Субнациональные системы учета и сокращения выбросов парниковых газов

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Санковский А.Г. ICF International 2 октября 2009 icfi.com © 2006 ICF International. All rights reserved. Субнациональные системы учета и сокращения выбросов парниковых газов

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Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is the first mandatory, market-based effort in the United States to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ten Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states will cap and then reduce CO2 emissions from the power sector 10% by 2018. States will sell emission allowances through auctions and invest proceeds in consumer benefits: energy efficiency, renewable energy, and other clean energy technologies. RGGI will spur innovation in the clean energy economy and create green jobs in each state. A special web portal provides an official user platform, state applications, and materials for participants in RGGI, as well as current information about the status of RGGI auctions and state rules. 

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Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) – cont’d The ten states participating in RGGI -- Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont The authority of the individual states is the basis for the RGGI CO2 Budget Trading Programs. Through independent rules and/or regulations (based on the "Model Rule") each state limits emissions of CO2 from electric power plants, creates CO2 allowances and establishes participation in CO2 allowance auctions. Regulated power plants can use a CO2 allowance issued by any of the ten participating states to demonstrate compliance with an individual state program. In this manner, the ten state programs, in aggregate, function as a single regional compliance market for CO2 emissions. For more information, please consult "State Regulations."

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Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) – cont’d A RGGI CO2 offset allowance represents a project-based greenhouse gas emission reduction outside of the capped electric power generation sector. At this time, the RGGI participating states limit the award offset allowances to five project categories, each of which is designed to reduce or sequester emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) within the 10-state region. Offsets are an important component of each state's CO2 Budget Trading Program. By recognizing CO2-equivalent emissions reductions and carbon sequestration outside the capped sector, offsets provide compliance flexibility and create opportunities for low-cost emissions reductions and other co-benefits across sectors. The RGGI participating states cooperatively developed prescriptive regulatory requirements for each of the five offset categories. These requirements ensure that awarded CO2 offset allowances represent CO2-equivalent emissions reductions or carbon sequestration that is real, additional, verifiable, enforceable, and permanent. All offset projects must be located within one of the RGGI participating states. CO2 offset allowances may be used to satisfy a limited portion of a regulated power plant's compliance obligation. Initially, the use of CO2 offset allowances is constrained to 3.3 percent of a power plant's total compliance obligation during a control period, though this may be expanded to 5 percent and 10 percent if certain CO2 allowance price thresholds are reached. This section of the website is designed to act as a resource for general information on the offset component of state CO2 Budget Trading Programs and as a portal for offset project sponsors and independent verifiers to access the instructions and materials needed to submit relevant project and accreditation applications.

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Connecticut Greenhouse Gas Emissions Targets On June 2, 2008, Connecticut Governor Jodi Rell signed into law House Bill 5600, which sets a statewide Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction target of 10 percent below 1990 levels by 2020.  Additionally, barring intervention at the federal level or through the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), the act requires an 80 percent GHG reduction below 2001 levels by 2050.  The act also presents a timetable for achieving the 2020 reductions: it calls for a statewide GHG inventory to be published by December 2009; modeling scenario results by July 2010; and recommended GHG reduction strategies by July 2011.   Connecticut is one of ten states participating in RGGI, which is set to launch a regional CO2 cap-and-trade program on January 1, 2009.

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California Climate Action Registry The California Climate Action Registry is a private non-profit organization originally formed by the State of California. The California Registry serves as a voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) registry to protect and promote early actions to reduce GHG emissions by organizations. The California Registry provides leadership on climate change by developing and promoting credible, accurate, and consistent GHG reporting standards and tools for organizations to measure, monitor, third-party verify and reduce their GHG emissions consistently across industry sectors and geographical borders.   California Registry members voluntarily measure, verify, and publicly report their GHG emissions, are leaders in their respective industry sectors, and are actively participating in solving the challenge of climate change. In turn, the State of California offers its best efforts to ensure that California Registry members receive appropriate consideration for early actions in light of future state, federal or international GHG regulatory programs. Registry members are well prepared to participate in market based solutions and upcoming regulatory requirements.   The California Registry is regarded as a leading international thought center on climate change issues and an intersection where business, government and environmental organizations meet to work together to implement practical and effective solutions.

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Mexico City Climate Action Plan Reduce seven million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent between 2008-2012 Initiate a climate change adaptation program, and have it in full operation by 2012 26 GHG emissions mitigation actions 5.6 billion dollars budget required Reduction of 4,4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year, 12% of the GHG emissions of Mexico City 12 climate change adaptation actions and 299 million dollars required

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Mexico City Climate Action Plan (cont’d) STANDARD FOR THE MANDATORY USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN NEW COMMERCIAL ESTABLISHMENTS Conversion to city busses to gas -- during 2007 – 2008: there is an estimated reduction of 50,000 tons of CO2eq – CDM project

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Возможности субнационального подхода в Украине Использовать передовой международный опыт – в том числе создание благоприятных условий для внешних и внутренних инвестиций Активно использовать программные подходы в ПСО – энергосбережение в домах, офисах, сбор и сортировка мусора, траспорт (биотопливо, газ, и пр.) Привлечение Схемы Зеленых Инвестиций по согласованию с покупателем Активнее использовать сектор землепользования: При правильном ведении севооборота и противоэрозионных мерах накопление углерода в почве составляет от 1 до 5 тонн (в СО2экв) на га в год Возможность объединения хозяйств в рамках программного подхода Пилотный участок заложен в Беловодском р-не (село Гармашовка, КФХ «Гарант») при доддержке проекта Тасис по степям Внедрение мероприятий проекта на уровне области дает более 1 млн тонн сокращений выбросов в год

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БОЛЬШОЕ СПАСИБО! Алексей Санковский Региональный Директор по Климату и Энергетике ICF-EKO (группа компаний ICF International) mob: +7 916 329 2848 office: +7 495 250 0615 asankovski@icfi.com www.icfi.com