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Empowering women and girls for shared prosperity
Able to make decisions about one's own life and act upon them to achieve desired outcomes, free of violence, retribution, or fear Able to speak up and be heard, and to shape and share in discussions, discourse and decisions Why voice and agency? “An empowered woman is one who can help herself and others, who has a job, knows about herself and her environment and her community. If you join societies, organizations, communities, and other social things, even spiritually, you will be empowered.” — A participant from a focus group in Ghana (Tsikata and Darkwah, 2011)
Table of Contents Framing the Challenge: Norms, Constraints & Deprivations Enhancing Women’s Agency: A Cross-Cutting Agenda Freedom from Violence Control over Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Control over Land and Housing Amplifying Voices Closing Gaps in Data and Evidence
More than 700 million women subject to violence at the hands of a husband, boyfriend or partner in their lifetime Source: Preliminary analysis of WHO (World Health Organization), global prevalence database (2013) using World Bank regions.
Beyond the human tragedy, violence incurs major economic costs Often at least what the country spends on primary education Source: Duvvury et al., 2013
Women often face many deprivations and harmful norms Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001-2012. Percentage of women
Extensive deprivations in Niger Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001-2012. Percentage of women
Education is critical in overcoming deprivations Suffer three deprivations Suffer at least one deprivation Secondary education and higher Primary education or less Share with deprivations Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS for 54 countries using latest available data from 2001-2012. Primary education or less Secondary education and higher
Education is important for sexual autonomy… Source: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates based on DHS using latest available data from 2001-2012.
…And reduces the likelihood of early marriage Girls who finish high school are six times less likely to marry early Child marriage prevalence in 111 countries
But, fewer women than men report owning housing… Control over land and housing can expand women’s agency …or land
Women’s voices can be transformative
But attitudes are restrictive Sources: Voice and Agency 2014 team estimates for 87 countries based on World Values Survey data, latest years available (1996-2012); Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2013. The belief that women make equally good leaders is correlated with female representation in parliaments
Uneven progress in addressing legal disparities Note: Number of potential constraints equals 11 Changes in average number of legal constraints by region Hallward-Driemeier, Hasan and Iqbal, 2013 Women’s Legal Rights Over 50 Years
The need for legal reform remains Number of countries Source: Women, Business and the Law 2014 128
Number of countries with legislation against domestic violence Momentum for change: the case of domestic violence Source: World Bank, Women, Business and the Law 2014: Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality
Promising directions for changing social norms Engaging men, boys, families, communities Media
Gender-Based Violence: What works? Prevention Include men AND women Engage entire community Combine multiple approaches Last at least 6 months Address social norms around the acceptability of violence Source: D. Arango, M. Morton, F. Gennari, S. Kiplesund and Mary E. forthcoming. Interventions to Prevent and Reduce Violence Against Women and Girls: A Systematic Review of Reviews. Background paper to the report on Women’s Voice and Agency. Washington, DC: World Bank. Forthcoming, the Lancet. Response Target survivors rather than perpetrators Encourage women’s autonomy and empowerment Include psychosocial elements (e.g. counseling) and victim advocacy
Programs enhancing agency
“Data not only measures progress. It inspires it.”-Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Gaps GBV: Scarce, infrequent and often underestimated Access to land: Data not collected at individual level Sexual & reproductive health: Scarce Voice: Limited
World Bank Live Event9,143 page views to date, 4,597 live blog views, 70 online questions submitted Top 10 Countries: US, UK, Canada, India, Australia, Mexico, South Africa, Germany, Japan, France Media reception to the report 600+ tweets featuring #WomenCan have captured 10+ Million impressions to date. On May 14, #WomenCan was the #7 trending Twitter topic in the United States*** and the #2 trending Twitter topic in Washington, D.C. ***A World Bank first Original “postcards” posted on the World Bank’s Facebook channel.
Over 400 news stories in more than 20 countries covered -- US, Canada, Pakistan, Japan, New Zealand, Australia, China, Malaysia, South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda, Turkey, Morocco, Syria, Bahrain, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Egypt, and Algeria. Educating Girls: Big Payoff For $45 A Year May 15, 201411:37 AM ET - NPR Tell Me More Girls without an education are six times more likely to marry young than those who've finished high school, according to a new report from the World Bank Group. Guest host Celeste Headlee learns more. World Bank: 700 million women subject to conjugal violence Child brides face increased chances of illiteracy, domestic violence, report says