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THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE

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THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE America’s First Slavery Debate


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= OF STATES


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Photo by Alan Light


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ADMISSION Photo by Libido Lounge “New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union…” U.S. Constitution (Art. 4) The Pledging Process


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Missouri applies for admission into the Union as a SLAVE STATE. Icon by Ted Grajeda The Noun Project 1819


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Tallmadge Amendment "And provided, That the further introduction of slavery or involuntary servitude be prohibited… and that all children born within the said State, after the admission thereof into the Union, shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." Rep. James Tallmadge (R- NY) 1819


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Tallmadge Amendment Missouri can be admitted to the Union upon accepting GRADUAL EMANCIPATION Rep. James Tallmadge (R- NY) 1819


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PARITY Balance Between Slave and Free States


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PARITY Balance Between Slave and Free States 1820 - 1850


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TRAJECTORY NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


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Some rights reserved by National Museum of American History Northwest Ordinance 1787 SLAVERY OUTLAWED in Northwest Territories


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Alabama admitted as a SLAVE STATE without fanfare. Icon by Ted Grajeda The Noun Project 1819 Photo by James Willamor


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PARITY Balance Between Slave and Free States


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Bicameralism SENATE Passed without Tallmadge Amendment Photo by Martin Falbisoner HOUSE


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Bicameralism SENATE Passed with Tallmadge Amendment Passed without Tallmadge Amendment Photo by Martin Falbisoner HOUSE


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Bicameralism SENATE Passed with Tallmadge Amendment Passed without Tallmadge Amendment CONFERENCE Photo by Martin Falbisoner HOUSE


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HENRY CLAY U.S. Senator (Kentucky)


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THE GREAT COMPROMISER


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Clay’s proposal: Admit Missouri as a Slave State. Admit Maine as a Free State. Prohibit slavery in the territories of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36?30’ parallel.


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Bicameralism SENATE Passed WITH Clay’s Compromise Proposal Passed WITH Clay’s Compromise Proposal Photo by Martin Falbisoner HOUSE


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36?30’


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36?30’ SLAVERY Map Credit: Golbez


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HAPPILY EVER AFTER


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nope


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THE SAGE of Monticello Thomas Jefferson to John Holmes 22 April 1820


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“This momentous question, like a fire bell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror…”


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“I considered it at once as the knell of the Union.”


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KNELL Photo by Vladimer Shioshvili n. the sound of a bell, especially when rung solemnly for a death or funeral.


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“It is hushed indeed for the moment. but this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence. a geographical line, coinciding with a marked principle, moral and political, once conceived and held up to the angry passions of men, will never be obliterated; and every new irritation will mark it deeper and deeper.”


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I can say with conscious truth that there is not a man on earth who would sacrifice more than I would, to relieve us from this heavy reproach, in any practicable way. Johnson Eastman, The Lord is My Shepherd (1863)


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Johnson Eastman, The Lord is My Shepherd (1863) A general emancipation and expatriation could be effected: and, gradually, and with due sacrifices, I think it might be.


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Auribus teneo lupum Photo by Neil McIntosh 20 Latin Phrases You Should Be Using (Mental Floss)


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Michelle Mikiefsky Used With Permission http://windward.hawaii.edu/facstaff/miliefsky-m


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“I regret that I am now to die in the belief that the useless sacrifice of themselves, by the generation of ‘76. to acquire self government and happiness to their country, is to be thrown away by the unwise and unworthy passions of their sons…”


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“My only consolation is to be that I live not to weep over it. if they would but dispassionately weigh the blessings they will throw away against an abstract principle more likely to be effected by union than by scission, they would pause before they would perpetrate this act of suicide on themselves and of treason against the hopes of the world.”


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ANTEBELLUM 1820-1860


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A South Carolina Perspective… During the debate, Charles Pinckney (SC) defended slavery as a positive good. Pinckney’s opinions did not hold much water outside of South Carolina at the time, but as Northerners continued to criticize slavery, more Southerners began to defend the institution. Pinckney’s Speech Pinckney


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LET’S REVIEW: Admit Missouri as a Slave State. Admit Maine as a Free State. Prohibit slavery in the territories of the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36?30’ parallel.


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