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Ethics Evolved: An International Perspective on Copying in the Networked Age

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ETHICS EVOLVED AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON COPYING IN THE NETWORKED AGE Aram Sinnreich, PhD
 Associate Professor
 American University SOC Presented at
 American University SOC
 Faculty Forum
 November 3, 2015


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/INTRODUCTION/ MY PARENTS’ DINNER TABLE CONVERSATION, C. 1982 Yiddish Regular English 17% 19% Latin 22% Curse Words 13% Grownup English 29%


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Configurable
 Culture


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/CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ NEW CULTURAL FORMS & PRACTICES Mashups Memes Machinima …& Much More


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/CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ CONSUMPTION VS. PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION CONSUMPTION-
 ADJACENT ??? PRODUCTION-
 ADJACENT PRODUCTION


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/CONFIGURABLE CULTURE/ NEW CULTURAL LOGICS, NEW SOCIAL FORMATIONS & INSTITUTIONS


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Survey


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/SURVEY/ RESPONDENTS: ONLINE, ENGLISH-SPEAKING ADULTS 2006 2010 U.S. India Turkey Canada Canada South Africa Philippines Israel Australia Singapore U.K. Sweden Malaysia 1,779
 U.S. 2014-15 971
 291 
 270
 148 
 148
 146 
 129
 64
 63
 62
 52 
 41
 40 1,100 U.S.
 1,955 non-US U.S. U.K. India Australia Canada Philippines New Zealand Ireland Singapore South Africa Malaysia 452
 172
 147
 144
 118
 83
 52
 52
 52
 51
 47 452 U.S.
 945 non-US


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Awareness


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/SURVEY/AWARENESS/ AWARENESS OF CONFIGURABLE CULTURE HAS JUMPED IN THE U.S. PHOTOSHOP 39.6 MUSIC MASHUP 12.9 16.6 21.5 27.6 0 53.8 31.8 40 10.6 11 NONE 57.1 25.1 VID REMIX 1.3 77 58.4 AMV MACHINIMA 42.8 31.4 24.1 MODS 90.3 14.6 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006 17.9 25 50 75 100


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/SURVEY/AWARENESS/ MUSIC MASHUPS: U.S. AWARENESS BY AGE, 2006-2014 85.8 18-25 60.4 49.2 82.1 26-34 48 28.8 71.6 35-44 36.9 26.8 65.8 45-54 21.8 20.7 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006 51.5 55+ 21.1 8.3 0 25 50 75 100


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/SURVEY/AWARENESS/ MUSIC MASHUPS: AWARENESS BY NATION, 2010-2015 77 US 31.4 69.9 PHILIPPINES 56.6 69.8 UK 34.6 62.8 S. AFRICA 47.9 61.9 CANADA 41.2 57.7 SINGAPORE 41.9 44.4 AUSTRALIA 30.2 2015 2010 42.2 44.3 INDIA 0 25 50 75 100


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Consumption


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/SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/ CONSUMPTION HAS SKYROCKETED IN THE U.S. 68.1 PHOTOSHOP 14.5 43.4 MUSIC MASHUP 11.9 38.9 MODS 6.9 25.2 VID REMIX 10 20.1 MACHINIMA 5.2 19 AMVS 7.1 4.9 NONE 0 ≈ 25 US 2014 US 2010 44.4 50 75 100


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/SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/ GENERAL CONSUMPTION BY NATION, 2010-2015 95.1 US 55.6 94.6 INDIA 86.2 91.6 88.4 86.3 PHILIPPINES S. AFRICA 70.6 80.8 80.4 SINGAPORE 75.6 UK 60.4 73.7 CANADA 61.4 60.4 59.3 AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 2015 2010 75 100


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/SURVEY/CONSUMPTION/ GLOBAL CONSUMPTION BY AGE, 2010-2015 95.6 18-25 95.3 91.9 26-34 83.8 85.8 35-44 73.4 69.6 45-54 58.8 52.8 55+ 2015 2010 55.3 0 25 50 75 100


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Engagement


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/SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ MUSIC ENGAGEMENT BY NATION, 2010-2015 98.8 98.4 96.2 PHILIPPINES SINGAPORE 90.3 95.8 US 64.7 95.2 92.1 94.1 89.7 87.2 INDIA S. AFRICA UK 65.4 78.2 CANADA 73 AUSTRALIA 73 0 25 50 75 75 2015 2010 100


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/SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ VIDEO ENGAGEMENT BY NATION, 2010-2015 92.8 PHILIPPINES 84.5 92.5 INDIA 84.5 87.2 US 53.8 75.4 CANADA 53.4 70.6 71.9 S. AFRICA 68 UK 53.8 65.4 SINGAPORE 69.4 AUSTRALIA 52.4 0 25 50 2015 2010 59 75 100


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/SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ MUSIC: U.S. ENGAGEMENT BY AGE, 2006-2014 95.3 18-25 87.5 61.2 96.5 26-34 74.9 43 95.1 35-44 67.4 36.5 97.4 45-54 60.2 29.2 93.9 55+ 56.4 20.5 0 25 50 75 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006 100


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/SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ CUSTOM MUSIC RADIO: U.S. ENGAGEMENT BY AGE, 2006-2014 48.1 18-25 16.7 9.5 39.9 26-34 20.1 8 41.2 35-44 11.8 4.8 31.6 45-54 9.9 2.5 9.1 7.5 55+ 1.2 0 25 50 75 US 2014 US 2010 US 2006 100


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/SURVEY/ENGAGEMENT/ GLOBAL AWARENESS VS. CONSUMPTION VS. ENGAGEMENT, 2014/15 79 PHOTOSHOP 53 34 63 MUSIC MASHUP 33 7 58 MEMES 43 22 52 VID REMIX 24 5 46 AMV 19 Awareness Consumption Engagement 4 27 MACHINIMA 15 5 0 25 50 75 100


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Opinions


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006 Original 100 75 Sometimes 100 100 32.3 22.2 59.9 Never 75 44.6 75 49.1 50 50 25 50 44.7 25 25 17.9 18.5 18-25 35-44 10.7 0 55+


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006-2010 Original 100 75 Sometimes Never No Answer 100 100 22.2 10.4 20.8 59.9 32.3 18.7 75 60.4 50 49.1 26.7 75 25.2 48.7 50 25 44.6 18.7 50 44.7 38.7 25 25 17.9 8.3 0 2006 2010 18-25 18.5 2006 13.9 2010 35-44 10.7 9.4 2006 2010 55+


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY, 2006-2014 Original 100 75 22.2 10.4 20.8 59.9 3.8 11.3 57.5 Sometimes 18.7 32.3 75 49.1 50 18.7 1 13.7 62.7 100 60.4 Never 27.4 17.9 0 2006 2010 18-25 2014 44.6 26.7 12.1 30.3 75 48.7 50 44.7 42.4 38.7 25 25 18.5 8.3 100 25.2 50 25 No Answer 2006 22.5 13.9 2010 35-44 10.7 2014 9.4 2006 2010 55+ 15.2 2014


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006 All Fair 100 Some Uses All Theft 100 100 42.2 27.7 75 60.5 75 75 53.3 50 50 45.6 50 33.9 25 25 25 18.9 12.2 0 18-25 35-44 5.7 55+


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006-2010 All Fair 100 Some Uses All Theft No Answer 100 100 27.7 29.2 75 42.2 16.7 18.2 31.6 75 17.7 60.5 47.4 75 53.3 50 43.8 50 45.6 50 43.9 33.9 25 30.8 25 25 18.9 10.4 0 2006 12.2 6.4 5.7 4.1 2010 2006 2010 2006 2010 18-25 35-44 55+


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT COPYRIGHT, 2006-2014 All Fair 100 75 16.7 29.2 27.7 2.8 12.3 49.1 Some Uses All Theft No Answer 100 100 42.2 18.6 31.6 75 18.2 56.9 60.5 17.7 9.1 36.4 47.4 75 53.3 50 43.8 50 35.8 25 45.6 48.5 50 43.9 33.9 25 25 24.5 18.9 12.2 10.4 0 2006 30.8 2010 18-25 2014 6.4 2006 2010 35-44 5.7 2014 4.1 6.1 2006 2010 2014 55+


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ U.S. OPINIONS ABOUT ORIGINALITY BY EXPOSURE, 2015 Original 100 75 2.3 10.1 65.5 100 Sometimes 1.7 6.1 69.1 75 100 Unoriginal 1.6 8.9 65.9 100 No Answer 1.6 10.3 64.6 100 13.6 27.2 75 75 50 50 50 25 75 50 50 25 25 40.9 25 25 22.1 23.2 23.6 23.5 Heard of
 Mashups Heard of
 Machinima Heard of
 AMVs Heard of
 Vid Remix 18.2 0 Never Heard of These Four


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ ALL/SOME USES CAN BE “ORIGINAL”, 2010-2015 US 84.1 54.8 PHILIPPINES 79.5 62.8 INDIA 68 51.9 SINGAPORE 56.5 CANADA 65.3 52.7 UK 65.4 55.8 65.1 63.8 65 MALAYSIA 58.8 56.8 S AFRICA 2015 2010 45.1 44.4 AUSTRALIA 0 25 50 75 100


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/SURVEY/OPINIONS/ ALL/SOME USES SHOULDN’T REQUIRE PERMISSION, 2010-2015 US 79.4 44.6 PHILIPPINES 62.7 47.3 UK 58.7 50 57.4 MALAYSIA CANADA 52.5 55.1 45.3 INDIA 54.4 45 51.9 SINGAPORE S AFRICA 44.5 AUSTRALIA 34.9 0 25 56.5 49 2015 2010 38.9 50 75 100


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Ethics


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/SURVEY/ETHICS/ THE ETHICS OF CONFIGURABILITY: 12 CRITERIA Unethical Criterion (n = 574) Ethical Unpermissioned Legal (91) Permissioned For profit Commercial (37) Not for profit Pretension AuthenAcity (24) Referenced Unoriginal InnovaAon (121) Original Easy Labor (7) Hard work BastardizaAon Moral (8) Homage Rupture ConAnuity (17) EvoluAon Useless/Harmful Use Value (112) Fun/Beneficial Ugly AestheAc (69) BeauAful Subversive Power RelaAons (37) Empowering Meaningless Self Expression (35) Expressive ExploitaAve Industry RelaAons (16) PromoAonal


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/SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: AUTHENTICITY “Remixes are fun, but the original creators should be given their due credit as well.” 
 - Irish F, 26-29 “Remixes are enjoyed by some people but those who are making it should consider crediting the owner of material.”
 - Filipino M, 30-34 “They’re fine as long as they aren’t blatantly ripping off other remixes.”
 - U.S. M, 22-25


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/SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: INNOVATION “I think mashups are a form of musical art and and sometimes even sound better than the original.”
 - S. African M, 22-25 “I have NEVER seen or heard anything that, in my opinion, is better than the original.” 
 - Australian M, 70+ “Some remixes are very innovative others are poor copies.”
 - U.K. M, 60-64


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/SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: POWER RELATIONS “The DMCA system is corrupted and abused to hell and needs a reform”
 - U.S. M, 30-34 “i think major copyright reform is “I feel that technology has required. The law has lost its moved to a point where meaning. How does applying legislation can no longer keep copyright for 50 years after the up with controlling permissions death of a person provide on copyright materials”
 incentives to continue creating.”
 - Australian M, 65-69 - Irish M, 30-34


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/SURVEY/ETHICS/ CRITERION: INDUSTRY RELATIONS “I think copyright holders (music labels, movie companies) could do more to make material available to talented remixers and masheruppers - supporting people who can get their stuff to new audiences could be a good business move.”
 - Australian F, 30-34 “So long as the individual does not make money from somebody's work, mashups and remixes should be allowed. In my eyes I see it as free advertisement.”
 - U.K. M, 18-21 “I think large organizations should view mash-ups as free advertising and be glad that they're getting extra exposure, as long as no one is making money off it..”
 - Canadian F, 26-29


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/SURVEY/ETHICS/ ETHICAL FRAMEWORKS VARY BY NATION (2014/15 DATA) Continuity Authentic Industry Commercial Expression Power Aesthetic Legal Use Value Innovation US Phil Aust Malay Canada NZ UK India S. Afr


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Law


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/COPYRIGHT LAW/ CHANGES AFOOT IN COPYRIGHT LANDSCAPE (OCTOBER 2015 EDITION) OPEN LICENSING:
 International CREATIVE COMMONS:
 1 BILLION LICENSED WORKS DMCA EXEMPTIONS FAIR USE WINS:
 Domestic GOOGLE BOOKS
 LENZ V. UNIVERSAL TUFAMERICA V. JAY-Z TPP COMPLETION:
 LONGER (C) TERMS
 ANTI-CIRCUMVENTION DRM MANDATE
 RESTRICTIONS ON FAIR USE CISA PASSAGE:
 IDENTIFIES IP AS A “CYBERSECURITY” ISSUE
 GRANTS LEGAL IMMUNITY FOR CORPORATE SURVEILLANCE


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THANK YOU. ARAM@AMERICAN.EDU Download this presentation:


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