order to connect to the Internet and to each other, each device needs its own unique address. (We started running out of those a long time ago, which is why so many company names and their web addresses tend not to contain vowels.) Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is helping to expand the IoT so that there are enough usable addresses to go around. International standards organizations are working on a future open standard, just as HTTP and FTP play critical roles in how we move content around on the web today. 57 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy WHAT’S NEXT Google’s OnHub router will enter the market with an easy-to-configure app that demystifies home networking for many. Why would Google get into the router business? Because OnHub will support Google Weave, the company’s emerging IoT platform. While the OnHub app is simple and straightforward, much of the IoT ecosystem uses competing standards. In the near-future, after the IoT hits critical mass, the next evolution will be smarter design. Connected devices must be simple, they must share a common language (they currently do not) and they need to offer features that make sense for the device. IoT devices cannot assume that all users will infer how or when they should be used. While this is all very exciting, the IoT is nearing an inflection point, where it will start to outpace our ability to secure it. WATCHLIST Google, Apple, Amazon, IFTTT, GE, Intel, Cisco, IBM, Qualcomm, Sony, Samsung, LG, Hadoop, Arduino, SmartThings, AT&T, Verizon, Ericsson, Atmel, Dragon Innovation, littleBits The Internet of Things will continue to grow in 2016. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 72 ROBOTS Fourth year on the list KEY INSIGHT WHAT’S NEXT EXAMPLES It’s important to keep an eye on the farther future. Researchers are continuing to experiment with algorithms to smooth out motions and movements, and they are working on cloud-based software updates for artificially intelligent robots, so that if one learns a new skill, that information can be transferred to all robots within a network. They’re also learning how to adapt to injury. In 2015, researchers demonstrated an animal-like robot with six legs that could re-learn how to walk in less than a minute if two of its legs got damaged or were severed entirely. Robot-assisted living and the promise of autonomy are tempting, but further planning is necessary to think through the future implications of machines as they grow more nimble and intelligent. “Robots” is an all-encompassing term, and it includes everything from autonomous drones to self-driving cars to tiny, mechanized cockroaches. They help on the battlefield, in surgical centers and soon, in your offices. In 2015 there were far too many “Robots Will Take Your Job!” stories to count. In 2016, we’ll begin to see how robots will complement our daily lives rather than destroy our workforces. This coming year, robots will augment and enhance what we’re already doing. They will deliver us extra towels in hotels. They’ll help skilled workers build precise machines. Teleportation robots like the Beam will transport you to another city so that you can meet with colleagues. Service robots like the Relay will greet and assist you in hotels. Robotic technologies are being developed for paraplegics and others with ambulatory disabilities, to assist humans with difficult physical tasks, to explore difficult terrain in the deep sea and in space and to help children learn how to program. Robots will venture into areas unsafe for humans or even spaces that are simply too small. Softbank’s Pepper went on sale in Japan last June and sold out immediately. Pepper can function as an automated office receptionist or a home assistant for the elderly. In 2016, Taiwan’s Asustek plans to release a humanoid robot of its own. If designed well, robots can work to more exacting standards, put in longer hours and provide better efficiencies than humans. To be fair, this does mean that robots will eventually disrupt a number of industries and careers, but focusing on that alone would be a mistake as they will also create new fields and growth in different sectors. WATCHLIST DARPA, Future of Life Institute, Google, Intel, Cisco, Softbank, Savioke, Asustek, Suitable Technologies, iRobot, Touch Bionics, Northrop Grumman, ArcBotics, Rethink Robotics, Bosch, Double Robotics, RoboteX, Barobo Softbank’s Pepper robot serves a variety of purposes and is being used in homes and offices throughout Japan. 58 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 73 3D PRINTING Fifth year on the list KEY INSIGHT In the next year, we will see lots of new methods of 3D printing as well as innovative uses for the technology. EXAMPLES 3D printing isn’t just for keychains anymore. One of the biggest breakthroughs making 3D printing more practical is MIT’s brand-new MultiFab printer, an intentionally hackable system that can print up to 10 materials at the same time, including hydrogels, co-polymers and solvent-based materials...along with glass, wood, nylon, chocolate, metal and plastic. New machines can print really small––to a resolution of 40 microns, which is less than half the width of a human hair. Artist Jonty Hurwitz created a nanosculpture of a woman that stands a mere 100 microns. (A strand of hair looks like an enormous road with her on top.) WHAT’S NEXT The Mediated Matter Group at the MIT Media Lab has developed a technique to print molten glass in 3D, and soon, the technology could be used at architectural scale. Robotic 3D printing company MX3D will use Dreamcatcher to design, print, troubleshoot and install a working bridge. See also Trend 7: Algorithms For Design. In the coming year, we’ll see all sorts of new 3D printing applications in architecture, custom manufacturing, clothing, eyeglasses, athletic and medical equipment and more. Ubiquitous home printers are still a ways off, therefore we see big opportunities for 3D printing centers. In the next year, we’ll see companies custom-printing orthotics and footwear, eyeglasses and athletic equipment. Soon, “one size fits all” won’t need to fit any one person ever again. In the coming year, 3D medical printing for custom medical equipment will become more common. Bioprinting will continue to evolve as companies print living human tissues for transplant and for R&D in life sciences. WATCHLIST MIT Media Lab, GE, Formlabs, Organovo, Aurora Labs, Arc Group, ExOne, Voxeljet, Autodesk, Stratasys, HP, Shapeways, MakerBot, University of Illinois Urbana, University College London, Perceptron Artist Jonty Hurwitz created a nanosculpture of a woman that stands a mere 100 microns. 59 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 74 MODULAR MOBILE Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT Google’s Project Ara is a modular phone system that can be configured for any user in every country. EXAMPLES Google has been trying to completely reinvent the mobile phone...using design principles from the old DIY computers of the 1980s. Google’s Project Ara is a modular phone system that allows users to swap in components. Rather than having to buy a new phone every two or three years, modules offering faster speeds or better video cards can be inserted without any technical know-how. WHAT’S NEXT Ara was supposed to begin a live pilot in Puerto Rico but Google cancelled the planned rollout the middle of 2015. We do not think the delay necessarily means that the project––or the idea of modular mobile phones––is dead. Even if Ara fails, it will have inspired (we hope) a new form of mobile design. It may also disrupt the standard two-year contract agreements required anytime you want to buy a new phone. WATCHLIST Google, AT&T, Verizon, Sprint, T-mobile and carriers worldwide Google’s Project Ara is a modular phone system that allows users to swap in components. 60 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 75 SPACE Fourth year on the list KEY INSIGHT NASA strikes back! Space X takes off! Humans on Mars! We are only at the beginning of a space boom v2.0. EXAMPLES In 2015, NASA launched Orion, a new spacecraft that will carry astronauts to the International Space Station. It’s readying the Space Launch System in preparation for deep space exploration. The James Webb Space Telescope, a massive observatory the size of a tennis court, is under construction. Some of the most exciting space innovation is centered deep inside the Mojave Desert, where 17 space-related companies are closing in on commercial space travel, exploration and development. XCOR and Virgin Galactic are gearing up to take non-astronauts into space...for fun. WHAT’S NEXT We saw successful (and tragically, some unsuccessful) commercial space launches in the past two years. Space agencies in Europe, China and the U.S. are hoping to either land on or get close enough to an asteroid to mine it or change its path. Expect to see humans headed back to the Moon and global discussions about whether or not we should make Mars a protected habitat, free of government fighting. China and India will become major players. Soon, there will be a boom in launch vehicles, landers, probes, rovers, space stations and research craft. We’ll also see partnerships formed for astroid and moon mining and for space manufacturing. There will be ancillary opportunities across industries, from durable clothing retailers to skilled manufacturing operations. Private equity firms should start looking at the soon-to-launch companies that will ultimately supply the tools, materials and technologies for commercial space operations. Meantime in slightly lower-orbit, Samsung is proposing to launch a network of 4,500 microsatellites capable of providing high-speed connectivity to billions of people around the world, while Facebook is working on its own “space Internet” project––a solar-powered unmanned drone to connect people in remote areas. Called “Aquila,” it can fly continuously for three months at an altitude of between 60,000 - 90,000 feet. WATCHLIST NASA; European Space Agency; Indian Space Research Organization; China National Space Administration; DARPA; Scaled Composites and Virgin Galactic (The Spaceship Company); XCOR Aerospace; SpaceX; Interorbital Systems; Stratolaunch; Masten Space Systems; Lockheed Martin; Northrop Grumman; Boeing; Copenhagen Suborbitals; Orbital Sciences Corporation; Planetary Resources; Samsung; Facebook; Google and many more. The James Webb Space Telescope is a massive new observatory. 61 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 76 DEEP LINKING Second year on the list (non-consecutive) KEY INSIGHT Deep mobile linking has been around since the beginning of smartphones. Deep mobile links make it easier to find and share data across all of the apps in your phone. EXAMPLES In 2015, Google and Apple both made deep linking announcements. For example, Google Maps now shows your driving times as well as the availability of local Uber drivers, and if you click on the Uber suggestion it will open the app and let you reserve a car. Apple’s iOS9 update gave users deep linking capabilities and the ability to switch between them as well. WHAT’S NEXT This interoperability signals a new shift in thinking, as many mobile app developers have been hesitant to use deep links. With Google and Apple’s changes, app-to-app experiences should start to become more common. For example, Branch is a startup that helps developers deliver previews of their applications before users install them. We expect to see this trend develop as the deep linking ecosystem starts to take off in the coming year. WATCHLIST Google, Apple, Branch Metrics, MobileDeepLinking.org, Deeplink.me, Quixey, Appsfire, Flurry, AdRoll, tapCommerce, Vungle, InMobi, MoPub, Vserv Google now offers deep mobile links. 62 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 77 INTERNET OF X First year on the list KEY INSIGHT With so many objects, networks and people coming online, you will start to hear companies calling themselves the “Internet of X.” EXAMPLES Israeli startup Consumer Physics––a sort of Internet of Ingestibles––wants to put molecular spectroscopy into smartphones so that you can extract information out of your food and pills. This would enable you to scan a piece of chicken in order to search the fat and calories on your plate. Their research is also able to image prescription and over-the-counter drugs in order to spot counterfeits. Meantime, a new project called MatchMaker Exchange is an “Internet of DNA,” matching the DNA from sick people around the world. WHAT’S NEXT It’s not unrealistic to say that in the near future, everything you see (and even the things you can’t) will become searchable via a distributed network. This will unlock layers of information previously unavailable to us––but it will also create a significant demand for verification. WATCHLIST Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, Google, Personal Genomics Project, Curoverse, University of Southern California, Consumer Physics The SCiO scanner from Consumer Physics. 63 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 78 LENDERSHIP AND SHARING Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT Rather than buying to own products, consumers are paying to temporarily lease them. And they’re making money on the side too, by sharing. EXAMPLES Platforms are quickly replacing brick-and-mortar retailers. The appeal of having access to the latest dress/ movie/song, along with the ability to re-borrow it, increasingly trumps consumers’ desire to actually own and store it in their closets. A down economy has helped sharing platforms like Airbnb and Uber gain millions of users. WHAT’S NEXT A recent AARP study showed that more than half of older Americans who lost their jobs in the past few years cited age discrimination is the primary reason they haven’t been able to find new work, so they’re eager to become microentrepreneurs in the lending and sharing economy. Niche industries that must pay for and maintain expensive equipment, such as farmers, are also eager to monetize year-round. FarmLink is a startup connecting farmers in one harvesting region to farmers in another region to help spread capacity throughout the year. Impermanence will increase pressure on CMOs to tell a different story about the value of ownership––or to develop new business models to support this shift in consumer buying. As the lendership economy grows in 2016, brand visibility will become more important, as will the consumer’s relationship to the brand. We expect to see new subscription lending platforms for prescription glasses, baby gear and equipment, home and office furnishings, art and even personal technology. One new hurdle to consider: labor laws. Companies participating in sharing, such as Uber and Lyft, can expect lawsuits stemming from overtime disputes. WATCHLIST Rent The Runway; Netflix; Airbnb; Snapgoods; WeWork; SpaceAway; LendingClub; Funding Circle; Sparkbox; FarmLink; Toys Trunk; Bag Borrow or Steal; Prosper; Kuaidi Dache; Ola and many, many others. Airbnb is just one of the sharing platforms that will be available in 2016. 64 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 79 COLLABORATIVE SOFTWARE Second year on the list KEY INSIGHT 2015 was a big year for Slack and for new productivity tools that combine the best of email, instant messaging, social media and cloud storage desks. EXAMPLES Slack now has more than 80 apps that integrate into the platform, and towards the end of 2015 they made it even easier for developers to make their applications available for others to use. Slack is a hybrid instant message/ email system that lets you sort and tag, search, and choose to broadcast messages to your whole team or just to a few members. For organizations suffocating underneath the hefty weight of email, Slack has offered a helpful alternative. It integrates with a slew of other services, like Dropbox, Google Drive, IFTTT, Heroku, Mailchimp and Zendesk. Some companies have not only completely abandoned email, they’re now using Slack as the productivity engine powering most of their workplace. Yammer and HipChat remain popular enterprise options, while Asana and Flow both offer project management. Early in 2015, Facebook launched its own collaborative competitor, Facebook At Work. WHAT’S NEXT We expect deeper integrations in 2016, with Slack disrupting and then reinventing how we work together both in person and online. We are also seeing a number of Slack-inspired clones, which means there will be lots of pitch decks in 2016 with startups claiming to be the “Slack for X.” Regardless, the end of email is nigh. Slack is real-time messaging, archiving and search for business groups. 65 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 80 DATA Sixth year on the list KEY INSIGHT Data is a very large trend category with numerous stakeholders, applications and emerging ideas. EXAMPLE In the coming year, Big Data will continue to be a buzzword and a trend throughout many industries and fields. From collecting it to parsing it and making it easier to search, we will continue to see lots of developments in 2016. Businesses will want access to analytics tools in order to make important business decisions, while government agencies will rely on data to determine funding for various programs. WHAT’S NEXT Regardless of their size and scope, organizations should begin to think about the upcoming uses for data. For example, private practice doctors must begin using electronic medical records for patient care, which presents hurdles (how to migrate from paper record-keeping to cloud-based digital systems) as well as opportunities (the ability to track trends in patient care, not to mention federal compliance). There are frustrations, however. Those collecting data now have a bunch of numbers that answer “what,” but not “why.” They still need someone to interpret the data and help them find meaning in it. Large organizations (public, private, foundations, nonprofits, universities, government agencies) should create a Chief Data Officer position and bring on board a person or a team of people who have the unique skills to champion data initiatives, make smart decisions, collaborate on security and surface insights. One obstacle: knowing how to find and hire the right kind of data scientist. “Data scientist” used to be a job that no one wanted, and in 2016 it will be one of the most sought-after positions. Now, we’re predicting a shortage in Data Scientists in 2016 and beyond. There just aren’t enough skilled data scientists to fulfill all the work available––some estimates show a 50% gap between upcoming supply and demand. Industries including pharmaceuticals, finance, insurance, aerospace, foundations, government and travel will see a faster demand for employees with analytic skills. Some universities, seeing workforce needs changing, will launch new graduate programs and centers in data science. Ethics and diversity will hopefully be a mandatory part of those programs, so that our future data scientists are aware of possible algorithmic discrimination and problematic data training sets. WATCHLIST Kaggle, IBM’s Watson, Nutonian, Cloudera, Google, EMC, Palantir Technologies, MongoDB and many other companies In the coming year, we will see a data surplus— but we will have too few data scientists to manage it all. 66 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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Trend 81 GENOMIC EDITING First year on the list KEY INSIGHT Genomic editing is a quickly-developing, gamechanging field promising to influence the future of life on our planet. EXAMPLE Mapping the human genome has been a long and difficult process. Recently, sequencing technology has become more accessible and affordable to research labs, which would enable them to work towards personalized medical treatments for vexing diseases like cancer. Five years ago researchers unveiled a gene editing technique called CRISPR-Cas9, which allows scientists to edit precise positions on DNA using a bacterial enzyme. New technologies make CRISPR gene editing more affordable. The implications are tremendous. Mosquitoes carrying malaria could be edited so that they no longer carry the disease through future generations. There are therapeutic possibilities in human medicine as well. Editing our genetic code could mean eradicating certain genetic diseases––like cystic fibrosis––so they can’t be passed along to babies. Liver cells could be edited so that they lower the bad cholesterol levels in families that have inherited mutations. (See Trend 7: Algorithms For Design.) WHAT’S NEXT We will see a number of companies compete in 2016 to develop gene-editing therapies. However, this is another example of an emerging technology that’s developing faster than our ability to have meaningful conversations to plan for the future, which is why there are so many incendiary op-eds and headlines. Genomic editing does warrant meaningful planning. We probably shouldn’t be working toward a day when a baby’s eye color or athletic ability can be edited into her embryonic DNA. However these treatments and cures deserve a deeper, more informed discussion about our future, as they could alter life for millions of people around the world. WATCHLIST Editas Medicine; Microsoft; Harvard University; Massachusetts General Hospital; the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard; Sangamo Biosciences Inc; Intellia Therapeutics; CRISPR Therapeutics; Cellectis Group; 23andMe Genomic editing could help eradicate mosquitos carrying malaria. 67 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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10 QUESTIONS HOW TO RELATE THESE TRENDS BACK TO YOUR ORGANIZATION IN 2016 We recommend thinking about these 81 trends as they relate to your organization, asking questions such as: Which of our customer segments does this trend address? How are our competitors/ related agencies harnessing these trends (or failing to do so?) How are non-competitors applying this trend? Will this trend create new competitors for us? Where does this trend create potential new partners or collaborators for us? How does this trend impact our industry and all of its parts? Who are the drivers of change in this trend? Which companies, founders, startups? How will the wants, needs and expectations of our customers change as a result of this trend? How does this trend inspire us? How does this trend help us think about innovation? Webbmedia Group’s Foresight Program ensures that you and your organization will know all of the important near-future trends and any critical updates far earlier than anyone else. In addition to reports and research like this, clients receive quarterly, customized on-site trends presentations to answer questions like those above. For more information, please contact trends@webbmediagroup.com or call 267-342-4300. 68 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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COMPANIES, ORGANIZATIONS, UNIVERSITIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES MENTIONED IN OUR 2016 TRENDS REPORT. 4D Force Advanced Medical Technology Association Aeon Aerobo AeroVironment Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association Airlines for America Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld Algorithmia Amazon American Civil Liberties Union American Farm Bureau Federation Anthem Anthropocene Working Group AOL API Commons Apple Apture Arria Arcbotics Arduino Ashley Madison Associated Press Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International Asustek AT&T Athos Aurora Labs Austrian Institute of Technology Autodesk Automated Insights Bag Borrow or Steal Baidu Barobo 69 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Bell Labs BioCouture Bitter Southerner BitTorrent BlipTrack Blockstream BOKU Boost VC Bosch Bose BuzzFeed Canon Carnegie Mellon University Case Western Reserve University CBS Center for Boundless Technology Chamber of Commerce Charlie Chartbeat Charter Communications China National Space Administration Cisco City University of New York CloudFire Coinbase Coindesk Coinsetter Comcast Conde Nast Consumer Physics Copenhagen Suborbitals Crystal Curoverse CuteCircuit D-Wave DARPA DataONE DataXu Deep Mind Dialogic Digital Asset holdings Dish Network Disney Dell Design Lab DJI Doppel Double Robotics DNNRsch Dragon Innovation Dropbox Duke University eBee Ekso Bionics Electronic Arts Electronic Frontier Foundation Emotive Ericsson ESA Data Registry Estimote ExOne Expect Labs European Space Agency Facebook Fastacash Federal Aviation Administration Federal Bureau of Investigation Federal Communications Commission Federal Trade Commission Fidelity Filip Fitbit FitBark Food and Drug Administration Formlabs Fujitsu GE Georgetown Center for Business and Public Policy Github Gimbal Global Alliance for Genomics and Health Google Greylock Partners GSN Games Guardian HackerOne Hacking Team HBO Hearst HereO Heroku Hewlett-Packard HipChat Holland & Knight HTC Hulu iBitz IBM Idomoo IFTTT iRobot Indian Space Research Organization Ingenico Instacart Intel Internal Revenue Service International Computer Science Institute International Union of Geological Sciences Internet Association Interorbital Systems Kaggle Kakao Talk Karlsruhe Institute of Technology Kidswatcher Kindle KnitYak Knotch Knowledge Network for Biodiversity Kraken JFK Airport John S. and James L. Knight Foundation Johns Hopkins University Leap Motion Controller Leia Lexus LG Line Linux Foundation littleBits Lockheed Martin Los Angeles Times MC10 MailChimp MakerBot Masten Space Systems Master Card McKenna Long & Aldridge MeWe Media REDEF webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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COMPANIES, ORGANIZATIONS, UNIVERSITIES AND GOVERNMENT AGENCIES MENTIONED IN OUR 2016 TRENDS REPORT. Medtronic Inc Melon Merge VR Microsoft Minecraft MIT MIT Media Lab MITRE Corporation Multicultural Media, Telecom and Internet Council Mumble Muse MX3D Narrative Science NASA Nasdaq National Association of Manufacturers National Cable and Telecommunications Association National Instruments Nature Conservancy Nautilus NBC Nerdist Nest Netflix New Inquiry New York Stock Exchange New York Times Noble Northrop Grumman NSA Nutonian Oakley Oculus Rift 70 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Oracle Orbital Sciences Corporation Organovo Outbrain Pacific Standard Palantir Pandora Parlio PayPal Pennsylvania State University Perception Periscope Personal Genomics Project Planetary Resources PrecisionHawk Princeton University Prox Dynamics PRX Purdue University Qualcomm Quartz Rent The Runway Re/code Rethink Robotics Robin Labs Robocoin Robotex Samsung Savioke Scheels SecondMarket Sedicii Serial Podcast Shapeways Sharper Shape Shapeways Skype Slack Sling SmartThings Snapchat Softbank Sony Southwest Airlines SpaceX Spotify Sprint Square Starlab State of California State of Maryland State of Nevada State of Maryland Stripe Stanford Stratasys Stratolaunch Suitable Technology Swiss Federal Institute of Technology T-mobile Tampa Bay Times Target This.cm This American Life Thync Time In.c TinyLetter Tor Tow Center For Digital Journalism at Columbia University Trax Twitter Uber United Airlines United Telecom Association University of Birmingham University of California - Berkeley University of California - Los Angeles University of California - San Diego University College London University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Maryland University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of New Mexico University of Pennsylvania University of Sheffield University of Southern California University of Texas - Austin University of Tokyo University of Toronto University of Washington Upstart U.S. Air Force U.S. Army Research Laboratory U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Court of Appeals U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Homeland Security U.S. Department of Justice U.S. Department of State U.S. Department of Transportation U.S. General Services Administration U.S. Geological Survey U.S. House Intelligence Committee U.S. House Science, Space and Technology Committee U.S. Navy U.S. National Science Foundation U.S. Senate Commerce, Science and Transportation Committee U.S. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs U.S. Senate Rules Committee Venmo Verizon Vimeo Vine Virgin Galactic Vox Media Voxeljet Voyce The Wall Street Journal The Washington Post WeChat WhatsApp Whisper The White House Workday X.ai XCOR Aerospace Yahoo Yammer Yelp Yik Yak Yuneec YouTube Zeel Zendesk ZestFinance webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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PHOTO CREDITS Pages 1-14, 68-72 Page 25 Page 31 Page 15 Page 26 Page 32 Pages 16-18 Page 27 Page 32 “Opening of the sky” by “See-ming Lee” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/seeminglee/8680281995/ “Clouds” by “Daniel Spiess” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/deegephotos/3715688550/ Page 19 Page 28 Page 33-34 “Switch!” by “Andrew Hart” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewfhart/8106189987/ “Manufactured security” by “kris krüg” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/kk/23390123/ Page 29 Page 35-36 “Skytrain abstract 1” by “Colin Knowles” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/colink/6681277365/ “Wynning Lines” by “screaming_monkey” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/screamingmonkey/7599171384/ “unwhole cubes” by “Jared Tarbell” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/generated/2585844966 “Diploria strigosa fossil symmetrical brain coral (Cockburn Town Member, Grotto Beach Formation, Upper Pleistocene, 114-127 ka; Cockburn Town Fossil Reef, San Salvador Island, Bahamas) 2” by “James St. John” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/16076453080 Page 20 “data.path Ryoji.Ikeda – 3” by “r2hox” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/rh2ox/9990016123/ Page 22 “Amazon Echo” by “Pierre Lecourt” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/13815526@N02/15728648871 Page 23 “The Hardly Visible Distance” by “Andrew Smith” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewasmith/5386541178/ Page 24 “Abstracción #34” by “Feans” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/endogamia/10080618224/ 71 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy “noteworthy?” by “theilr” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/theilr/2332483552/ “Double Exposure” by “Brad Hammonds” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/bradhammonds/7432074964/ “Republican Elephant & Democratic Donkey – Icons” by “DonkeyHotey” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/donkeyhotey/6262122778/ “Fire Wave” by “John Fowler” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/snowpeak/5716330284/ “‘I am not afraid of an army of lions led by a sheep; I am afraid of an army of sheep led by a lion.’ - Alexander the Great” by “Lori Branham” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/kjunstorm/3462528237/ “Abstract lights” by “Timmy_L” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/50732955@N00/13743730535/ Page 30 “trying out ‘dual configuration’” by “Binary Koala” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/binary_koala/140431901/ “My Trusty Gavel” by “Brian Turner” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/60588258@N00/3293465641/ Page 30 “Giant Gavel” by “Sam Howzit” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/aloha75/5006396635/ Page 31 “US Capitol Building rotunda ‘The Apotheosis of Washington’” by “ttarasiuk” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/tara_siuk/4698699414/ Page 37 Page 38 “When Claude met Vincent: 2” by “parameter_bond” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/65720474@N03/8755199968/ Page 39 “one” by “Andre Chinn” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/andrec/2893549851/ webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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PHOTO CREDITS Page 40 Page 45 Page 56 Page 40 Page 46 Page 58 Page 41 “stacking chairs abstract” by “Liz West” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/2214976055/ “Puzzle” by “INTVGene” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/intvgene/370973576/ “Magnifying glass” by “Todd Chandler” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/trchandler/10120260443/ “Bitcoin, bitcoin coin, physical bitcoin, bitcoin photo” by “Antana” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/105644709@N08/10307542203/ “Abstract Landscape” by “Yuri Samoilov” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/yusamoilov/13792463963/ “Fortitude” by “David Goehring” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/carbonnyc/8204013251/ Page 46 “Bitcoin” by “Zach Copley” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/zcopley/8753275612/ Page 59 “Single Pie” by “Lauren Manning” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/laurenmanning/5658937323/ Page 41 Page 47 “Charts” by “GrapeCity Inc.” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/grapecity/4237886048/ “Upload / Download” by “John Trainor” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/trainor/1229138273/ Page 64 Page 42 Page 49 “Flying personal drone quadcopter” by “ackab1” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ackab/15899607032/ Page 65 “blue swirl” by “edward musiak” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/edwardmusiak/5703486080/ Page 43 Page 50 “Broken Glass” by “Sonny Abesamis” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/enerva/12825634793/ “Vintage camera” by “Yevgeniy Shpika” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/johndegree/10726408214/ Page 66 Page 43 Page 51 “Project Morpheus von Sony” by “Marco Verch” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/30478819@N08/20421851622/ Page 67 “404” by “Everett” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. 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Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/edans/7187593954/ “Keys” by “Jim Pennucci” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/pennuja/5399766800/ “Slack” by “Gustavo da Cunha Pimenta” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/guspim/16116160538/ “Big_Data_Prob” by “KamiPhuc” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/kamiphuc/11396380473/ “DNA extraction in action” by “Col Ford and Natasha de Vere” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/col_and_tasha/5021269862/ “#wearables - I wear them @nordkapp. #applewatch#pebble #pebblesteel” by “Teppo Kotirinta” Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Generic license. Accessed 20 November 2015. https://www.flickr.com/photos/voidobjects/18459293666/ webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Amy Webb is a digital media futurist and Founder of Webbmedia Group, a leading digital strategy consulting firm that researches near-future trends in digital media and technology and answers “What’s the future of X?” for a global client base. She is a Lecturer on emerging technology and media at Columbia University and was a 201415 Visiting Nieman Fellow at Harvard University. Her third book, “How Did We Miss That?” is about what the future holds––and what you can do about it in the present (PublicAffairs, Winter 2016). Amy holds many professional affiliations and collaborates with a number of institutions. Amy was a Delegate on the former U.S.-Russia Bilateral Presidential 73 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy Commission, where she worked with Russian counterparts on the future of digital diplomacy. She served on the Aspen Institute’s Dialogue on Libraries, where she worked with FCC Chairman Reed Hundt and others on the future of libraries. Every year, Amy lectures about the future of media and technology at a number of universities, which have included Institut d’études politiques de Paris, Johns Hopkins University, New York University, Tokyo University and National University of Kyiv. For the past 15 years, Amy has been dedicated to helping inform and shape the future of journalism. Amy is a new member of the accreditation council of the ACEJMC, where she is helping to recalibrate accreditation standards for journalism and communication programs throughout the country. Her research while at Harvard centered on the future of journalism and journalism education, which resulted in the publication of her second book, “How to Make J-School Matter (Again).” (Nieman Foundation at Harvard University, 2015.) Writing about emerging technology, digital media and the impacts/ opportunities they present is a focus of Amy’s work. She is the tech columnist and a contributing editor at Inc. Magazine, where she writes about the future of technology and business. She regularly contributes to a number of publications, including the Harvard Business Review and Slate. In 2013, Amy published “Data, A Love Story” (Dutton/ Penguin), a bestselling memoir about dating and algorithms. Data has since been translated for a worldwide market into Chinese, Korean, Turkish and Portuguese and is being adapted for the screen. Her TED talk about Data has been viewed more than 4 million times and has been translated into 31 languages. Amy originally attended the Jacobs School of Music to study classical clarinet and has an M.S. from the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. She also earned Nikyu Certification in the Japanese government-administered Language Proficiency Test and speaks fluently. Amy began her career as a writer with Newsweek (Tokyo) and the Wall Street Journal (Hong Kong) where she covered emerging technology, media and cultural trends. webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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ABOUT WEBBMEDIA GROUP Webbmedia Group is a forecasting consultancy that advises numerous organizations on emerging trends in technology and digital media using a cross-disciplinary approach. Our Forecasting Program ensures that an organization knows all of the near-future trends on the horizon so that they can influence what’s to come. Our Project-Based Advising on a specific area enables better strategic decision-making in the present. To learn more about becoming a Webbmedia Group client or for further information about this report, please contact: Amy Webb Founder Webbmedia Group Email: trends@webbmediagroup.com Tel: +1-267-342-4300 74 © 2016 Webbmedia Group Digital Strategy webbmediagroup.com | 267.342.4300


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