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HUNGARY

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HUNGARY


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Potential of Hungary Population (2002) – 10 166 000 Square – 93 000 sq. km Main fossils minerals: Coal Bauxite Copper ore Zinc ore Manganese ore


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RUSSIA


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Potential of Russia Population (2002) – 143 700 000. Square – 17 075 000 sc km Main fossils minerals:


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Initial conditions Hungary economy Structure was “normal” Strong state institutions Average education and scientific potential Institution of private property Postindustrial stage (the beginning) Relations with foreign countries Shortage Russian economy Structural disproportions Weak state institutions High education and scientific potential Absence institution of private property Industrial stage Release the resources from Defence sector Shortage


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Reform policy Hungary The beginning of transformations in 1968 Gradual liberalization of prices since 1980s Realization stabilization program (1990) Russia Rebuilding (1980s) Reform of enterprises: economic accountability and self-repayment Cooperative movement Trying reformation of state institution


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Reform policy (continued) External privatization with foreign capital (since 1991) Active stimulation of investment Liberalization of prices and foreign trade (since 1992) Privatization (since 1992) Voucher and internal privatization (stage 1) Monetary privatization (stage 2) Stabilization (1995-1998)


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Macroeconomic indicators (Hungry)


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Macroeconomic indicators (Russia)


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GDP structure


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Human developments


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Dynamics of HDI


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Monetary indicators


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Reform summary (pluses) Hungary Ужесточение бюджетных ограничений на предприятиях Преодоление трансформационного спада Russia Формирование частного сектора Ликвидация дефицита Формирование рынка труда


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Reform summary (minuses) Hungary Бюджетный дефицит из-за крупных платежей по процентам МФО Трудности долгосрочного кредитования из-за преобладания иностранных банков Russia Бегство капитала Рост доли теневой экономики и коррупции Инфляционный налог на средства население Финансовый кризис 1998


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Web-publications World Bank International Monetary Fund UN National Bank of Hungary Банк России Госкомстат Сайты правительств России и Венгрии Yandex Rambler Апорт Yahoo


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AUTHORS: ELENA Soboleva EVGENIYA Nehoda MIKHAIL Vinogradov VADIM Shuravko


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