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Unit 3

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Unit 3 2007-10-23


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Outline Conjunctions (и, а, но?) Numbers Present tense pseudo-quiz The single-stem verb system Learn to conjugate verbs by memorizing only one form (Okay, and a few rules)


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The conjunctions и, а, and но? Three conjunctions that correspond to the two English conjunctions ‘and’ and ‘but’ но? is stressed, the other two are unstressed Always write a comma before но? and а Do not write a comma before и (most of the time) Never use a “serial comma” Ivan, Dmitrij, and Fedor live in Moscow. Ivan, Dmitrij and Fedor live in Moscow. Ива?н, Дми?трий и Фёдор живу?т в Москве?.


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и и combines two things that are alike, with no expression of contrast or contradiction Мы? чита?ем и пи?шем хорошо?. The subject is the same (мы?) and we do both things well. The only difference is that there are two activities. Мы? пи?шем хорошо? и вы? пи?шете хорошо?. The activity is the same (writing) and everyone does it well. The only difference is that there are two subjects.


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но? но? implies contradiction One clause sets up an expectation that is then frustrated in the other Мы? пи?шем хорошо?, но? ме?дленно. Most people who write well don’t have to qualify such a statement by adding that they have to do it slowly. Good writing suggests writing at a normal speed, so having to do it slowly frustrates the normal expectation. Usually one difference (“we” and “write” are constant, but the adverb [“well”/“slowly”] changes)


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а а implies contrast, but not contradiction Мы? пи?шем хорошо?, а вы? пи?шете пло?хо. On the one hand, we write well, but, on the other hand, you write poorly We write well, whereas you write poorly. There is no expectation that if we write well, you should also write well (that is, there is no contradiction) Reversing the order of the clauses doesn’t change the meaning Usually two differences (“write” is constant, but “we”/“you” and “well”/“poorly” varies)


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Conjunction practice Ма?ма говори?т по-ру?сски ___ па?па говори?т по-ру?сски. Ма?ма говори?т по-ру?сски и па?па говори?т по-ру?сски. Мама говори?т по-ру?сски ___ она? не чита?ет по-ру?сски. Мама говори?т по-ру?сски, но? она? не чита?ет по-ру?сски. Ма?ма говори?т по-ру?сски ___ па?па говори?т по-англи?йски. Ма?ма говори?т по-ру?сски а па?па говори?т по-англи?йски. Ма?ма говори?т по-ру?сски но? па?па говори?т по-англи?йски.


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New numbers You already know 0–10, the teens, 20, 30, 40, and 50 This unit adds 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, which lets you count up to 199 Form compound numbers in Russian as you do in English (but with no hyphens) String the pieces together One hundred twenty-eight = сто? два?дцать во?семь Practice in recitation


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Learning numbers Memorize 0–10 Teens sound like the units value plus –надцать оди?ннадцать, двена?дцать, трина?дцать, … 20 and 30 sound like the units value plus –дцать два?дцать, три?дцать 50, 60, 70, 80 sound like the units value plus –десят (note: no soft sign at the end) пятьдеся?т, шестьдеся?т, се?мьдесят, во?семьдесят Memorize 40, 90, and 100, which are peculiar со?рок девяно?сто сто?


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Numbers and the soft sign Numbers never have more than one soft sign Numbers through 30 with a soft sign have the soft sign at the end пя?ть, ше?сть, се?мь, во?семь, де?вять оди?ннадцать, двена?дцать, трина?дцать, … де?сять, два?дцать, три?дцать Numbers from 50 up with a soft sign have the soft sign in the middle пятьдеся?т, шестьдеся?т, се?мьдесят, во?семьдесят


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How to use numbers Surprisingly, numbers are not normally followed by the nominative plural (!) Numbers are normally followed by case forms we haven’t learned yet (coming in Unit 6) Notice SAM, p. 57, ex. Б, with different forms of the word for “ruble” after different numbers This means that we don’t yet know how to count things We do know how to recognize telephone numbers, addresses, prices, etc. We don’t know how to say “I have six cats and four dogs”


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Present tense pseudo-quiz In the ёт conjugation, when do we write –у (e.g., я? пишу?, они? пи?шут) and when do we write –ю (e.g., я? зна?ю, они? зна?ют)? It depends on the place of stress. It depends on whether there is a /j/ sound before the ending. It depends on whether the other forms have е or ё. It must be memorized for each verb.


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Present tense pseudo-quiz In –ёт conjugation verbs, when do we write ё (e.g., о?н живёт) and when do we write е (e.g., о?н пи?шет)? It depends on the place of stress. It depends on whether there is a /j/ sound before the ending. It depends on whether the они? form uses –ут or –ят. It must be memorized for each verb.


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Present tense pseudo-quiz What is the difference in stress patterns between conjugation type (–ёт vs –ит) and stress? –ит conjugation verbs always have mobile stress. –ёт conjugation verbs always have end stress. –ит conjugation verbs always have end stress. There is no correlation between conjugation type and stress.


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Present tense pseudo-quiz In –ит conjugation verbs, when is the ending for the я? form –у and when is it –ю? It depends on the place of stress. It depends on whether there is a /j/ sound before the ending. It is always –ю. It must be memorized for each verb. (As far as we know.)


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Present tense pseudo-quiz In –ит conjugation verbs, what is the ending of the они? form? ут ят unstressed ют stressed ю?т


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How to learn verb forms What forms should you memorize, and which ones can you derive by rule? The infinitive has no predicative power чита?ть, чита?ю писа?ть, пишу? (not *писа?ю) жи?ть, живу? говори?ть, говорю? (not *говори?ву) The present tense has no predictive power живу?, жи?ть пишу?, писа?ть (not *пи?ть) Your textbook tells you to memorize four forms for each verb: infinitive plus three present-tense (я?, ты?, они?) You can cut that down to just one form per verb


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The single-stem verb system For each verb, memorize a single stem Derive all forms from that single stem by rules Pro: Much less memorization Are you comfortable with learning systems and applying rules? Con: The stem and the rules are abstract Would you prefer to avoid abstraction, even if doing so requires more memorization? Disclosure: The presentation here is slightly simplified because you know only seven verbs


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Stems and endings As with nouns and adjectives, think in terms of sounds, not letters Like nouns and adjectives, verb forms are made by combining stems and endings Stems may end in consonant sounds or vowel sounds Endings may begin with consonant sounds or vowel sounds


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Verb stems


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The parts of a Russian verb form Root Always ends in a consonant Lexical part of the verb, e.g., /cit/ ‘read’ Suffix Provides information about how the verb is conjugated, e.g., /-aj+/ Stem Combination of root plus suffix, e.g., /cit-a?j+/ Some verbs are unsuffixed, e.g., /ziv+/ Grammatical ending Tense, number, person, and gender e.g., /u/ in чита?ю = first person singular present tense


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Working with stems and endings Think of words and their parts in terms of sounds, not letters чита?ю has five letters but six sounds /cita?ju/ The stem is the sounds /cita?j/ The ending is the sound /u/ The stem is not a real word You have to add an ending to it to make it a real word The stem is useful because you can derive real words from it by following the rules If you memorize one stem for each verb, plus the general rules, you don’t need to memorize any other forms


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Suffixes and conjugations There are two conjugations in Russian –ёт and –ит Suffixes indicate conjugation unambiguously There are about a dozen suffixes You know four suffix types /–aj+/, /–a+/, /–i+/, and non-suffixed verbs Of the types you know /–i+/ is ит-conjugation all others are ёт-conjugation


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–ёт conjugation As always in Russian, unstressed ё loses its dots and is pronounced like е. живёт /ziv’o?t/, пи?шет /pi?set/, and чита?ет /cita?jet/ have the same ending: /–'ot/ живу? /zivu?/, пишу? /pisu?/, and чита?ю /cita?ju/ have the same ending: /–u/


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–ит conjugation


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The two conjugations


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Juncture The meeting of stem and ending is called juncture When two unlike things meet (C+V or V+C) Stable juncture Nothing happens When two like things meet (C+C or V+V) Unstable juncture Something (predictable) happens


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When two unlike things meet (C+V or V+C) Stable juncture Just slap the stem and ending together /cit–a?j+u/ = чита?ю (C+V) /pis–a+l/ = писа?л (V+C)


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When two like things meet (C+C or V+V) Unstable juncture Something (predictable!) happens C+C: Truncation of the first item /ziv+t’/ = жи?ть /v/ is truncated V+V: Truncation of the first item and mutation of the preceding consonant /p’is–a+u/ = пишу? /a/ is truncated and /s/ mutates to /s/


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Truncation is easy No truncation at stable junctures (C+V, V+C) Nothing interesting happens at stable junctures At unstable junctures (C+C or V+V) C+C truncation: delete the first consonant /ziv+t’/ = жи?ть /zit’/ /cit–a?j+l/ = чита?л /cita?l/ V+V truncation: delete the first vowel /govor’–i?+’u/ = говорю /govor’u?/ /govor’–i?+is/ = говори?шь /govori?s/


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Mutation is easy At V+V junctures, the consonant before the first vowel mutates (changes to another consonant) V+V mutation If a consonant mutates, it always mutates to the same thing /r/ doesn’t mutate /s/ mutates only to /s/ /govor’–i?+u/ V+V truncation: /govor’u/ V+V mutation (/r/ doesn’t mutate): /govor’u?/ = говорю? /p’is–a+u/ V+V truncation: /p’isu/ V+V mutation (/s/ mutates to /s/): /p’isu?/ = пишу?


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How do you know what mutates to what? Your instructors tell you So far /r/ doesn’t mutate This means that when you learn the verb дари?ть ‘to give,’ with the stem /dar’–i/, you will know that the я? form has to be я? дарю? (truncation but no mutation) /s/ always mutates to /s/ This means that when you learn the verb чеса?ть ‘scratch; comb,’ with the stem /ces–a+/, you will know that the я? form has to be я? чешу? (truncation plus mutation)


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Past tense The past-tense endings are /l, la, lo, l’i/ All past-tense endings begin with a consonant sound If the stem ends in a vowel sound (/p’is–a+/, /govor’–i?+/) Adding a past ending produces a stable juncture (V+C) Just add the stem and ending /p’is–a+l/ = писа?л /govor’–i?+la/ = говори?ла If the stem ends in a consonant sound (/ziv+/, /cit–a?j+/) Adding a past ending produces an unstable juncture (C+C) Truncation of first consonant /ziv+l/ = жи?л /cit–a?j+la/ = чита?ла


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Past tense


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Infinitive The infinitive ending for most verbs (and all verbs we know so far) is /t’/ The infinitive ending begins with a consonant sound If the stem ends in a vowel sound (/p’is–a+/, /govor’–i?+/) Adding an infinitive ending produces a stable juncture (V+C) Just add the stem and ending /p’is–a+t’/ = писа?ть /govor’–i?+t’/ = говори?ть If the stem ends in a consonant sound (/ziv+/, /cit–a?j+/) Adding an infinitive produces an unstable juncture (C+C) Truncation of first consonant /ziv+t’/ = жи?ть /cit–a?j+t’/ = чита?ть


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How do you know the stem of a verb? You can’t predict the stem from any single real form Your textbook doesn’t tell you what the stem is Your textbook authors don’t tell you about single stems; they tell you to memorize four separate forms Your instructors tell you what the stem is


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/rabo?t–aj+/ ‘work’ сейча?с я? я? рабо?таю /rabo?t–aj+u/ сейча?с ты? ты? рабо?таешь /rabo?t–aj+’os/ сейча?с о?н о?н рабо?тает /rabo?t–aj+’ot/ сейча?с мы? мы? рабо?таем /rabo?t–aj+’om/ сейча?с вы? вы? рабо?таете /rabo?t–aj+’ot’e/ сейча?с они? они? рабо?тают /rabo?t–aj+ut/ ра?ньше о?н о?н рабо?тал /rabo?t–aj+l/ ра?ньше она? она? рабо?тала /rabo?t–aj+la/ ра?ньше они? они? рабо?тали /rabo?t–aj+l’i/ Infinitive рабо?тать /rabo?t–aj+t’/


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/ces–a+/ ‘scratch, comb’ сейча?с я? я? чешу? /ces–a+u/ сейча?с ты? ты? че?шешь /ces–a+’os/ сейча?с о?н о?н че?шет /ces–a+’ot/ сейча?с мы? мы? че?шем /ces–a+’om/ сейча?с вы? вы? че?шете /ces–a+’ot’e/ сейча?с они? они? че?шут/ces–a+ut/ ра?ньше о?н о?н чеса?л /ces–a+l/ ра?ньше она? она? чеса?ла /ces–a+la/ ра?ньше они? они? чеса?ли /ces–a+l’i/ Infinitive чеса?ть /ces–a+t’/


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/dar–i+/ ‘give’ сейча?с я? я? дарю? /dar–i+u/ сейча?с ты? ты? да?ришь /dar–i+’is/ сейча?с о?н о?н да?рит /dar–i+’it/ сейча?с мы? мы? да?рим /dar–i+’im/ сейча?с вы? вы? да?рите /dar–i+’it’e/ сейча?с они? они? да?рят /dar–i+’at/ ра?ньше о?н о?н дари?л /dar–i+l/ ра?ньше она? она? дари?ла /dar–i+la/ ра?ньше они? они? дари?ли /dar–i+l’i/ Infinitive дари?ть /dar–i+t’/


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