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How To Do Content Strategy

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HOW TO DO CONTENT STRATEGY Kristina @Halvorson CEO, Brain Traffic and Founder, Confab Events Coauthor, Content Strategy for the Web


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What is content strategy?


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2009


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Content strategy is the practice of planning for the creation, delivery, and governance of useful, usable content.


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Not just... • What


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But … • What • By whom • Why • With what • How • Where • When • How often • For whom • What next


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2012


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Content strategy guides planning for the creation, delivery, and governance of content… …plus a whoooole lot of caveats.


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Brief aside: Content strategy vs. content marketing


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“ Content marketing is the approach of creating and distributing valuable and consistent content to a targeted audience, with the objective of driving some profitable action… – “The Evolution of Content Marketing Will Include Intelligent Content” Joe Pulizzi, 1/12/2015 @halvorson


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@halvorson


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But … • What • By whom • Why • With what • How • Where • When • How often • For whom • What next


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How I talk about content strategy


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Core strategy: States where you will focus your efforts to improve content substance, structure, workflow, and/or governance.


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Substance: Story, topic, brand elements, voice and tone CONTENT Structure: Organization, categorization, component elements


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Substance… …fulfills business objectives by meeting audience needs. CONTENT Structure… …makes content findable and usable for users, and manageable for technology.


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Workflow: Roles, processes, tools PEOPLE Governance: Policies, standards, guidelines


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Workflow... ...creates efficiencies across content properties. PEOPLE Governance… ...empowers, facilitates, and aligns.


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What kinds of content strategy are there?


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Content Strategy for UX Guides planning for the creation, management, and oversight of useful, usable content. Infographic published by IBM Customer-Facing Solutions. @halvorson


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Adaptive Content Strategy http://blog.braintraffic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/structured-content.png @halvorson


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Enterprise Content Strategy • Governance policies and standards • Content management ecosystem design • Organizational structure and content roles @halvorson


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What does a content strategist do?


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Point of View: Content Strategy by Kevin Nichols


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Point of View: Content Strategy by Kevin Nichols


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Point of View: Content Strategy by Kevin Nichols


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How do I do content strategy?


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Content Strategy Process 1 : Assessment and Analysis 2 : Strategy 3 : Architecture and Design 4 : Implementation 5: Maintenance @halvorson


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Set the Stage


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Set the Stage PROJECT GOAL: What are the concrete outcomes? What are success metrics? PROJECT TEAM: Who lives where on your DACI chart? TIMELINE: When will activities, deliverables, and sign-offs happen? @halvorson


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Project Goals: Example Our goals for this project are to: • Align stakeholders on a content strategy for our website content that’s based on defined institutional goals and known user needs. • Determine the appropriate messaging and content organization frameworks to support the strategy. • Assess current content and identify content gaps to develop a roadmap for creating or revising content. • Develop content standards for creating and maintaining content. @halvorson


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Project DACI team: Example WORKSTREAM ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY EDITORIAL PLANNING AND WRITING IA AND MODELS CONTENT ENTRY AND LAUNCH @halvorson DRIVER APPROVER CONTRIBUTOR INFORMED


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1: Assessment and Analysis 2: Strategy 3: Editorial and Structure 4: Implementation 5: Maintenance


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Typical Discovery Checklist Business objectives Project objectives Functional requirements User research Cross-platform initiatives Stakeholder interviews Industry trends Usability testing Competitors Design research @halvorson Current technology Content inventory


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Content Inventory


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Content Inventory: Uses • Find content ROT (redundant, outdated, trivial) • Identify orphan pages • Get a ground-level look at your site’s structure • Clean up or add metadata • Assign content ownership • Scope a project • Build a business case (“here’s how much of a mess things REALLY are”) @halvorson


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Content Inventory: sample output @halvorson


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Content Inventory: sample output @halvorson


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Content Inventory Easy to automate. Here are a few tools to get started. • • • • @halvorson Content Analysis Tool [Kristina’s favorite] Blaze Clarity Grader …check with your friendly CMS administrator


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User Research (non-negotiable)


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User Research: Why We Need It • We create content that’s for ourselves, not for our users. • We organize content the way we’re set up internally, not the way people think about what they need from us. • We want to tell everyone everything, just in case. • We can’t prioritize content because we haven’t prioritized our audiences, so people are fighting for real estate on the home page. • We make decisions based on our own assumptions. @halvorson


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User Research: It’s not that hard. • Do an online poll. • Create an online survey and invite people via email, social media, website banners. • Try a Top Tasks workshop. • Do some online user testing. • Interview your customer support people. • Interview your sales people. @halvorson


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Stakeholder Interviews


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Stakeholders (Hopefully) Know This Stuff Content ROT √ Current style guide Content owners Content readability Workflow and timelines Search analytics Metadata integrity Legal requirements Translation requirements Channel requirements @halvorson Stakeholder agenda Accessibility requirements


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Finding Your Stakeholders WORKSTREAM ANALYSIS AND STRATEGY EDITORIAL PLANNING AND WRITING IA AND MODELS CONTENT ENTRY AND LAUNCH @halvorson DRIVER APPROVER CONTRIBUTOR INFORMED


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Some Good Content Questions • Substance: Who are you trying to reach? Why? What do they want to know? Is your current content accurate, relevant, up-to-date? • Structure: Where is your content? How is it organized? What does your metadata look like? How do people find your content? Are you delivering content on multiple channels and platforms? • Workflow: How does content happen (from creation to deletion)? Who is involved? • Governance: What are your policies, guidelines, and standards? Who owns that? @halvorson


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Stakeholder Interviews: How To Listen • Don’t complete their sentences. • Don’t try to solve the problem right there. • If you feel yourself getting defensive, take a breath. This time is not about you or your needs. • Don’t try to earn trust by talking about your experience. • Learn how to take notes while mostly maintaining eye contact. • Get full clarification. (“Let me just repeat that back to you so I’m sure I understand correctly.”) • Get comfortable with silence. @halvorson


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Pulling It All Together


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After the Assessment: Your Analysis Report


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After the Assessment: Your Analysis Report


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LE MP A LY ON EX EX LE MP A LY ON


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1: Assessment and Analysis 2: Strategy 3: Editorial and Structure 4: Implementation 5: Maintenance


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What is a content strategy? • A strategy is the path you’ll take towards meeting your goals and fulfilling your vision. It may be one of a few parallel paths towards the same goals. • A strategy helps define what you WILL do and what you WON’T do. • All tactical initiatives must map back to your strategy. • Your strategy should force you to prioritize and to say “no.” @halvorson


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STRATEGY TACTIC OBJECTIVE


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Case Study: junglebox.com


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“We will become the industry leader in the pet frog supplies arena by providing everyone with informative content, realtime opinions, multiple touchpoint engagement opportunities, and our ever-increasing commitment to defining the pet frog lifestyle.” @halvorson


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• Rewrite “About Us” copy • Curate articles about dart frogs • Create interactive company history timeline • Restructure home page around top tasks vs. top interests • Do Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest • Start a daily blog


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Content Strategy Statement


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Content strategy statement Our website delivers limited, laser-focused content that educates newbies, excites enthusiasts, and motivates purchases. 65


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Content strategy statement This year’s plans and resources will specifically prioritize website content. We’ll be highly conservative about the content we plan for and create. The content we feature will be exclusively about dart frogs. Our website delivers limited, laser-focused content that educates newbies, excites enthusiasts, and motivates purchases. We’ll create “Dart Frog 101” content for people who are curious about what it’s like to raise and breed our frogs. 66 We’ll keep topics timely and fresh for the advanced dart frog keeper. Our content is never “nice to have.” Everything we share on our website can be tied directly to a product we sell.


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• Rewrite “About Us” copy • Curate articles about dart frogs • Create interactive company history timeline • Restructure home page around top tasks • Do Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest • Start a daily blog


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Example 1: CS document intro


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Example: Guiding Principles


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1: Assessment and Analysis 2: Strategy 3: Editorial and Structure 4: Implementation 5: Maintenance


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Messaging Architecture


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MESSAGING PYRAMID PRIMARY “How can I be sure it’s what I want?” “Is this what I want?” SECONDARY PROOF POINTS “Why should I choose you?”


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Junglebox Primary Message We make it possible for you to experience the joy of owning, breeding and raising exotic frogs. @halvorson


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JUNGLEBOX PRIMARY • You love frogs. So do we. • You might not know everything about frogs, but we can help out. • Our owner has been studying and caring for frogs since forever • Testimonials tell the story SECONDARY PROOF POINTS “We make it possible for you to experience the joy of owning, breeding and raising exotic frogs.” • You have found your frog people. • All product descriptions are written and edited by our own experts • We offer 360º service


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Voice and Tone Guidelines


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Voice and Tone The voice of your content embodies who you are as a company: not just products, not just brand, but the mind and heart of your story. Your tone will vary depending on audience and circumstance. @halvorson


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Junglebox is… Smart Helpful Enthusiastic Like this. Not this. Due to their tiny size, springtails float These tiny springtails float on the on the surface of water. This trait can water’s surface, which makes it easier be exploited when attempting to to remove them for feedings. remove the springs from their culture for feedings. Have questions? I’m happy to help out however I can. Should you have questions or concerns regarding our live specimens, products, shipping or other subject, please contact us so we may be of assistance. OMG! Check out our awesome new crop of Dendrobates Tinctorius!! Our new vivariums have us hopping Seriously, you’ll freak out over these. up and down with excitement. FREAK. OUT.


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Content Requirements


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http://www.flickr.com/photos/foodclothingshelter/3697096198/sizes/l/in/photostream/


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Step on in, content strategist. • • By whom • Why • With what • How • Where • When • How often • @halvorson What For whom • What next


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Content Requirements: IMPORTANT Content requirements are more than labels on the site map. Content requirements commit us to living, breathing text, images, sound, video, and all other content … content that must be consistent, compelling, and cared for over time. @halvorson


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Junglebox.net content strategy statement This year’s plans and resources will specifically prioritize website content. We’ll be highly conservative about the content we plan for and create. The content we feature will be exclusively about dart frogs. Our website delivers limited, laser-focused content that educates newbies, excites enthusiasts, and motivates purchases. We’ll create “Dart Frog 101” content for people who are curious about what it’s like to raise and breed our frogs. 82 We’ll keep topics timely and fresh for the advanced dart frog keeper. Our content is never “nice to have.” Everything we share on our website can be tied directly to a product we sell.


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high level tree frog audit


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Template for a User Journey Map


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Login | Checkout JUNGLEBOX Buy Frogs Dart Buy Supplies Our Gallery Our Story Herpetology the way you like it. Jasper’s Frog Blog Watch & Learn Contact Jasper FEATURED FROGS FROG 1 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum non massa accumsan odio consectetur FROG 2 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum non massa accumsan odio consectetur FROG 3 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum non massa accumsan odio consectetur Flexible space #1 Flexible space #2 Flexible space #3 Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum non massa accumsan odio consectetur Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum non massa accumsan odio consectetur Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum non massa accumsan odio consectetur


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Page Table Page: Products Objective: Help customers understand we are experts who sell the same high quality products we use ourselves, so they will have the confidence to buy. Source Material: Current site, product box copy, current campaign materials Maintenance: Monthly Key Messages: After 10+ years of raising frogs, these are the products we recommend. You don’t have to shop around, because everything you need is right here. Priority 1: Highlight product categories Only three bullet points (10-15 words each) for each category. - What is it? - What is it for? - Why will it help you? Priority 2: Intro text One sentence about how Junglebox only offers the products we use ourselves.


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Qualitative Audit


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Content Audit A qualitative process. Determine if what you already have is what you need, and if it’s any good. • On brand • Readable • Maps to user journey/needs • Legal requirements • Appropriate voice and tone • etc. Useful for gap analysis, rewrites, and content migration. @halvorson


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Template for a User Journey Map


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Content Models


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Content Models A content type is a kind of content used repeatedly that has a standardized (agreed-on) structure. • • • • • They give content creators patterns of organization (maybe even templates) to work with, simplifying their job and ensuring that they include all necessary content elements. They provide a common communication tool for content creators, UI developers, stylesheet creators, and print and publishing people. They give consumers a consistent – and, therefore, more pleasant and helpful – experience. They create opportunities for content reuse that don’t exist when content is left unstructured. They prepare content for automation. http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/intelligent-content/blog/content-types-noz-urbina/ @halvorson


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Example: Content Model


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Example: Wireframe Based on Content Model


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1: Assessment and Analysis 2: Strategy 3: Editorial and Structure 4: Implementation 5: Maintenance


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Example: Content Strategy Roadmap


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Workflow Workflow means understanding not only what processes and tools you’ll use to create, deliver, and care for content throughout its lifecycle. Workflow also means ensuring clarity of roles and responsibilities. @halvorson


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Example: Enterprise Workflow


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Example 1: Team Structure


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Example 2: Team Structure


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Roles breakdown (annoying but useful)


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Types of Governance Models https://www.whitehouse.gov/digitalgov/digital-services-governance-recommendations


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OVERSIGHT Sample Governance Model • Who  gets  to  say   “no”? • What  are  the   primary  functions   and  drivers  of   each  team? INFORMING  STRATEGIES PRODUCT • Who  sits  on  the   content   governance   council?   • How  often  do  they   meet? DIGITAL ORG  STRUCTURE BRAND • What  does  the   RACI  structure   look  like? CONTENT  STRATEGY EDITORIAL UX WORKFLOW TECHNICAL STRUCTURE METRICS LEGAL • What  is  the  Voice   of  Junglebox?     • What  tones  do  we   use,  and  when? • What  are  the   content   requirements   cross-­‐channel? • What  are  the  roles   and   responsibilities  of   people  across  the   content  lifecycle? • What  system(s)  do   we  use  to  support   the  content   lifecycle? • What  is  the   metadata  schema   that  will  organize   our  information   and  data? • What  are  KPIs  for   our  content   properties  and   channels? • What  are  our  legal   and  regulatory   requirements? • What  is  our   messaging   architecture?   • How  is  it  applied   across  audiences? • What  are  the   primary  “buckets”   of  information,   internally-­‐  and   externally-­‐facing? • What  are  the  tools   and  processes  that   move  content   through  its   lifecycle? • Where  do  we  host   our  content?   • Who  has   publishing  rights? • How  is  the  content   structured  for   front-­‐  and  back-­‐ end  findability? • What  are  our   benchmarks  for   content  quality? • What  are   accessibility   requirements? Adapted  from  website-­‐governance.com 108


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How do you make the case for content strategy?


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Pain points. • “We’re struggling with too much content across our digital properties, with more being produced every day.” • “We don’t know who owns the content.” • “Our content is inconsistent, off-brand, outdated, even incorrect in places.” • “We’re partway through a website redesign and suddenly have major content problems.” • “We’re duplicating work efforts in digital and print content.” • “People in our company all talk about content and content strategy in totally different ways.” • “There are lots of politics and opinions that make progress very difficult.” @halvorson


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Unanswered questions @halvorson


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Opportunities DIGITAL SERVICES IMPROVEMENT • Reduced content operations cost • Reduced content approval cycle time • Decreased content redundancy • Increased flexibility of content production and distribution CUSTOMER VALUE IMPROVEMENT • Higher content quality, lower error rates • Increased customer satisfaction • New customer interactions • Increased direct bookings @halvorson


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How will you bring content strategy to your business?


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You can find all sorts of tools and templates in here.


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More Ideas: Books and Articles - Good Kickoff Meetings, by Kevin Hoffman - How To Create a Clear Project Plan - Auditing Big Sites Doesn’t Have To Be Taxing - Good Strategy, Bad Strategy - Audit Sampling: It’s a Numbers Game - What Is Strategy and Does It Matter? - Moments of Impact: How To Design Strategic Conversations that Accelerate Change - “Interviewing Humans” - Just Enough Research


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GET IN TOUCH! Kristina @Halvorson CEO, Brain Traffic and Founder, Confab Coauthor, Content Strategy for the Web Events


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