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Reported Speech Косвенная речь
Sequence of TensesПравило согласования времен Если в главном предложении сказуемое выражено глаголом в прошедшем времени, то и в придаточном оно должно употребляться в одном из прошедших времен. Действует в придаточных предложениях, чаще изъяснительных (дополнительных).
Правило не действует 1. В определительных, причинных и сравнительных придаточных предложениях. She told me about the book which you are reading now. He didn’t go to the disco as he will have an exam tomorrow. It was not so cold yesterday as it is today. 2. Когда глагол выражает общеизвестный факт. Galileo proved that the earth moves round the sun. 3. В сослагательном наклонении. It is (was) necessary that he send us the document. 4. Не изменяются глаголы must, should, ought. I told him that he should consult a doctor.
Говорим о настоящем (происходящем одновременно с действием в главном предложении) “I go to school”. “He is reading now” “She has done her homework”. “We have been watching TV for 2 hours”. He said (that) he went to school. he was reading at that moment. she had done her homework. they had been watching TV for 2 hours.
Говорим о будущем “I will go to school” “He will be reading at 2 o’clock tomorrow” “She will have done her homework by 2 o’clock tomorrow” “We will have been watching TV for 2 hours tomorrow” He said (that) he would go to school. he would be reading at 2 o’clock next day. she would have done her home- work by 2 o’clock next day. they would have been watching TV for 2 hours next day.
Говорим о прошлом (действии предшествующем действию главного предложения) “I went to school yesterday”. “He was reading at 2 o’clock yesterday” “She had done her homework by 2 o’clock yesterday”. “We had been watching TV for 2 hours yesterday”. He said (that) he had gone to school the day before. he had been reading at 2 o’clock the day before. She had done her homework by 2 o’clock the day before. they had been watching TV for 2 hours the day before”.
Алгоритм перевода специального вопроса в косвенную речь Вопросительное слово становится союзом. Меняется порядок слов (подлежащее, потом сказуемое). Согласовывается время глагола.
Специальный вопрос в косвенной речи “What is your name? With whom did you go there? What book will you read tomorrow? He asked (1) what (2) his name (3) was. with whom she had gone there. what book they would read next day.
Общий вопрос в косвенной речи (следуем предыдущему алгоритму, но с союзом if) “Is he a student?” “Will she go to school tomorrow?” “Have you been to London?” He asked if he was a student. if she would go to school next day. if I had been to London.
Повелительное наклонение в косвенной речи Stand up! Go to the blackboard! Give me a book, please. He told me to stand up. Он велел мне встать. She told him to go to the blackboad. Она велела ему идти к доске. I asked her to give me a book. Я попросила ее дать мне книгу.
Передай диалог в косвенной речи Mum: Tom, wake up! It’s time to go to school. Tom: I have already woken up, mum. I’m washing in the bathroom. Mum: Did you do you homework yesterday? Tom: Tim helped me to do it. I think I’ll get a five today. Mum: Hurry up! You mustn’t be late. How many lessons do you have today? Tom: Five. Can I take the book which you are reading now? Mum: You would better read it at home in the evening. Tom: Bye-bye, Mum.