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Modern English Phonology

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Modern English Phonology


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The unstressed e [?] sente > sent keepen > keep bookes >books likes [li:kes] > [laiks] stopped [stoped] > [stopt]


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When the root vowel was long, the letter ‘e’ at the end of the word was still written. ‘mute’ e appeared. There were some words in which ‘mute’ e was added to the end although it had never been there: ston > stone, bon > bone.


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The Great Vowel Shift The Great Vowel Shift was a massive sound change affecting the long vowels of English during the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries. The long vowels were either narrowed or diphthongized.


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The mid-open and open long vowels were narrowed, thus they became closed. The narrowing of the closed vowels caused their diphthongization. NB! The Great vowel shift did not affect spelling.


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Basically, the long vowels shifted upwards; that is, a vowel that used to be pronounced in one place in the mouth would be pronounced in a different place, higher up in the mouth.


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i: > ai time [ti:me] > [taim] e: > i: keep [ke:p] > [ki:p] ?: > e: > i: sea [s?:] > [se:] > [si:] a: > ei name ?: > ou go o: > u: moon u: > au out


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The process of change was gradual. Each stage took more than 100 years.


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OE [? ] > ME [?:] > [e:] (XVI c.) > [i:] (XVII c.) ea [i:] < [e:] < [?:] ee [i:] < [e:]


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Shortening of the long vowels 1. Before [d, t, ?] [?:] > [e]: breed > bread 2. Before [v, d, ?] [u:] > [u]: glove [glu:ve] > [gluv], blood … Before [k]: book [bu:k] > [buk]


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The development of some long vowels 1) [a] > [a:] before ‘r’ and voiceless fricatives: hard, fast, path ‘al’ before ‘m, f’: calm, half 2) [?] > [?:] before ‘r’: lord [l ?:d] [ou] > [?:] before ght: brought [br?:t]


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3) [?:] was the result of the vocalization of ‘r’ after [i, e, u]: first [f?:st], her, turn ( in the XVI c.)


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Changes of in the system of short vowels There appeared two short vowels [?, ? ]: [a] > [?]: land [land] > [l?nd] [u] > [?]: glove [gluv] > [gl?v] run [run] > [r?n] No change took place if [u] followed labial consonants: put, full, bush. But : but, fun.


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New diphthongs They appeared as the result of the vocalization of ‘r’ between two vowels: -are care [ka:r?] > [k??] -ere here [he:r?] > [hi?]


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Variant 1 Какие события в экономической жизни английского общества способствовали формированию национального английского национального языка? В связи с чем влияние французского языка на английский оказывается наиболее сильным во второй половине XIV в.?


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Variant 2 По каким причинам восточномидлендский диалект становится основой для национального языка? Какие языки оказывают сильное влияние на развитие английского языка в эпоху Возрождения? Почему?


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Variant 3 Какие события в политической жизни английского общества способствовали формированию национального английского национального языка? Какую реакцию вызвало «наводнение» английского языка латинизмами?


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Variant 4 В чем, по мнению А.И. Смирницкого, заключается вклад Дж. Чосера, Дж. Уиклифа, У. Кэскстона в формирование национального английского языка? С какими событиями связано расширение области распространения английского языка в XVI-XVII вв.?


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