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church leadership IN THE NEW TESTAMENT www.EdwardFudge.com
PART ONE: SLIDES 3-66 WHAT DO WE FIND, AND WHAT SHOULD WE IMITATE? __________________________________________________________________ PART TWO: SLIDES 68-107 WOMEN IN THE NEW TESTAMENT (CHURCH)
OUR FOREFATHERS ASSUMED . . . “The New Testament is as perfect a constitution for the worship, discipline and government of the New Testament church . . . as the Old Testament was for the worship, discipline and government of the Old Testament church.” Thomas Campbell, Declaration and Address, (1809)
JAMES W. THOMPSON Professor of New Testament Abilene Christian University ________________________________________________________________ BUT WHAT IF . . . We come to the conclusion of this study seeking answers that the New Testament, with its variety of witnesses, did not seek to answer. The New Testament offers no uniform view of ministry to be used to deal with our problems over roles and models of ministry.” James W. Thompson, “Ministry in the New Testament,” Restoration Quarterly, 27:3 (1984), p. 155.
OUR QUESTION CHANGES . . . “We seek enlightenment afresh in the New Testament, not for a legalistic reproduction of its details, but to heed, in the light of the gospel, the message that it contains." Eduard Schweizer, Church Order in the New Testament: Studies in Biblical Theology (London: SCM Press, 1961), p. 19.
the place to begin . . . And Jesus called them to him and said to them, "You know that those who are considered rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. But it shall not be so among you. But whoever would be great among you must be your servant, and whoever would be first among you must be slave of all. For even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.“ (Mark 10:42-45 ESV)
FIRST IN JERUSALEM
What happened at Jerusalem? First reported church decision First act of organization Jerusalem conference Other early glimpses Observations
First reported ‘church’ decision Acts 1 12Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day's journey away. 13When they had entered the city, they went up to the upper room where they were staying; that is, [the Eleven Apostles]. 14These all with one mind were continually devoting themselves to prayer, along with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brothers. (continued)
First reported ‘church’ decision (Acts 1:12-26) 15At this time Peter stood up in the midst of the brethren (a gathering of about one hundred and twenty persons was there together), and said, 16"Brethren, the Scripture had to be fulfilled, which the Holy Spirit foretold by the mouth of David concerning Judas . . . . 24And they prayed and said, "You, Lord, who know the hearts of all men, show which one of these two You have chosen . . . .
The Eleven (Apostles) The Women Mary, Jesus’ mother Jesus’ brothers The 120 disciples _______________ DECISION-MAKING: persons near to Jesus grounded in Scripture divinely led
First act of ‘organization’
First act of ‘organization’ Admin. team appointed to meet need (Acts 6) 1Now at this time while the disciples were increasing in number, a complaint arose on the part of the Hellenistic Jews against the native Hebrews, because their widows were being overlooked in the daily serving of food. 2So the twelve summoned the congregation of the disciples and said, "It is not desirable for us to neglect the word of God in order to serve tables. (continued)
first act of ‘organization’ 3"Therefore, brethren, select from among you seven men (andres) of good reputation, full of the Spirit and of wisdom, whom we may put in charge of this task. 4"But we will devote ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the word." 5The statement found approval with the whole congregation; and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, and Philip, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenas and Nicolas, a proselyte from Antioch. 6And these they brought before the apostles; and after praying, they laid their hands on them.
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 1Some men came down from Judea and began teaching the brethren, "Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved." 2And when Paul and Barnabas had great dissension and debate with them, the brethren determined that Paul and Barnabas and some others of them should go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders concerning this issue. . . . 4When they arrived at Jerusalem, they were received by the church and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all that God had done with them . . . (continued)
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 6The apostles and the elders came together to look into this matter.” _____________________________________________ THE PROCESS 1. State present positions. 2. See what God is doing now. 3. Listen to Scripture afresh in that light. 4. Propose solution in keeping with gospel. 5. Obtain agreement. 6. Announce Spirit-led decision. _____________________________________________
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 1. State present positions . . . 7 After there had been much debate,
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 2. See what God is doing now . . . Peter stood up and said to them, "Brethren, you know that in the early days God made a choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles would hear the word of the gospel and believe. 8"And God, who knows the heart, testified to them giving them the Holy Spirit, just as He also did to us; 9and He made no distinction between us and them, cleansing their hearts by faith. . . .
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 2. See what God is doing now . . . 12 All the people kept silent, and they were listening to Barnabas and Paul as they were relating what signs and wonders God had done through them among the Gentiles.
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 3. Listen to Scripture afresh in that light . . . 13 After they had stopped speaking, James answered, saying, "Brethren, listen to me. 14"Simeon has related how God first concerned Himself about taking from among the Gentiles a people for His name. 15"With this the words of the Prophets agree, just as it is written [in Amos 9:11-12],
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 3. Listen to Scripture afresh in that light . . . 16 'After these things I will return, and I will rebuild the tabernacle of David which has fallen, and I will rebuild its ruins, and I will restore it, 17 so that the rest of mankind may seek the LORD, and all the Gentiles who are called by my name,’ 18 says the LORD, who makes these things known from long ago.’
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 4. Propose solution in keeping with gospel . . . 19 Therefore it is my judgment that we do not trouble those who are turning to God from among the Gentiles, 20but that we write to them that they abstain from things contaminated by idols and from fornication and from what is strangled and from blood . . . .
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 5. Obtain agreement . . . 22 Then it seemed good to the apostles and the elders, with the whole church, to choose men from among them to send to Antioch. . . [with] this letter … :
Jerusalem conference (Acts 15) 6. Announce Spirit-led decision . . . "The apostles and the brethren who are elders, to the brethren . . . from the Gentiles, greetings . . . 25 it seemed good to us, having become of one mind, to select men . . . who . . . will also report . . . by word of mouth. 28 "For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these essentials: 29 that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols and from blood and from things strangled and from fornication . . . .”
Other early glimpses ACTS 4 “32 And the congregation of those who believed were of one heart and soul; and . . . . all things were common property to them. 33And with great power the apostles were giving testimony to the resurrection of the Lord Jesus, and abundant grace was upon them all. 34For there was not a needy person among them, for all who were owners of land or houses would sell them and bring the proceeds of the sales 35and lay them at the apostles' feet, and they would be distributed to each as any had need.”
Other early glimpses ACTS 9 “26When [Saul] came to Jerusalem, he was trying to associate with the disciples; but they were all afraid of him, not believing that he was a disciple. 27But Barnabas took hold of him and brought him to the apostles and described to them how he had seen the Lord on the road, and that He had talked to him, and how at Damascus he had spoken out boldly in the name of Jesus. 28And he was with them, moving about freely in Jerusalem, speaking out boldly in the name of the Lord.”
Other early glimpses ACTS 11 29 So the disciples [in Antioch] determined, everyone according to his ability, to send relief to the brothers living in Judea. 30 And they did so, sending it to the elders by the hand of Barnabas and Saul.
Other early glimpses ACTS 12 17 But motioning to them with his hand to be silent, [Peter] described to them how the Lord had brought him out of the prison. And he said, “Tell these things to James and to the brothers.” Then he departed and went to another place.
Other early glimpses ACTS 21 17 When we had come to Jerusalem, the brothers received us gladly. 18 On the following day Paul went in with us to James, and all the elders were present. 19 After greeting them, he related one by one the things that God had done among the Gentiles through his ministry.
OBSERVATIONS FROM JERUSALEM Apostles James Elders Congregation the Seven
OBSERVATIONS FROM JERUSALEM APOSTLES * primarily witnesses/teachers * authority = moral, proximity to Jesus * no succession or transfer of position
OBSERVATIONS FROM JERUSALEM JAMES * brother of Jesus (James 1) and of Jude (Jude 1) * apostle -- not of 12 (Gal. 1:19) * authority = moral, proximity to Jesus * no succession or transfer of position
OBSERVATIONS FROM JERUSALEM ELDERS * mysteriously appear in Acts 11:30 * no explanation of appointment, qualities, work * disappear after Acts 15 (except in passing - 21:18) * apparently continued from Judaism
OBSERVATIONS FROM JERUSALEM CONGREGATION * involvement taken for granted * no mention of any majority vote
OBSERVATIONS FROM JERUSALEM OTHER (THE SEVEN) * ad hoc appointment, based on need * no precedent or provision mentioned * ‘qualifications’ spiritual and practical
VILLAGE/TRIBAL ELDERS (‘ALDERMEN’)
Village or tribal elders So Joseph went up to bury his father. With him went up all the servants of Pharaoh, the elders of his household, and all the elders of the land of Egypt (Gen. 50:7). Then Moses called all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go and select lambs for yourselves according to your clans, and kill the Passover lamb” (Ex. 12:21). You are standing today all of you before the LORD your God: the heads of your tribes, your elders, and your officers, all the men of Israel . . . (Deut. 29:10).
First-century Judaism's elders * Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem and said, “Why do your disciples break the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash their hands when they eat” (Matt. 15:1-2). * And [Jesus] began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders and the chief priests and the scribes and be killed, and after three days rise again (Mark 8:31). * On the next day their rulers and elders and scribes gathered together in Jerusalem (Acts 4:5).
NT communities – elders mentioned (*known Jewish presence) *Judea (Acts 11:30) *Jerusalem (Acts 15; 21:18) *unidentified Jewish community (James 5:14) *Iconium, Lystra, Derbe (Acts 14:23) *Ephesus (Acts 20:17; 1 Tim. 5:1-2, 17, 19) *Crete (Titus 1:5; 2:2-6) *Pontus , Galatia, *Cappadocia, *Asia, Bithynia (1 Peter 5:1-5) Unknown (2 John 1; 3 John 1)
NT communities - no elders mentioned Samaria Antioch Hebrews (locale ?) Corinth Philippi Thessalonica Rome
A SPIRITUAL FAMILY . . . are these generic terms or titles? “Do not sharply rebuke an older man (presbuter- os), but rather appeal to him as a father, to the younger men as brothers, the older women (presbuteras) as mothers, and the younger women as sisters, in all purity.” (1 Tim. 5:1-2)
A SPIRITUAL FAMILY (Titus 2:1-6) But as for you, teach what accords with healthy doctrine. Older men (presbutas) are to be sober-minded, dignified, self-controlled, sound in faith, in love, and in steadfastness. Older women (presbutidas) likewise are to be reverent in behavior, not slanderers or slaves to much wine. They are to teach what is good, and so train the young women. [Younger women] love their husbands and children, to be self-controlled, pure, working at home, kind, and submis-sive to their own husbands, that the word of God may not be reviled. Likewise, urge the younger men to be self-controlled.
functions of Christian elders (whether aldermen or seniors) general administrative oversight (Acts 11:30) general spiritual oversight (Acts 15; 21:18) oversee = watch, care for, help (Acts 20:28-35) rule = lit. preside -> word, teaching (1 Tim. 5:17) instruct, rebuke (Titus 1:9) anoint & pray for healing (James 5:14) shepherd, be example (1 Peter 5:1-5)
NT communities - no mention of elders Samaria Antioch Hebrews (locale ?) Corinth Philippi Thessalonica Rome
IF NOT ‘ELDERS,’ THEN WHAT? prophets & teachers (Acts 13:1ff) leaders (Heb. 13:7, 17 - hegoumenos) administrations (Rom. 12:28 - cuberneseis) servants, ministers, deacons (Phil. 1:1 - diakonos) overseers, bishops (Phil. 1:1 - episkopos) co-worker (Rom. 16:3 - synergos) those who have charge over you (1Thes. 5:12 - prohistamenos) -- one who leads (Rom. 12:8 - prohistamenos) -- leader, patroness, helper (Rom. 16:2 - prostatis)
Functions performed prophets = speak word from God (local & temporary) teachers = explain & apply gospel and scripture leaders (hegoumenos) = lead administration (cuberneseis) = steer, govern, administer servants, ministers, deacons (diakonos) = serve overseers, bishops (episkopos) = watch over, oversee co-worker (synergos) = Pauline associates those who have charge over (prohistamenos) = preside, govern, provide for
Paul’s favorite metaphor for God’s people is “the BODY of Christ.” Always “member” of the BODY Never “member” of the CHURCH A LIVING ORGANISM -- NOT AN ORGANIZATION SPIRIT-GIVEN
Summary:church leadershiptop three truths Spiritual leadership involves lowly service, not legal power. Spiritual leaders exercise grace-gifts, not worldly qualifications. Bible identifies people to acknowledge, not technical qualifications for office.
1. Spiritual leadership involves lowly service, not legal power. CAUTION: Do not confuse spiritual leadership with political position.
1. Spiritual leadership involves lowly service, not legal power. JESUS STATES IT – ”And Jesus called them to him and said to them, ‘You know that those who are considered rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. But it shall not be so among you. But whoever would be great among you must be your servant, and whoever would be first among you must be slave of all. For even the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.’” (Mk. 10:42-45)
1. Spiritual leadership involves lowly service, not legal power. PETER APPLIES IT – “So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, as well as a partaker in the glory that is going to be revealed: shepherd the flock of God that is among you, exercising oversight, not under compulsion, but willingly, as God would have you; not for shameful gain, but eagerly; not domineering over those in your charge, but being examples to the flock. And when the chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory. Likewise, you who are younger, be subject to the i Clothe yourselves, all of you, with humility toward one another, for ‘God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.’” (1 Peter 5:1-5)
1. Spiritual leadership involves lowly service, not legal power. PAUL DESCRIBES IT – when correcting ___________________ “Do not rebuke an older man but encourage him as you would a father, younger men as brothers, older women as mothers, younger women as sisters, in all purity.” (1 Tim. 5:1-2)
1. Spiritual leadership involves lowly service, not legal power. PAUL DESCRIBES IT – when controversy arises ___________________ Have nothing to do with foolish, ignorant controversies; you know that they breed quarrels. And the Lord's servant must not be quarrelsome but kind to everyone, able to teach, patiently enduring evil, correcting his opponents with gentleness. God may perhaps grant them repentance leading to a knowledge of the truth, and they may come to their senses and escape from the snare of the devil, after being captured by him to do his will. (2 Tim. 2:23-26)
1. Spiritual leadership involves lowly service, not legal power. PAUL DESCRIBES IT – when dealing with divisive person ___________________ “But avoid foolish controversies, genealogies, dissensions, and quarrels about the law, for they are unprofitable and worthless. As for a person who stirs up division, after warning him once and then twice, have nothing more to do with him, knowing that such a person is warped and sinful; he is self-condemned.” (Titus 3:9-11)
2. Spiritual leaders exercise grace- gifts, not worldly qualifications. CAUTION: Do not focus on worldly achievements when choosing leaders.
2. Spiritual leaders exercise grace-gifts, not worldly qualifications. SO UNDERSTAND YOUR OWN MINISTRY – “For by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think with sober judgment, each according to the measure of faith that God has assigned. For as in one body we have many members, and the members do not all have the same function, so we, though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. Having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let us use them: . . . the one who teaches, in his teaching; the one who exhorts, in his exhortation; the one who leads, with zeal; the one who does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness” (Rom. 12:3-8)
2. Spiritual leaders exercise grace-gifts, not worldly qualifications. SO VIEW OTHER BELIEVERS – “Now you are the body of Christ and individually members of it. And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helping, administrating (cyberneseis), and various kinds of tongues” (1 Cor. 12:27-28)
2. Spiritual leaders exercise grace-gifts, not worldly qualifications. BE A FAITHFUL STEWARD FOR GOD’S GLORY – “As each has received a gift, use it to serve one another, as good stewards of God's varied grace: whoever speaks, as one who speaks oracles of God; whoever serves, as one who serves by the strength that God supplies—in order that in everything God may be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.” (1 Peter 4:10-11)
3. Bible identifies gifted people, not legal qualifications. CAUTION: Do not confuse technical ‘qualifications’ with spiritual character.
3. Bible identifies gifted people, not legal qualifications. -- NO ONE PICTURE – 1 Timothy 3 Titus 1 Service title overseer, seniors, (bishop) (elders) Descriptives 15 comments 16 comments only five descriptives exactly same * One-woman man * self-controlled * hospitable * not a drunkard * not violent
3. Bible identifies gifted people, not legal qualifications. HALF OF DESCRIPTIONS ARE EXPRESSED NEGATIVELY – MOST ARE RELATIVE TERMS (1 Tim. 3:1-7) above reproach not a drunkard one-woman man not violent sober-minded gentle self-controlled not quarrelsome respectable not a lover of money hospitable manages household well able to teach not a recent convert well thought of by outsiders
church leadership:top three truths Spiritual leadership involves lowly service, not legal power. Spiritual leaders exercise grace-gifts, not worldly qualifications. Bible identifies people to acknowledge, not technical qualifications for office.
END OF FIRST TOPIC
WOMEN IN THE NEW TESTAMENT (CHURCH)
Evangelical Christians disagree Complementarian Hierarchical view compleMENtarian The Council on Biblical Manhood & Womanhood www.cbmw.org John MacArthur, Lane Dennis, Beverly LaHaye, F. LaGard Smith, Hudson Armerding, J.I. Packer Egalitarian Total gender equality eGALitarian Christians for Biblical Equality www.cbeinternational.org Tony Campolo, Richard Foster, Ward Gasque, Gordon Fee, Roger Nicole, Aida B. Spencer
JESUS AND WOMEN (worth & work) _____________________________________ Anna announced infant Jesus as Messiah Women companions/sponsors in ministry Mary of Bethany a rabbinic pupil Women first to witness the tomb empty Mary Magdalene first to see Risen Jesus Mary Magdalene first ‘apostle’ to apostle
JESUS AND WOMEN (worth & work) Anna announced infant Jesus as Messiah (Luke 2) 36 And there was a prophetess, Anna, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. She was advanced in years, having lived with her husband seven years from when she was a virgin, 37 and then as a widow until she was eighty-four. She did not depart from the temple, worshiping with fasting and prayer night and day. 38 And coming up at that very hour she began to give thanks to God and to speak of him to all who were waiting for the redemption of Jerusalem.
JESUS AND WOMEN (worth & work) Women companions/sponsors in ministry (Luke 8) 1 Soon afterward he went on through cities and villages, proclaiming and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. And the twelve were with him, 2 and also some women who had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, 3 and Joanna, the wife of Chuza, Herod's household manager, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their means.
JESUS AND WOMEN (worth & work) Mary of Bethany a rabbinic pupil (Luke 10) 38 Now as they went on their way, Jesus entered a village. And a woman named Martha welcomed him into her house. 39 And she had a sister called Mary, who sat at the Lord's feet and listened to his teaching. 40 But Martha was distracted with much serving. And she went up to him and said, “Lord, do you not care that my sister has left me to serve alone? Tell her then to help me.” 41 But the Lord answered her, “Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things, 42 but one thing is necessary. Mary has chosen the good portion, which will not be taken away from her.”
"She is ‘sitting at his feet’; a phrase which doesn’t mean what it would mean today, the adoring student gazing up in admiration and love at the wonderful teacher. As is clear from the use of the phrase elsewhere in the NT (for instance, Paul with Gamaliel), to sit at the teacher’s feet is a way of saying you are being a student, picking up the teacher’s wisdom and learning; and in that very practical world you wouldn’t do this just for the sake of informing your own mind and heart, but in order to be a teacher, a rabbi, yourself. Like much in the gospels, this story is left cryptic as far as we at least are concerned, but I doubt if any first-century reader would have missed the point.“ -- N.T. Wright, "Women’s Service in the Church: The Biblical Basis,“ St John’s College, Durham, England (September 4, 2004).
JESUS AND WOMEN (worth & work) Mary Magdalene first to see Risen Jesus (John 20) 11 But Mary stood weeping outside the tomb, and as she wept she stooped to look into the tomb. 12 And she saw two angels in white, sitting where the body of Jesus had lain, one at the head and one at the feet. 13 They said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping?” She said to them, “They have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him.” 14 Having said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing, but she did not know that it was Jesus. (continued)
JESUS AND WOMEN (worth & work) . . . first to see Risen Jesus 15 Jesus said to her, “Woman, why are you weeping? Whom are you seeking?” Supposing him to be the gardener, she said to him, “Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away.” 16 Jesus said to her, “Mary.” She turned and said to him in Aramaic, “Rabboni!” (which means Teacher).
JESUS AND WOMEN (worth & work) Mary Magdalene first ‘apostle’ to the apostles (John 20) 17 Jesus said to her, “Do not cling to me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brothers and say to them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God.’” 18 Mary Magdalene went and announced to the disciples, “I have seen the Lord”—and that he had said these things to her.
CONSIDER CONTEMPORARY ATTITUDE “Put not trust in a single witness, but let there be three or at least two, whose evidence shall be accredited by their past lives. From women let no evidence be accepted because of the triviality and rashness of their sex; neither let a slave bear witness because of the baseness of their soul, since whether from greed or fear it is likely that they will not attest the truth. -- Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 4.219.
WOMEN IN THE WRITINGS OF PAUL
PAULINE PRINCIPLE Galatians 3 27 For as many of you as were baptized into Christ have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.
Apostle (?) Apostolic co-workers and laborers Spirit-filled prophets Spirit-filled pray-ers Leader, ruler, patron Teacher Deacon/minister Mentors/trainers Spiritual mother SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Apostle (?) – Junia Rom. 16:7 -- Greet Andronicus and Junia, my relatives and my fellow prisoners, who are outstanding among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. ________________ 1. Junias (masc.) = ASV, NASB, RSV, HCSB, NIV 2. Junia (feminine) = KJV, NKJV, NRSV, ESV, TNIV
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Apostle (?) – Junia “Greet Andronicus and Junia . . . who are outstanding among the apostles” (Romans 16:7): To be an apostle is something great. But to be outstanding among the apostles—just think what a wonderful song of praise that is! They were outstanding on the basis of their works and virtuous actions. Indeed, how great the wisdom of this woman must have been that she was even deemed worthy of the title of apostle. - John Chrysostom (344/54-407)
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Apostolic fellow-worker & laborer Rom. 16:3 – Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus . . . Phil. 4:3 – Yes, I ask you also, true companion, help these women, who have labored side by side with me in the gospel together with Clement and the *rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life. *Timothy (Rom. 16:21) *Mark (Phil. 4:10) *Titus (2 Cor. 8:2-3) *Luke (Philemon 24)
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Apostolic fellow-worker & laborer 1 Cor. 16:15 – Now I urge you, brothers — you know that the household of Stephanas were the first converts in Achaia, and that they have devoted themselves to the service of the saints— 16 be subject to such as these, and to every fellow-worker and laborer.
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Spirit-filled prophets 1 Cor. 11:5 -- but every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head . . .
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Spirit-filled pray-ers 1 Cor. 11:5 -- but every woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonors her head . . .
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Leader, ruler, patron Rom. 16:1 -- I commend to you our sister Phoebe . . . 2 that you may welcome her in the Lord in a way worthy of the saints, and help her in whatever she may need from you, for she has been a patron [prostatis] of many and of myself as well.
PROSTATIS Feminine form found only here in Bible. Lit. = Presider, president, leader, patron, provider. O.T. = This noun (masc. form) is used of “supervisors of the king’s work” (1 Chron. 29:6) and of men “who worked for Solomon as supervisors” (2 Chron. 8:10). N.T. = Verb used for “those who have charge over” (1Thes. 5:12 -proistamenos) and of “one who leads” (Rom. 12:8 –proistamenos).
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Teacher Acts 18:24 -- Now a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, came to Ephesus. He was an eloquent man, competent in the Scriptures. 25 He had been instructed in the way of the Lord. And being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, though he knew only the baptism of John. 26 He began to speak boldly in the synagogue, but when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him and explained to him the way of God more accurately.
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Deacon/Minister – Phoebe Rom. 16:1 -- I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a servant [diakonos] of the church at Cenchreae . . .
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Mentors/trainers Titus 2:3-5 -- Older women likewise are to be reverent in behavior, not slanderers or slaves to much wine. They are to teach what is good, 4 and so train the young women to love their husbands and children, 5 to be self-controlled, pure, working at home, kind, and submissive to their own husbands, that the word of God may not be reviled.
SOME WOMEN IN THE EARLY CHURCH Mothers Rom. 16:13 -- Greet Rufus, chosen in the Lord; also his mother, who has been a mother to me as well.
What about 1 Cor. 14:34-35? CORINTH
1 Corinthians 14 Paul tells three unruly groups to zip the lip. 1. 27 If any speak in a tongue, let there be only two or at most three, and each in turn, and let someone interpret. 28 But if there is no one to interpret, let each of them keep silent (sigao) in church and speak to himself and to God.
1 Corinthians 14 Paul tells three unruly groups to zip the lip. 2. 29 Let two or three prophets speak, and let the others weigh what is said. 30 If a revelation is made to another sitting there, let the first be silent (sigao) . . . . 33 For God is not a God of confusion but of peace.
1 Corinthians 14 Paul tells three unruly groups to zip the lip. 3. 34 the women should keep silent (sigao) in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be in submission, as the Law also says. 35 If there is anything they desire to learn, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for a woman to speak in church.
What about 1 Tim. 2? EPHESUS
1 Timothy 2 – Setting Timothy at Ephesus to rebut false teaching (1 Tim. 1:3). Involved something “falsely called knowledge (gnosis)” (1 Tim. 6:20). Speculations and myths concerning the Law of Moses (1 Tim. 1:4-7). Targeted church women (2 Tim. 3:6-7), perhaps spread by young widows (1 Tim. 5:11-13). Forbidding marriage (1 Tim. 4:3). Requiring abstinence from certain foods (1 Tim. 4:3). Resurrection spiritualized and said to be past (2 Tim. 2:17-18).
1 Timothy 2 – Vocabulary & Translation 8 I wish therefore to pray the men in every place the men should pray, lifting holy hands without anger or quarreling; 9 likewise also that women should adorn themselves in respec-table apparel, with modesty and self-control, not with braided hair and gold or pearls or costly attire, 10 but with what is proper for women who profess godliness—with good works.” __________ In this reading, as in 1 Corinthians 11, men and women alike are praying. Paul corrects the men’s attitudes, and the women’s clothing and demeanor, to commend and enhance the gospel .
1 Timothy 2 – Vocabulary & Translation Throughout 1 Tim. 2:8-15, the words translated “man” (aner) and “woman” (gyne) also mean “husband” and “wife.” _____________ At times, a generic reading (“man” and “woman”) seems to fit better. However, the background of the particular false teaching at Ephesus, plus Paul’s references to Adam and Eve, suggest that the focus is on the husband/wife relationship throughout this passage.
1 Timothy 2 – Vocabulary & Translation “11 Let a woman learn quietly with all submissiveness. 12 I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet.” _______________ The underlined words both translate a Greek word (hesychia) which means “quietness” rather than “silence.” Paul uses the adjective form of the same word (hesychios) in verse 2, “. . . that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life.” See also 2 Thess. 3:12, where Paul commands believers “to do their work quietly (hesychia) and to earn their own living.”
1 Timothy 2 – Vocabulary & Translation “12 I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet.” _______________ The verb Paul usually uses to express the idea of having authority is exousiazein. Here, however, Paul uses a verb that occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. It is a very strong verb (authentein) that means “to domineer,” “to overthrow, usurp authority,” “to act as a tyrant,” “to willfully enforce for oneself.” The noun in the same word family (authentes), meant in classical Greek either a “murderer” or an “absolute ruler.”
1 Timothy 2 – Vocabulary & Translation “12 I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet.” _______________ Dr. Carroll Osburn (Women in the Church, 246-252), urges that the second verb underlined above explains the verb before it. This has Paul saying: “I do not permit a woman to teach domineeringly over a man.” Or perhaps, “I do not permit a wife to teach domineeringly over a husband.” This could reflect the situation at Ephesus, where some women/ wives reject marriage and declare themselves totally independent of men/ husbands, based on false “knowledge” or gnosis.
equal? timeless? universal? 1. I urge that . . . Prayers . . . be made . . . for kings 2. I desire . . . Men . . . pray, lifting holy hands 3. Women adorn selves . . . not with braided hair 4. and gold . . . or pearls . . . or costly attire 5. Let a woman learn quietly with all submissiveness 6. I do not permit (here? now?) a woman to teach 7. or to exercise authority over a man 8. rather, she is to remain quiet 9. Yet she will be saved through childbearing