Conserving Crop Diversity Forever

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World Agriculture Facing its biggest challenge ever, due to population growth and climate change We need to find game changers 2

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Rice Plus 1?C could result in a decrease of yield by 10% Plus 2?C is potentially catastrophic New diseases as a consequence of a changing weather We need to make crops climate ready 3

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UN Sustainable Development Goals Proposed goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture 2.5:  by 2020 maintain genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants, farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at national, regional and international levels, and ensure access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge as internationally agreed Crop diversity is a prerequisite for food security 4

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Diversity 200,000 varieties of rice 120,000 varieties of wheat 4,500 varieties of potatoes 35,000 varieties of finger millet 3,000 varieties of coconut All are important because one might have the trait to increase nutritious value, fight disease, adapt to new climates, or produce higher yields 5

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Loss of diversity Spain: had 400 melon varieties in 1970, only 12 today China: lost 90% of rice varieties since 1950 Mexico: lost 80% of corn varieties since 1900 India: lost 90% of rice varieties since 1900 USA: lost 90% of fruit and vegetable varieties since 1900 Genetic uniformity creates vulnerability – resilience require options – options require diversity 6

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The Crop Trust work… to ensure the conservation and availability of crop diversity for food security worldwide 7

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Crop diversity – a global common good Crop diversity = breeders’ raw material 8

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The objective… is a cost-effective, rational, and global system for the conservation of crop diversity 9 Picture: Neil Palmer/CIAT

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Svalbard Global Seed Vault 801 752 varieties stored in the vault The ultimate safety back-up 10

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11 CGIAR Genebanks 12

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Rescued Crops Worldwide 59,429 seed and 13,615 vegetative accessions in 226 collections managed by 84 institutes in 71 countries 12 000 varieties lost -we were too late -lost forever

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Crop Wild Relatives Tough — with traits not found in domesticated varieties Broadening the gene pool to search for useful traits 14

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Untapped opportunities Vast pool of genetic resources in genebanks represent a treasure trove for crop improvement 15

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Genebanks used – but not effectively

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Genebanks - supermarket 17

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Applying cutting edge technology 18

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Labeling the cans We can label all the genebank cans with rich information (disease, drought, nutrition, storage, yield), speed up breeding processes, make plants more resilient/climate ready and contribute substantially to food security

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Genebank database caos 7 million accessions in 1700 genebanks > 2 million unique accessions Lots of genebank databases, not all online Characterization and evaluation data linked to accessions not easily available Let alone genotypic data Like finding a needle in a haystack

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GeneSys: A step forward Single online portal global gateway to genetic resources 2.7 million accessions 300 genebanks: US, Europe, CGIAR Passport data Some morphological characterization and evaluation data Not enough...

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The genomics revolution Large-scale sequencing/genotyping efforts of genebank collections: Seeds of Discovery (CIMMYT, Mexico) 120,000 wheat; 27,500 maize 3,000 rice accessions (BGI, CAAS, IRRI) then 100,000 (whole collection) Cassava collection (CIAT, Colombia) National initiatives Lots more no doubt coming...

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many stakeholders, many relevant past and ongoing projects trait data sequence data passport data Wheat Rice Maize Beans Bananas Potatoes Barley Cassava Forages Stakeholders and partners CWR CWR CWR CWR CWR

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DivSeek DivSeek will mine the wealth of genetic resources to enhance food and nutritional security Provide a common platform for sharing information and learning from each other

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DivSeek value propositions link large-scale sequencing and phenotyping data to publicly available germplasm simple, standardized formats and associated analysis tools data shared according to agreed common standards and in form easily digestible by breeders and other genebank users unified, coordinated and cohesive information management platform to provide easy access to genotypic and phenotypic data associated with genebank germplasm.

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Recent progress Release of white paper and website www.divseek.org Importance underlined at the Third Meeting of G20 Agricultural Chief Scientists

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The Endowment Fund The Crop Diversity Fund (CDF) Endowment today $170 M 2014 27

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The Crop Diversity Fund (CDF) Endowment today Planned endowment size by 2018 $170 M $850 M 2014 2018 28 $500 M 2015 2018

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Burdensharing 29 To date, 14 country donors have pledged the bulk of the endowment funding -- among them: Australia, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

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30 Thank you www.croptrust.org

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The DivSeek process Community-driven process: various consultations over past 2 years, facilitated by Crop Trust White Paper: Strategic road-map (see www.divseek.org) Expressions of interest are to be circulated Development of governance structure Establishment of technical working group on standard setting and best practices Facilitation Unit hosted by Crop Trust - joint implementation with the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture with inputs by CGIAR consortium office and the Global Plant Council