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Pew Research Center - Global Support for Principle of Free Expression, but Opposition to Some Forms of Speech

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NUMBERS, FAC AND TRENDS SHAPING THE W CTS S WORLD F FOR RELEASE NOV VEMBER 18, 201 15 G obal Su ort for Glo l uppo P ncip of Free Prin ple F e E pres on, but Op sitio Exp ssio b t ppos on t Som Form o S ech to S me F ms of Spee A rican Esp ally Li y to Em ace Amer ns pecia ikely mbra I vidua Liberties Indiv al B Richard Wike and Ka Simmon BY W atie ns FOR FURTHER INFO R ORMATION ON THIS REPORT: Rich hard Wike, Director, Global Attitude Research es Kat Simmons, Asso tie ociate Director, Re esearch onda Stewart, Sen Communications Manager nior Rho 202 2.419.4372 www w.pewresearch.or rg RECOMMEND CITATION: Pe Research Center, November 2015, “Global Supp for Principle o Free Expression but Opposition to DED ew port of n, Some Forms of Speech”


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1 PEW RESEARCH CENTER About This Report This report examines global public opinion about democratic principles. It is based on 40,786 face-to-face and telephone interviews in 38 countries with adults 18 and older conducted from April 5 to May 21, 2015. For more details, see survey methodology and topline results. Chapter 1 explores support for democratic principles around the world, including religious freedom, gender equality, a free press, free speech and competitive elections. Chapter 2 considers the boundaries of support for free expression by examining public opinion on whether making statements that are offensive to minority groups or to a person’s religion or beliefs, that call for violent protests, that are sexually explicit, or that criticize the government’s policies should be allowed publicly. This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals: Richard Wike, Director, Global Attitudes Research Katie Simmons, Associate Director, Research James Bell, Vice President, Global Strategy Danielle Cuddington, Research Assistant Michael Keegan, Information Graphics Designer Dorothy Manevich, Research Assistant Jacob Poushter, Senior Researcher Steve Schwarzer, Research Methodologist Ben Wormald, Associate Digital Producer Jill Carle, Research Associate Claudia Deane, Vice President, Research David Kent, Copy Editor Bridget Parker, Research Assistant Audrey Powers, Administrative Coordinator Bruce Stokes, Director, Global Economic Attitudes Hani Zainulbhai, Research Analyst Find related reports online at pewresearch.org/global. www.pewresearch.org


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2 PEW RESEARCH CENTER About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. It does not take policy positions. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. The center studies U.S. politics and policy views; media and journalism; internet and technology; religion and public life; Hispanic trends; global attitudes and U.S. social and demographic trends. Pew Research Center is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts, its primary funder. All of the center’s reports are available at www.pewresearch.org. © Pew Research Center 2015 www.pewresearch.org


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3 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Table of Contents Overview: Global Support for Principle of Free Expression, but Opposition to Some Forms of Speech 4 1. Support for Democratic Principles 11 2. The Boundaries of Free Speech and a Free Press 18 Appendix A: Free Expression Index 26 Appendix B: Country Specific Examples of Smartphones 28 Methodology 29 Topline Results 30 www.pewresearch.org


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4 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Global Support for Principle of Free Expression, but Opposition to Some Forms of Speech Americans Especially Likely to Embrace Individual Liberties Although many observers have documented a global decline in democratic rights in recent years, people around the world nonetheless embrace fundamental democratic values, including free expression. A new Pew Research Center survey finds that majorities in nearly all 38 nations polled say it is at least somewhat important to live in a country with free speech, a free press and freedom on the internet. And across the 38 countries, global medians of 50% or more consider these freedoms very important. Still, ideas about free expression vary widely across regions and nations. The United States stands out for its especially strong opposition to government censorship, as do countries in Latin America and Europe – particularly Argentina, Germany, Spain and Chile. Majorities in Asia, Africa and the Middle East also tend to oppose censorship, albeit with much less intensity. Indonesians, Palestinians, Burkinabe and Vietnamese are among the least likely to say free expression is very important. www.pewresearch.org


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5 PEW RESEARCH CENTER While free expression is popular around the globe, other democratic rights are even more widely embraced. In Western and non-Western nations, throughout the global North and South, majorities want freedom of religion, gender equality, and honest, competitive elections. Yet the strength of commitment to individual liberties also varies. Americans are among the strongest supporters of these freedoms. Meanwhile, Europeans are especially likely to want gender equality and competitive elections, but somewhat less likely than others to prioritize religious freedom. The right to worship freely is most popular in sub-Saharan Africa. Across all regions, people who say religion is very important in their lives are more likely to value religious freedom. Even though broad democratic values are popular, people in different parts of the world have different ways of conceptualizing individual rights and the parameters of free expression. Publics tend to support free speech in principle, but they also want limitations on certain types of speech. While a global median of 80% believe people should be allowed to freely criticize government policies, only 35% think they should be allowed to make public statements that are offensive to minority groups, or that are religiously offensive. Even fewer support allowing sexually explicit statements or calls for violent protests. www.pewresearch.org


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6 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Americans, however, are more willing than the rest of the world to tolerate these forms of speech. Large majorities in the U.S. think people should be able to say things that are offensive to minority groups or their religious beliefs. About half (52%) say this about sexually explicit statements, and more than four-in-ten (44%) think calls for violent protests should be allowed. These are among the main findings of a new Pew Research Center survey, conducted in 38 nations among 40,786 respondents from April 5 to May 21, 2015. When Can Government Stop the Media from Publishing? Overall, global publics oppose government censorship of the media, except in cases of national security. There is widespread agreement that media organizations should be able to publish information about large political protests in the country – across the nations polled, a median of 78% say this. Vietnam is the only country where fewer than half (42%) hold this view. www.pewresearch.org


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7 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Most (a global median of 59%) also think media groups should be able to publish information that might destabilize the national economy. The Middle East is the regional outlier on this question – a median of just 44% in the region say the press should be allowed to publish economically destabilizing information, while 51% believe the government should be able to block these types of stories in some circumstances. Globally, a median of just 40% think media organizations should be able to publish information about sensitive issues related to national security, while 52% believe it is acceptable for the government to suppress such information. But opinions vary widely across countries and regions. Latin Americans and Europeans tend to think the press should be allowed to publish sensitive national security information, while Middle Easterners, Asians and Africans mostly oppose this idea. On this issue, most Americans support government limitations on press freedom – 59% say the government should be allowed to stop this type of publication. www.pewresearch.org


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8 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Ranking Countries on Support for Free Expression To further explore how countries compare on views about free expression, we constructed an index based on respondents’ answers to five questions about allowing specific types of speech, as well as three questions about whether the media should be allowed to publish certain types of information (see Appendix A for more details on the index). Analyzing the data in this way reveals that Americans are the most supportive of free speech and a free press. Several European and Latin American nations also emerge as relatively strong supporters, as do Canada, Australia and South Africa. Meanwhile, Senegal, Jordan, Pakistan, Ukraine, Burkina Faso and Vietnam are at the bottom of the index, indicating relatively low levels of support for free expression. www.pewresearch.org


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9 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Prioritizing Internet Freedom In many nations the internet has created an important new public space where debates about political and social issues thrive. Even though internet freedom ranks last among the six broad democratic rights included on the survey, majorities in 32 of 38 countries nonetheless say it is important to live in a country where people can use the internet without government censorship. Across the 38 nations, a median of 50% believe it is very important to live in a country with an uncensored internet. Publics with Higher Rates of Internet Usage More Likely to Prioritize Internet Freedom Percent who say it is very important that people can use the internet without state/gov't censorship in our country 80 % Correlation = .68 Lebanon 60 Brazil Ukraine Mexico Peru South Africa Ghana 40 Philippines Senegal Uganda Vietnam Kenya Tanzania Pakistan 20 Burkina Faso Poland France Germany U.S. Canada UK Israel Australia South Korea Turkey Russia Japan Nigeria India Spain Argentina Chile Venezuela Italy Jordan Malaysia Palest. ter. Indonesia 0 0 20 40 60 80 Percent who say they use the internet at least occasionally or own a smartphone Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q56f, Q70 & Q72. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org 100 %


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10 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Intense support for internet freedom is highest in Argentina, the U.S., Germany and Spain – roughly seven-in-ten in these four nations consider it very important. It is lowest in Burkina Faso and Indonesia (21% very important in both countries). Internet freedom tends to be especially important to younger people, as well as to those who say they use the internet at least occasionally or own a smartphone. There is a strong correlation between the percentage of people in a country who use the internet and the percentage who say a free internet is very important, suggesting that as access to the Web continues to spread around the globe in the coming years, the desire for freedom in cyberspace may grow as well. www.pewresearch.org


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11 PEW RESEARCH CENTER 1. Support for Democratic Principles There is broad support around the world for many of the basic tenets of democracy. In all 38 nations surveyed, majorities say it is at least somewhat important to live in a country with religious freedom, a free press, free speech and competitive elections. In 37 countries, half or more believe it is important for women to have the same rights as men and for people to be able to use the internet without government censorship (Burkina Faso is the exception). Democratic Principles Valued Highly How important is it that __ in our country? Very important Somewhat important People can practice their religion freely 74% Women have the same rights as men 65 Honest elections are held regularly w/ choice of at least two parties 61 Total 94% 91 90 People can say what they want w/o state or gov't censorship 56 89 The media can report news w/o state or gov't censorship 55 88 People can use the internet w/o state or gov't censorship 50 81 Freedom of religion emerges as an especially significant Note: Percentages are global medians based on 38 countries. principle. Across the countries Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q56a-f. polled, a median of 74% say it PEW RESEARCH CENTER is very important for people to be free to practice their religion. Medians of at least 60% say the same about gender equality and holding honest elections regularly with the choice of at least two political parties. There is somewhat less intense support for three values that relate to expression and the exchange of information – free speech, free press and internet freedom – but medians of 50% or more still say these liberties are very important. There are notable differences around the world in the strength of commitment to democratic values. The right to worship freely is particularly significant in sub-Saharan Africa – across the eight nations polled in the region, a median of 87% say this is very important, including 90% in Nigeria and Senegal. Americans are also among the most supportive of religious freedom – 84% in the U.S. say it is very important. Overall, this right is highly valued in the Asia-Pacific region as well, although there is a wide range of opinions, with more than eight-in-ten Pakistanis, Indians and Indonesians describing religious freedom as very important, compared with just 24% in Japan, the lowest share among the countries surveyed. Medians of 73% in the Middle East and 72% in Latin America rate it as very important. The intensity of support is somewhat lower in www.pewresearch.org


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12 PEW RESEARCH CENTER European Union nations, at 63%, though more than half in all six EU countries surveyed nonetheless say the right to worship freely is very important. The other five democratic freedoms tested illustrate a different regional pattern. Support for all five is particularly strong in the U.S., Canada, Latin America and Europe. While majorities generally say these values are important in the Middle East, Africa and the Asia-Pacific region, the intensity of support is lower in these regions. Gender equality is the highest-rated principle in Europe (86% very important) and Latin America (80%). In five of the 38 nations surveyed – Canada, Germany, the UK, Australia and the U.S. – more than nine-in-ten believe it is very important for women to have the same rights as men. This view is less prevalent in the Middle East and Africa. Elections are clearly considered a central component of democracy, and across the 38 nations in the study, a median of 61% think it is very important to have honest, competitive elections with the choice of at least two political parties. However, there are five nations where fewer than half deem this very important: India, Tanzania, Pakistan, Indonesia and Vietnam. Overall, global attitudes toward freedom of speech and freedom of the press are quite similar. A 38-nation median of 56% believe it is very important to live in a country where people can say what they want without government censorship. And 55% think it is very important that the media can report the news without being censored. Opposition to internet censorship is also common around the world. A global median of 50% say an uncensored internet is very important. The highest support for internet freedom tends to be in nations with higher rates of internet usage. And within countries, individuals who report that they use the internet at least occasionally or own a smartphone are more likely to consider freedom in cyberspace very important. This gap between internet users and nonusers is found in economically advanced, emerging and developing nations alike. The divide is widest in Germany, where 74% of internet users say it is very important for the internet to be free of state censorship, compared with just 44% of nonusers. Gaps of 20 percentage points or more are also found in Senegal, Japan, Spain, France, Australia, Israel, the U.S., Italy, Brazil, Uganda and Burkina Faso. www.pewresearch.org


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13 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Broad Support for Fundamental Democratic Principles Very important that __ in our country People can practice their religion freely % Women have the same rights as men % Honest elections are held regularly w/ choice of at least two parties % People can say what they want w/o censorship % The media can report news w/o censorship % People can use the internet w/o censorship % 84 62 91 94 79 81 71 61 67 65 69 60 52 71 75 55 58 68 63 83 92 82 64 88 92 86 66 76 73 58 79 76 75 67 86 62 57 76 57 65 46 73 64 54 75 58 61 50 69 61 55 69 53 58 57 57 86 73 75 73 48 44 75 43 69 48 50 50 89 53 56 53 43 38 85 35 58 43 45 45 73 38 48 45 44 33 64 29 51 44 54 83 83 24 74 84 74 49 46 74 92 71 44 60 42 64 59 64 60 60 75 49 43 60 67 45 55 62 38 55 52 44 29 57 43 51 50 56 38 50 57 41 35 45 44 41 53 52 34 44 53 38 21 40 32 25 40 50 36 38 76 86 75 64 68 66 72 82 82 83 73 78 74 80 80 71 68 59 62 73 70 77 68 76 65 60 69 69 72 71 79 66 65 70 71 71 57 68 54 50 64 61 89 87 75 90 90 78 77 86 87 60 62 74 31 65 45 54 39 67 61 42 50 58 57 65 50 74 57 56 52 58 48 75 57 57 69 61 35 55 43 48 50 56 32 41 46 43 61 56 50 62 53 54 43 60 55 58 55 46 65 55 21 45 31 44 32 55 28 28 32 44 56 50 U.S. Canada Europe France Germany Italy Poland Spain UK MEDIAN Middle East Turkey Jordan Lebanon Palest. ter. Israel MEDIAN Asia/Pacific Australia India Indonesia Japan Malaysia Pakistan Philippines South Korea Vietnam MEDIAN Latin America Argentina Brazil Chile Mexico Peru Venezuela MEDIAN Africa Burkina Faso Ghana Kenya Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tanzania Uganda MEDIAN Russia Ukraine GLOBAL MEDIAN Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q56a-f. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org


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14 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Support for Democratic Values Linked to Education, Income In many nations, people with more education express stronger support for democratic principles, including free expression.1 For instance, in 16 countries, those with higher levels of education are more likely than those with less education to say allowing the media to report the news without state censorship is very important. In 12 nations, the more educated are more supportive of free speech, and in 23 they place greater value on internet freedom. Those with More Education Are More Supportive of Media Freedom Higher-Income People Are More Supportive of Media Freedom Very important that the media can report the news without state or gov’t censorship in our country Very important that the media can report the news without state or gov’t censorship in our country Lower income % Less education % More education % Diff Germany 60 82 +22 Canada France 39 60 +21 South Korea South Korea 41 60 +19 UK Higher income % Diff 59 75 +16 44 59 +15 53 67 +14 Australia 47 65 +18 Ghana 52 66 +14 UK 52 67 +15 Germany 66 79 +13 Spain 71 84 +13 Australia 49 62 +13 U.S. 59 72 +13 U.S. 61 73 +12 Brazil 66 78 +12 Italy 58 69 +11 Ukraine 55 66 +11 India 34 45 +11 Senegal 41 52 +11 France 41 51 +10 Canada 58 68 +10 Philippines 48 57 +9 India 37 47 +10 Spain 72 80 +8 Mexico 63 72 +9 Palest. ter. 34 42 +8 Note: Only statistically significant differences shown. Argentina 70 78 +8 Nigeria 48 56 +8 Japan 42 48 +6 Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q56b. PEW RESEARCH CENTER Note: Only statistically significant differences shown. Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q56b. PEW RESEARCH CENTER 1 For the purpose of comparing educational groups across countries, we standardize education levels based on the UN’s International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED). The lower education category is below secondary education and the higher category is secondary or above in Argentina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chile, Ghana, Kenya, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestinian territories, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela and Vietnam. The lower education category is secondary education or below and the higher category is post-secondary or above in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, UK and U.S. www.pewresearch.org


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15 PEW RESEARCH CENTER People with higher incomes also tend to place greater importance on democratic rights in many countries.2 Looking again at press freedom, in 13 countries, those with higher household incomes are more likely than lower-income people to say allowing the media to report the news without government censorship is very important. People with higher incomes are more likely to say free speech is very important in 12 nations, and are more supportive of freedom on the internet in 21 countries. 2 Respondents with a household income below the approximate country median are considered lower income. Those with an income at or above the approximate country median are considered higher income. www.pewresearch.org


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16 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Religious Freedom and Importance of Religion Support for Religious Freedom by Personal Importance of Religion Freedom of religion is widely embraced around the world, but it is particularly significant to people who place high importance on religion in their lives. In 34 nations, those who say religion is very important in their own lives are more likely to believe it is very important to live in a country where people can practice their religion freely. Very important that people can practice their religion freely in our country The gap on this question between those who indicate religion is very important and those saying it is less important is more than 25 percentage points in Pakistan, Japan, Vietnam, Turkey, South Korea, Australia, Poland and Senegal.3 Pakistan Japan Vietnam Turkey South Korea Australia Poland Senegal UK Burkina Faso Kenya Peru France Venezuela Brazil Canada Uganda Tanzania Philippines Israel South Africa Mexico Spain Malaysia Palest. ter. Ukraine Russia India Argentina Germany Nigeria U.S. Chile Italy Religion is less important personally % 51 20 38 38 43 49 47 64 63 69 56 54 49 58 72 57 70 61 59 70 68 58 54 62 62 60 58 74 72 69 81 79 73 72 Religion is very important personally % 87 53 70 69 73 78 76 91 87 91 78 75 70 78 91 75 87 78 76 86 84 74 70 77 76 73 71 86 83 80 91 89 82 81 Diff +36 +33 +32 +31 +30 +29 +29 +27 +24 +22 +22 +21 +21 +20 +19 +18 +17 +17 +17 +16 +16 +16 +16 +15 +14 +13 +13 +12 +11 +11 +10 +10 +9 +9 Note: Only statistically significant differences shown. Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q56a. PEW RESEARCH CENTER 3 Religion is less important personally includes respondents who said religion is “somewhat important,” “not too important” and “not at all important.” www.pewresearch.org


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17 PEW RESEARCH CENTER A Wide Gender Gap on Equal Rights for Women On the issue of gender equality, there are sharp differences between men and women in most of the countries in the study. In 24 nations, women are more likely than men to say it is very important for women to have equal rights in their country. Gender gaps are particularly common in many emerging and developing nations. For instance, the difference between men and women is more than 20 percentage points in Tanzania, Pakistan, Uganda and Senegal. Japan is the only nation surveyed where men (67% very important) express stronger support for gender equality than women do (53%). Women More Likely to Prioritize Gender Equality Very important that women have the same rights as men in our country Men % Women % Diff Tanzania 48 73 +25 Pakistan 52 76 +24 Uganda 30 53 +23 Senegal 28 51 +23 Russia 49 66 +17 47 62 +15 Indonesia 36 51 +15 Israel 62 76 +14 Poland 57 70 +13 Lebanon 69 81 +12 Ukraine 50 62 +12 Venezuela 68 79 +11 Chile 79 88 +9 Philippines 54 63 +9 Kenya Education is also a strong predictor of how people view gender equality. In 20 nations, those with higher levels of education are more likely than those with less education to consider equal rights for women very important. Nigeria 40 49 +9 Palest. ter. 39 48 +9 Malaysia 38 47 +9 Peru 74 82 +8 Ghana 62 69 +7 Brazil 79 85 +6 Italy 79 85 +6 Burkina Faso 28 34 +6 UK 89 94 +5 France 81 86 +5 Note: Only statistically significant differences shown. Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q56c. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org


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18 PEW RESEARCH CENTER 2. The Boundaries of Free Speech and a Free Press In general, most publics around the world say that free speech and a free press are very important to have in their country. However, support for both is contingent on the topic of the speech. While majorities think people should be able to critique the government in public, there is less support for being able to say things that are offensive either to minorities or religious groups. And very few approve of public speech that is sexually explicit or that calls for violent protests. Widespread majorities believe the press should be able to publish information about protests in the country or economic issues that might destabilize the economy. However, with the exception of Latin American publics, relatively few support allowing the press to freely publish on sensitive issues related to national security. Broad Support for Speech Criticizing the Government, but Not Much Else Large majorities across the globe say people should be able to criticize their government’s policies publicly without interference from the state. Opinion on this issue is especially uniform in the U.S., Canada and Europe, where roughly nine-in-ten or more in each country surveyed say people should have this right. Publics in Latin America are also particularly supportive of being able to criticize the government, with more than eight-in-ten in most countries taking this position. Peruvians stand out as less likely to approve of this type of speech, though roughly three-quarters (76%) still say people should be able to speak out against the state. Ukrainians also broadly think people should be able to criticize government policies in public (87%), while Russians are somewhat less likely to say the same (72%). Other publics around the world are less supportive of publicly criticizing the government, though majorities still approve of this type of speech in many countries. Six-in-ten or more in all eight sub-Saharan African countries surveyed say people should be able to denounce government policies in public. Eight-in-ten take this position in Burkina Faso and Tanzania, with Ghana close behind at 79%. Ugandans (61%) and Senegalese (60%) are less supportive. A median of 74% across the five Middle Eastern countries surveyed say people should be able to complain publicly about the government. This region, however, is particularly divided on the issue. More than nine-in-ten in Lebanon and Israel support criticizing the state in public. Nearly three-quarters in the Palestinian territories say the same (74%). Jordanians (64%) and Turks (52%), meanwhile, are less likely to approve. Roughly a quarter or more in Turkey (39%) and Jordan (26%) say the government should be able to prevent people from being critical of the state. www.pewresearch.org


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19 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Publics Worldwide Support Right to Criticize Their Government People should be able to make statements that __ publicly Criticize the government’s policies % Are offensive to minority groups % Are offensive to your religion or beliefs % Are sexually explicit % Call for violent protests % 95 93 67 52 77 64 52 37 44 29 96 94 93 89 89 88 57 54 27 51 41 32 54 57 38 53 40 29 32 22 11 32 60 30 91 46 47 70 31 23 41 50 36 39 31 98 93 74 64 52 1 36 24 6 25 1 32 20 4 24 34 41 17 7 20 6 15 30 13 24 74 24 20 20 15 95 73 72 72 70 67 63 61 54 56 58 26 23 42 14 27 34 16 62 59 28 26 51 24 26 37 20 33 42 22 15 17 10 * 9 11 35 50 25 22 24 9 25 20 20 70 27 28 16 24 94 91 90 89 84 76 29 49 48 53 65 51 26 40 43 51 56 50 27 27 23 37 36 30 27 21 20 35 39 35 90 50 47 29 31 80 80 79 74 71 64 61 60 73 87 72 80 16 66 41 42 31 51 27 10 36 18 26 35 11 40 27 43 33 50 17 6 30 12 22 35 13 26 21 30 22 36 13 13 22 8 16 26 11 25 17 30 25 42 19 9 22 8 17 25 U.S. Canada Europe Spain UK Germany France Poland Italy MEDIAN Middle East Lebanon Israel Palest. ter. Jordan Turkey MEDIAN Asia/Pacific Australia Philippines India Indonesia South Korea Japan Malaysia Vietnam Pakistan MEDIAN Latin America Chile Argentina Brazil Venezuela Mexico Peru MEDIAN Africa Burkina Faso Tanzania Ghana Kenya Nigeria South Africa Uganda Senegal MEDIAN Ukraine Russia GLOBAL MEDIAN *Question not asked in Malaysia. Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q30a-e. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org


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20 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Overall, a median of 70% in the Asia-Pacific region say people should be able to denounce the government publicly. Australians stand out for being particularly supportive (95%), while Pakistanis express the lowest level of approval of this type of speech (54%). When it comes to other topics, publics around the world are more divided. Americans (67%) and Canadians (52%) express some of the highest support for being able to say things in public that are offensive to minorities, as do those in a few countries in Latin America and Europe. At least half in the Philippines, Australia, Tanzania and South Africa also say people should be able to say these types of things publicly. In most of the other countries surveyed, however, majorities say the government should be able to prevent speech that is offensive to minority groups. A similar pattern emerges on the issue of religion. Roughly six-in-ten or more in the U.S. (77%), Canada (64%), Australia (62%), and the Philippines (59%) support allowing speech that is offensive to their own religious beliefs. Europeans and Latin Americans are divided, while most people in the Middle East, Africa and other Asian nations support the government restricting this type of speech. Few people around the world believe that people should be able to say things that are sexually explicit, such as sexually graphic jokes, in public. Majorities in most countries think the government should be able to restrict this type of speech. The few countries where at least half support being able to say these things in public are Spain (70%), the U.S. (52%) and Poland (50%). Broad majorities in nearly every country surveyed also think the government should be able to prevent people from calling for violent protests in public. Opposition to this type of speech is particularly widespread in Lebanon (94%), Senegal (89%) and Germany (88%). Filipinos, South Africans and Americans are somewhat more divided, while only in Poland does a majority (60%) say this type of speech should be allowed in public. www.pewresearch.org


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21 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Free Press Supported except on Matters of National Security At least three-quarters in each country surveyed in Europe and Latin America, as well as in the U.S. and Canada, say the media should be able to publish information about protests in the country without government interference. Similarly, 82% in Ukraine support this type of free press. Two-thirds in Russia agree. There is also widespread support in Africa for the media publishing information about protests. More than six-in-ten in each country surveyed approve of this type of free press, including more than three-quarters in Burkina Faso (83%), Ghana (79%), Kenya (78%) and Tanzania (77%). Opinion on this aspect of a free press is more divided in the Middle East and Asia-Pacific regions. Overall, a median of 72% in the Middle Eastern countries surveyed say the press should be able to publish information about protests in the country. Lebanese (92%) and Israelis (91%) are particularly supportive, but Turks are more divided (50% say press should be able to publish, 40% say government should restrict). In the Asia-Pacific region, Australians (89%) express the highest level of support for the press publishing information about protests, while much smaller majorities in Indonesia (58%) and Pakistan (56%) agree. The Vietnamese are divided on the issue (42% press publish, 49% government restrict). Support for Media Coverage of Political Protests __ about large political protests in our country Gov't should be able to prevent media orgs. from publishing information Canada 8% U.S. 11 Spain Poland Italy Germany UK France MEDIAN 8 12 27 Lebanon Israel Palest. ter. Jordan Turkey MEDIAN 8 7 24 32 40 24 Australia India Japan Philippines South Korea Malaysia Indonesia Pakistan Vietnam MEDIAN 9 21 19 31 30 32 36 33 Burkina Faso Ghana Kenya Tanzania Uganda South Africa Nigeria Senegal MEDIAN GLOBAL MEDIAN 95 90 87 87 84 78 87 4 11 12 11 22 11 Ukraine Russia Brazil Chile Argentina Venezuela Mexico Peru MEDIAN Media orgs. should be able to publish information 89% 86 49 31 67 50 42 www.pewresearch.org 72 60 8 6 10 11 13 22 11 13 20 21 21 25 23 29 33 22 21 92 91 72 74 70 69 68 62 58 56 Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q31a. PEW RESEARCH CENTER 82 89 68 92 91 88 88 84 76 88 83 79 78 77 74 70 68 64 76 78


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22 PEW RESEARCH CENTER When it comes to reporting on economic issues that might destabilize the country’s economy, support for a free press continues to be highest in the U.S., Canada, Europe and Latin America. Support is lower in Africa and in the AsiaPacific region. While majorities in many of the countries say the press should be able to publish information that might harm the economy, significant percentages also believe that the government should be able to restrict this type of press. This includes half or more in Senegal, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Pakistan and Vietnam. In the Middle East, Israel is the only country where a majority of the public says the press should be able to report on economic issues that might be destabilizing. In the other four countries surveyed, roughly half or more say the government should be able to regulate this type of reporting, including nearly six-in-ten in Jordan (58%). Support for Media Coverage of Economically Destabilizing Issues __ about economic issues that might destabilize the country’s economy Gov't should be able to Media orgs. should prevent media orgs. from be able to publish publishing information information Canada 81% 14% U.S. 81 15 Spain Poland UK France Italy Germany MEDIAN Russia Ukraine Israel Lebanon Palest. ter. Jordan Turkey MEDIAN Australia Indonesia South Korea Malaysia Japan Philippines India Vietnam Pakistan MEDIAN 83 78 78 77 74 72 78 16 14 17 23 23 25 20 39 49 49 51 58 51 51 34 39 53 58 50 44 36 32 44 77 19 59 35 58 40 57 38 55 36 55 44 47 45 41 50 22 60 55 40 Brazil Venezuela Mexico Chile Argentina Peru MEDIAN 22 22 22 20 26 32 22 77 77 76 73 69 65 75 Tanzania Uganda South Africa Ghana Kenya Nigeria Burkina Faso Senegal MEDIAN 18 31 33 38 47 56 62 74 43 79 69 59 59 52 40 32 24 56 GLOBAL MEDIAN 35 Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q31b. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org 59


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23 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Roughly half or more in 27 of the 38 countries surveyed say the government should be able to prevent the media from publishing information about sensitive issues related to national security. This includes majorities in many of the publics that expressed widespread support for free speech and a free press on other topics, such as the UK (66% say government should be able to restrict), the U.S. (59%), Canada (56%) and France (54%). Latin American countries, on the other hand, continue to support this type of free press. At least six-in-ten in Venezuela, Argentina, Mexico, Chile and Peru say the media should be able to publish on sensitive national security issues. The few other countries where clear majorities agree are Poland (76%), Uganda (66%), Spain (60%) and Italy (58%). Opposition to Media Coverage of Sensitive National Security Issues __ about sensitive issues related to national security Gov't should be able to prevent media orgs. from publishing information Canada 56% U.S. 59 Poland Spain Italy Germany France UK MEDIAN Russia Ukraine Jordan Palest. ter. Lebanon Turkey Israel MEDIAN 66 73 42 50 49 78 29 18 www.pewresearch.org 76 53 39 50 43 42 40 38 37 30 29 20 38 22 22 26 26 36 75 74 71 64 61 50 68 26 33 46 39 48 57 63 60 53 53 53 48 40 34 33 19 44 52 40 Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q31c. PEW RESEARCH CENTER 60 58 48 46 37 34 32 26 18 32 48 48 48 55 50 59 65 60 60 55 Venezuela Argentina Mexico Chile Peru Brazil MEDIAN GLOBAL MEDIAN 18 54 57 65 59 74 59 Philippines India Indonesia Malaysia Japan South Korea Australia Vietnam Pakistan MEDIAN Uganda Kenya South Africa Nigeria Ghana Tanzania Burkina Faso Senegal MEDIAN 37 36 47 54 Media orgs. should be able to publish information 37% 35 66


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24 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Divides over Free Speech and Free Press In general, people who say it is very important to have free speech and a free press in their country are also more supportive than others of allowing speech across various controversial topics. For example, in the U.S., 60% of those who prioritize free speech think that right should extend to people’s freedom to say sexually explicit things in public. Among those for whom free speech is less of a priority, just 31% agree. Similarly, in Italy, 66% of people who say a free press is very important believe that the media should be able to publish sensitive issues related to national security. By comparison, 45% of Italians who do not prioritize a free press as intensely say the same. Educational Divide on Freedom to Critique Government in Public People should be able to make statements that criticize the government’s policies publicly Less education % More education % Diff South Korea 59 79 +20 Senegal 57 76 +19 Burkina Faso 78 94 +16 Uganda 59 75 +16 Pakistan 49 63 +14 Tanzania 79 92 +13 Japan 62 75 +13 85 96 +11 Peru 69 80 +11 Brazil There are also some notable demographic differences on these issues. In many countries, people with a higher level of education are more likely than those with less education to support being able to criticize government policies in public. A similar educational divide is found over allowing the media to cover large political protests in the country. France 86 96 +10 Mexico 81 91 +10 Poland 81 91 +10 Germany 88 97 +9 India 68 77 +9 Palestinian ter. 70 78 +8 Indonesia 69 77 +8 Philippines 69 77 +8 Chile 88 95 +7 Ghana 77 84 +7 Israel 91 96 +5 People who are religiously devout are less Canada 90 95 Argentina 89 94 supportive of being able to say things that are 87 92 offensive to religious groups or that are sexually Italy Spain 95 99 explicit, especially in Europe, the U.S. and UK 94 98 Canada. For example, 46% of Americans who U.S. 93 96 pray daily think people should be able to make Note: Only statistically significant differences shown. statements in public that are sexually explicit, Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q30a. while 58% of Americans who pray less often say PEW RESEARCH CENTER the same. In France, 43% of people who say religion is very important in their lives believe people should be able to say things that are offensive to religious groups in public. A majority (55%) of those for whom religion is less important agree. www.pewresearch.org +5 +5 +5 +4 +4 +3


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25 PEW RESEARCH CENTER In 16 of the 38 countries surveyed, people ages 18 to 29 are more likely than those ages 50 and older to say that people should be able to make sexually explicit statements in public. And young people in Europe, Canada, the U.S., Australia, South Korea, Russia and Senegal are more supportive than their elders of the press being able to publish sensitive information about national security issues. Finally, there is evidence that in some countries people who are part of a minority group are less supportive of being able to say things that are offensive to minority groups in general. For example, in the U.S., non-whites (57%), including Hispanics, are much less likely to agree that people should be able to say these types of statements in public than are whites (72%). Similarly, Arabs in Israel (15%) are less supportive of this form of speech than Jews (39%). Young Favor Transparency on National Security Issues Media organizations should be able to publish information about sensitive issues related to national security Youngestoldest diff 18-29 % South Korea 30-49 % 50+ % 52 49 19 +33 Australia 44 32 23 +21 UK 43 28 24 +19 Senegal 26 17 8 +18 Canada 46 38 32 +14 Poland 82 81 69 +13 France 53 52 40 +13 Russia 46 42 33 +13 U.S. 44 34 31 +13 Italy 66 60 54 +12 Spain 65 63 54 +11 Note: Only statistically significant differences shown. Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q31c. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org


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26 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Appendix A Free Expression Index To explore how countries compare on attitudes about free expression, we developed an additive free expression index. The index combines responses for eight survey questions that ask about whether certain types of speech and press should be censored. Of the questions included in the index, five questions ask about free speech, including whether people should be allowed to make public statements that criticize the government’s policies, are offensive to minority groups, call for violent protests, are offensive to their religion or beliefs or are sexually explicit. Three questions ask about free press, including whether media organizations should be allowed to publish information about large political protests in that country, sensitive issues related to national security or economic issues that might destabilize the country’s economy. Responses for each of the eight questions are dichotomous (0 or 1), where 1 indicates support for allowing free speech or press in a particular situation and 0 indicates support for government restrictions on free expression in some circumstances. For instance, those who believe people should be allowed to publicly make statements that are offensive to minorities are coded as a 1, while those who say such statements should be prohibited by the government are coded as a 0. Similarly, those who say media organizations should be able to publish information about large political protests in their country are coded as a 1, while those who disagree are coded as a 0. The responses for the eight questions are added U.S. Most Supportive of Free Expression, Senegal Least Free expression index U.S. Canada 5.73 5.08 Poland Spain UK France Italy Germany 5.66 5.62 4.78 4.72 4.69 4.34 Russia Ukraine 3.34 2.85 Israel Palest. ter. Turkey Lebanon Jordan 4.02 3.42 3.28 3.16 2.53 Australia Philippines South Korea India Indonesia Japan Vietnam Pakistan 3.83 3.68 3.46 3.27 2.96 2.78 Mexico Venezuela Argentina Peru Chile Brazil South Africa Tanzania Kenya Ghana Nigeria Uganda Burkina Faso Senegal 4.94 4.60 5.40 5.17 4.83 4.63 4.58 4.48 2.06 MEAN 4.80 4.38 4.04 3.73 3.51 3.47 2.94 4.07 Note: Malaysia not included in index. Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q30a-e & Q31a-c. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org


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27 PEW RESEARCH CENTER together for an index ranging from 0 to 8, where 0 is the least supportive of civil liberties and 8 is the most supportive. Index scores are only calculated for respondents who gave substantive answers to all eight questions, comprising a large sub-sample of the total sample (n=32,349). Those who replied “Don’t know/Refused” on any of the eight questions were not included in the index. The question about whether people should be allowed to make sexually explicit statements publicly was not asked in Malaysia. Consequently, no index score was calculated for that country. The alpha coefficient for the index was 0.73. We report the mean score for each country in our analysis. On a scale of 0 to 8, index scores range between 2.06 in Senegal and 5.73 in the United States, with an overall average of 4.07 for all valid responses. www.pewresearch.org


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28 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Appendix B Country Specific Examples of Smartphones Country Argentina Australia Brazil Burkina Faso Canada Chile China Ethiopia France Germany Ghana India Indonesia Israel Italy Japan Jordan Kenya Lebanon Malaysia Mexico Nigeria Pakistan Palest. ter. Peru Philippines Poland Russia Senegal South Africa South Korea Spain Tanzania Turkey Uganda Ukraine UK U.S. Venezuela Vietnam Some cell phones are called "smartphones" because they can access the internet and apps. Is your cell phone a smartphone, such as a(n) … iPhone, Samsung Galaxy, Blackberry iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy, etc. iPhone, Blackberry, Galaxy, etc. iPhone, Blackberry, Chinese smartphone, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Android iPhone, Samsung Galaxy, Blackberry iPhone, Blackberry, Lenovo music phone, Samsung, HTC, and other brands of smartphones Techno, Smadl, Huawei, Samsung, iPhone, Blackberry, etc. iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung S4 iPhone, Samsung Galaxy, Blackberry, or similar iPhone, Blackberry, Nokia X3, Samsung S4 iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung smartphone, Nokia Lumia iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy, Sony Xperia iPhone, Samsung Galaxy, LG, HTC, Sony iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Ideos, Samsung iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung, HTC iPhone, Blackberry, Galaxy, etc. iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy, Techno iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy, etc. iPhone, BlackBerry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung S3, Sony Ericsson Xperia, HTC iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy, HTC, LG iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy, Nokia Lumia No examples listed iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy, Nokia E5 iPhone, Blackberry, Techno, HTC iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung, or other Android phone iPhone, Blackberry, Android iPhone, Blackberry, or Android (like Samsung Galaxy) iPhone, Blackberry, Samsung Galaxy, Nokia Lumia Source: Spring 2015 Global Attitudes survey. Q72. PEW RESEARCH CENTER www.pewresearch.org


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29 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Methodology About the Pew Research Center’s Spring 2015 Global Attitudes Survey Results for the survey are based on telephone and face-to-face interviews conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International. The results are based on national samples, unless otherwise noted. More details about our international survey methodology and country-specific sample designs are available on our website. For more detailed information on survey methods for this report, see here: http://www.pewglobal.org/international-survey-methodology/?year_select=2015 For more general information on international survey research, see here: http://www.pewresearch.org/methodology/international-survey-research/ www.pewresearch.org


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30 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Topline Results Pew Research Center Spring 2015 survey November 18, 2015 Release Methodological notes:  Survey results are based on national samples. For further details on sample designs, see Methodology section and our international survey methods database.  Due to rounding, percentages may not total 100%. The topline “total” columns show 100%, because they are based on unrounded numbers.  Since 2007, the Pew Research Center has used an automated process to generate toplines for its Global Attitudes surveys. As a result, numbers may differ slightly from those published prior to 2007.  Throughout this report, trends from India in 2013 refer to a survey conducted between December 7, 2013, and January 12, 2014 (Winter 2013-2014).  Spring, 2011 survey in Pakistan was fielded before the death of Osama bin Laden (April 10 – April 26), while the Late Spring, 2011 survey was conducted afterwards (May 8 – May 15).  Results for Ukraine in 2014 may differ from previously published figures. To make the 2014 sample comparable to 2015, Luhans’k, Donets’k and Crimea were excluded from the 2014 sample. These areas were not surveyed in 2015 due to security concerns. Throughout the topline results, 2014 Ukraine figures are noted with an asterisk.  For some countries, trends for certain years are omitted due to differences in sample design or population coverage. Omitted trends often reflect less representative samples than more recent surveys in the same countries. Trends that are omitted include: ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ Ukraine prior to 2014 Vietnam prior to 2014 India prior to Winter 2013-2014 Senegal prior to 2013 Venezuela prior to 2013 Brazil prior to 2010 www.pewresearch.org


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31 PEW RESEARCH CENTER ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐  Nigeria prior to 2010 South Africa in 2007 Indonesia prior to 2005 Pakistan in May 2003 Poland in March 2003 Russia in March 2003 and Fall 2002 Not all questions included in the Spring 2015 survey are presented in this topline. Omitted questions have either been previously released or will be released in future reports. www.pewresearch.org


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32 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q30a. Do you think people should be able to say these types of things publicly OR the government should be able to prevent people from saying these things in some circumstances. a. statements that criticize the government's policies People should be able to say these things publicly Government should be able to prevent people from saying these things DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 95 4 1 100 Canada Spring, 2015 93 5 2 100 France Spring, 2015 89 11 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 93 5 1 100 Italy Spring, 2015 88 10 3 100 Poland Spring, 2015 89 8 4 100 Spain Spring, 2015 96 3 1 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 94 4 1 100 Russia Spring, 2015 72 24 3 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 87 8 5 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 52 39 9 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 64 26 10 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 98 1 1 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 74 22 4 100 Israel Spring, 2015 93 5 1 100 Australia Spring, 2015 95 4 2 100 India Spring, 2015 72 24 4 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 72 23 5 100 Japan Spring, 2015 67 26 7 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 63 32 4 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 54 31 15 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 73 26 0 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 70 28 2 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 61 29 10 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 91 7 2 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 90 9 1 100 Chile Spring, 2015 94 4 2 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 84 14 2 100 Peru Spring, 2015 76 20 4 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 89 10 1 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 80 17 3 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 79 20 1 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 74 25 1 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 71 27 2 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 60 39 1 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 64 29 7 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 80 19 1 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 61 39 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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33 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q30b. Do you think people should be able to say these types of things publicly OR the government should be able to prevent people from saying these things in some circumstances. b. statements that are offensive to minority groups People should be able to say these things publicly Government should be able to prevent people from saying these things DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 67 28 5 100 Canada Spring, 2015 52 37 11 100 France Spring, 2015 51 48 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 27 70 3 100 Italy Spring, 2015 32 62 6 100 Poland Spring, 2015 41 50 9 100 Spain Spring, 2015 57 40 3 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 54 38 8 100 Russia Spring, 2015 26 62 12 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 18 73 9 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 25 55 20 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 6 93 1 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 1 99 0 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 24 68 7 100 Israel Spring, 2015 36 59 5 100 Australia Spring, 2015 56 36 8 100 India Spring, 2015 26 67 7 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 23 69 8 100 Japan Spring, 2015 14 79 7 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 27 67 6 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 16 67 17 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 58 41 1 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 42 56 3 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 34 54 12 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 49 44 7 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 48 49 3 100 Chile Spring, 2015 29 65 6 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 65 31 4 100 Peru Spring, 2015 51 43 6 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 53 44 3 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 16 81 3 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 41 57 2 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 42 57 1 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 31 66 3 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 10 88 2 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 51 40 9 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 66 32 2 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 27 72 1 100 www.pewresearch.org


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34 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q30c. Do you think people should be able to say these types of things publicly OR the government should be able to prevent people from saying these things in some circumstances. c. statements that are offensive to your religion or beliefs People should be able to say these things publicly Government should be able to prevent people from saying these things DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 77 20 3 100 Canada Spring, 2015 64 29 7 100 France Spring, 2015 53 46 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 38 58 4 100 Italy Spring, 2015 29 65 6 100 Poland Spring, 2015 40 51 9 100 Spain Spring, 2015 54 42 4 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 57 36 7 100 Russia Spring, 2015 22 69 9 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 12 79 9 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 24 61 15 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 4 94 2 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 1 99 1 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 20 75 6 100 Israel Spring, 2015 32 65 3 100 Australia Spring, 2015 62 32 6 100 India Spring, 2015 28 65 7 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 26 67 8 100 Japan Spring, 2015 24 65 11 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 26 69 5 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 20 67 13 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 59 40 1 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 51 45 4 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 37 53 10 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 40 54 6 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 43 57 1 100 Chile Spring, 2015 26 68 6 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 56 40 4 100 Peru Spring, 2015 50 45 5 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 51 46 3 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 11 87 2 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 27 72 1 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 43 55 1 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 33 63 4 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 6 92 2 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 50 40 10 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 40 59 1 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 17 82 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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35 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q30d. Do you think people should be able to say these types of things publicly OR the government should be able to prevent people from saying these things in some circumstances. d. statements that call for violent protests People should be able to say these things publicly Government should be able to prevent people from saying these things DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 44 51 5 100 Canada Spring, 2015 29 64 7 100 France Spring, 2015 32 67 1 100 Germany Spring, 2015 11 88 2 100 Italy Spring, 2015 30 64 6 100 Poland Spring, 2015 60 29 12 100 Spain Spring, 2015 32 65 3 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 22 72 6 100 Russia Spring, 2015 17 77 6 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 8 81 11 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 24 57 19 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 13 81 6 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 6 94 1 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 30 63 7 100 Israel Spring, 2015 15 82 4 100 Australia Spring, 2015 35 58 7 100 India Spring, 2015 25 67 8 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 22 69 10 100 Japan Spring, 2015 9 85 6 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 25 69 6 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 20 65 14 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 50 48 2 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 24 74 2 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 20 72 8 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 21 74 6 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 20 80 0 100 Chile Spring, 2015 27 66 6 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 39 56 5 100 Peru Spring, 2015 35 60 5 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 35 62 2 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 11 85 4 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 17 81 2 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 30 68 2 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 25 71 4 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 9 89 2 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 42 48 10 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 25 73 3 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 19 80 1 100 www.pewresearch.org


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36 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q30e. Do you think people should be able to say these types of things publicly OR the government should be able to prevent people from saying these things in some circumstances. e. statements that are sexually explicit People should be able to say these things publicly Government should be able to prevent people from saying these things DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 52 43 5 100 Canada Spring, 2015 37 53 10 100 France Spring, 2015 41 59 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 23 74 3 100 Italy Spring, 2015 36 57 8 100 Poland Spring, 2015 50 35 14 100 Spain Spring, 2015 70 26 4 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 31 61 8 100 Russia Spring, 2015 16 76 8 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 8 82 10 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 20 62 18 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 7 90 2 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 34 64 2 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 17 75 8 100 Israel Spring, 2015 41 49 10 100 Australia Spring, 2015 33 62 5 100 India Spring, 2015 22 64 14 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 15 69 16 100 Japan Spring, 2015 10 84 6 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 11 68 20 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 42 56 3 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 17 81 1 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 9 81 9 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 27 66 7 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 23 76 2 100 Chile Spring, 2015 27 66 8 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 36 56 8 100 Peru Spring, 2015 30 62 9 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 37 60 3 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 13 74 13 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 21 75 4 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 30 66 4 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 22 71 7 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 13 82 4 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 36 50 14 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 26 68 5 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 13 87 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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37 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q31a. Do you think media organizations should be able to publish information about these types of things OR the government should be able to prevent media organizations from publishing information about these types of things in some circumstances. a. large political protests in our country Media organizations should be able to publish information about these things Government should be able to prevent media organizations from publishing information about these things Spring, 2015 86 11 3 100 Spring, 2015 89 8 3 100 Spring, 2015 78 22 0 100 Spring, 2015 87 12 1 100 Spring, 2015 87 11 2 100 Poland Spring, 2015 90 8 2 100 Spain Spring, 2015 95 4 1 100 Spring, 2015 84 11 4 100 Spring, 2015 67 27 6 100 Spring, 2015 82 12 6 100 Spring, 2015 50 40 10 100 Spring, 2015 60 32 8 100 Spring, 2015 92 8 0 100 Spring, 2015 72 24 4 100 Israel Spring, 2015 91 7 2 100 Australia Spring, 2015 89 9 2 100 Spring, 2015 74 21 5 100 Spring, 2015 58 36 7 100 Spring, 2015 70 19 11 100 Spring, 2015 62 32 6 100 Spring, 2015 56 33 11 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 69 31 1 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 68 30 2 100 Spring, 2015 42 49 9 100 Spring, 2015 88 10 2 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 92 8 1 100 Chile Spring, 2015 91 6 3 100 Spring, 2015 84 13 2 100 Spring, 2015 76 22 2 100 Spring, 2015 88 11 1 100 Spring, 2015 83 13 5 100 Spring, 2015 79 20 2 100 Spring, 2015 78 21 1 100 Spring, 2015 68 29 3 100 Spring, 2015 64 33 3 100 Spring, 2015 70 23 7 100 Spring, 2015 77 21 2 100 Spring, 2015 74 25 1 100 United States Canada France Germany Italy United Kingdom Russia Ukraine Turkey Jordan Lebanon Palest. ter. India Indonesia Japan Malaysia Pakistan Vietnam Argentina Mexico Peru Venezuela Burkina Faso Ghana Kenya Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tanzania Uganda www.pewresearch.org DK/Refused Total


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38 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q31b. Do you think media organizations should be able to publish information about these types of things OR the government should be able to prevent media organizations from publishing information about these types of things in some circumstances. b. economic issues that might destabilize the country's economy Media organizations should be able to publish information about these things Government should be able to prevent media organizations from publishing information about these things Spring, 2015 81 15 4 100 Spring, 2015 81 14 5 100 Spring, 2015 77 23 0 100 Spring, 2015 72 25 3 100 Spring, 2015 74 23 4 100 Spring, 2015 78 14 7 100 Spring, 2015 83 16 1 100 Spring, 2015 78 17 5 100 Spring, 2015 53 39 8 100 Spring, 2015 39 49 13 100 Spring, 2015 32 51 18 100 Spring, 2015 36 58 6 100 Spring, 2015 50 49 1 100 Spring, 2015 44 51 5 100 Spring, 2015 58 34 8 100 Spring, 2015 77 19 4 100 Spring, 2015 47 45 8 100 Spring, 2015 59 35 6 100 Spring, 2015 55 36 9 100 Spring, 2015 57 38 4 100 Spring, 2015 22 60 18 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 55 44 1 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 58 40 2 100 Spring, 2015 41 50 9 100 Spring, 2015 69 26 5 100 Spring, 2015 77 22 1 100 Spring, 2015 73 20 7 100 Spring, 2015 76 22 3 100 Spring, 2015 65 32 3 100 Spring, 2015 77 22 1 100 Spring, 2015 32 62 6 100 Spring, 2015 59 38 3 100 Spring, 2015 52 47 1 100 Spring, 2015 40 56 4 100 Spring, 2015 24 74 3 100 Spring, 2015 59 33 8 100 Spring, 2015 79 18 2 100 Spring, 2015 69 31 0 100 United States Canada France Germany Italy Poland Spain United Kingdom Russia Ukraine Turkey Jordan Lebanon Palest. ter. Israel Australia India Indonesia Japan Malaysia Pakistan Vietnam Argentina Brazil Chile Mexico Peru Venezuela Burkina Faso Ghana Kenya Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tanzania Uganda www.pewresearch.org DK/Refused Total


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39 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q31c. Do you think media organizations should be able to publish information about these types of things OR the government should be able to prevent media organizations from publishing information about these types of things in some circumstances. c. sensitive issues related to national security Media organizations should be able to publish information about these things Government should be able to prevent media organizations from publishing information about these things Spring, 2015 35 59 6 100 Spring, 2015 37 56 7 100 Spring, 2015 46 54 0 100 Spring, 2015 48 47 4 100 Spring, 2015 58 36 6 100 Spring, 2015 76 18 6 100 Spring, 2015 60 37 4 100 Spring, 2015 29 66 5 100 Spring, 2015 39 50 11 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 18 73 9 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 26 59 15 100 Spring, 2015 37 54 9 100 Spring, 2015 32 65 3 100 Spring, 2015 34 57 9 100 Spring, 2015 18 74 7 100 Spring, 2015 30 65 4 100 Spring, 2015 43 48 9 100 Spring, 2015 42 48 9 100 Spring, 2015 38 50 12 100 Spring, 2015 40 55 5 100 Spring, 2015 20 60 20 100 Spring, 2015 50 48 2 100 Spring, 2015 37 59 4 100 Spring, 2015 29 60 11 100 Spring, 2015 74 22 4 100 Spring, 2015 50 49 1 100 Spring, 2015 64 26 10 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 71 26 3 100 Peru Spring, 2015 61 36 4 100 Spring, 2015 75 22 2 100 Spring, 2015 33 60 7 100 Spring, 2015 40 57 3 100 Spring, 2015 53 46 1 100 Spring, 2015 48 48 4 100 Spring, 2015 19 78 4 100 Spring, 2015 53 39 9 100 Spring, 2015 34 63 3 100 Spring, 2015 66 33 1 100 United States Canada France Germany Italy Poland Spain United Kingdom Russia Jordan Lebanon Palest. ter. Israel Australia India Indonesia Japan Malaysia Pakistan Philippines South Korea Vietnam Argentina Brazil Chile Venezuela Burkina Faso Ghana Kenya Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tanzania Uganda www.pewresearch.org DK/Refused Total


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40 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q56a. How important is it to have ____ in our country? Is it very important, somewhat important, not too important or not important at all? a. people can practice their religion freely Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not important at all DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 84 12 1 1 1 100 Canada Spring, 2015 62 26 4 5 2 100 France Spring, 2015 52 34 7 6 1 100 Germany Spring, 2015 71 22 4 3 0 100 Italy Spring, 2015 75 20 4 1 1 100 Poland Spring, 2015 55 37 6 0 2 100 Spain Spring, 2015 58 29 7 5 1 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 68 22 6 4 1 100 Russia Spring, 2015 60 34 3 1 1 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 62 28 6 1 3 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 57 22 12 7 3 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 57 33 6 3 2 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 86 12 2 0 0 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 73 21 4 1 1 100 Israel Spring, 2015 75 22 2 0 0 100 Australia Spring, 2015 54 32 6 6 2 100 India Spring, 2015 83 13 1 0 2 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 83 13 1 1 2 100 Japan Spring, 2015 24 38 28 6 5 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 74 18 4 2 2 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 84 11 2 1 2 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 74 24 2 0 0 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 49 39 9 3 1 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 46 29 14 5 6 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 76 18 4 1 1 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 86 13 1 0 0 100 Chile Spring, 2015 75 19 3 1 0 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 64 25 9 2 0 100 Peru Spring, 2015 68 27 4 0 0 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 66 31 3 0 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 89 8 2 1 0 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 87 10 2 1 0 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 75 21 3 1 0 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 90 9 1 0 0 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 90 6 2 2 0 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 78 16 4 1 1 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 77 17 5 1 0 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 86 8 4 2 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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41 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q56b. How important is it to have ____ in our country? Is it very important, somewhat important, not too important or not important at all? b. the media can report the news without <state or government> censorship Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not important at all DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 67 27 3 2 1 100 Canada Spring, 2015 65 29 3 1 3 100 France Spring, 2015 46 42 8 4 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 73 20 4 1 2 100 Italy Spring, 2015 64 27 6 2 0 100 Poland Spring, 2015 54 37 6 0 2 100 Spain Spring, 2015 75 20 3 1 0 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 58 29 5 3 5 100 Russia Spring, 2015 46 40 11 1 3 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 65 29 4 0 1 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 45 25 12 11 7 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 45 29 17 8 0 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 73 19 7 1 0 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 38 41 16 4 1 100 Israel Spring, 2015 48 39 8 4 0 100 Australia Spring, 2015 57 32 6 2 3 100 India Spring, 2015 41 39 6 3 12 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 35 39 13 5 7 100 Japan Spring, 2015 45 41 9 2 3 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 44 40 12 3 2 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 41 35 12 5 7 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 53 41 6 1 0 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 52 39 7 1 1 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 34 36 13 6 10 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 72 22 4 1 1 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 71 24 4 1 0 100 Chile Spring, 2015 79 18 2 0 1 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 66 24 8 1 0 100 Peru Spring, 2015 65 28 6 0 1 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 70 26 3 1 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 50 28 11 4 7 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 62 25 9 3 1 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 53 36 8 3 0 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 54 31 12 3 1 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 43 34 14 7 3 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 60 28 7 3 2 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 55 25 15 5 1 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 58 26 12 5 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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42 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q56c. How important is it to have ____ in our country? Is it very important, somewhat important, not too important or not important at all? c. women have the same rights as men Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not important at all DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 91 7 1 0 0 100 Canada Spring, 2015 94 4 1 1 1 100 France Spring, 2015 83 13 2 1 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 92 7 1 0 0 100 Italy Spring, 2015 82 13 3 1 1 100 Poland Spring, 2015 64 30 4 1 2 100 Spain Spring, 2015 88 11 1 0 0 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 92 6 1 0 1 100 Russia Spring, 2015 58 33 6 1 1 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 57 30 8 2 3 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 48 23 12 10 6 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 44 39 13 3 1 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 75 18 5 1 0 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 43 33 18 4 1 100 Israel Spring, 2015 69 22 7 1 0 100 Australia Spring, 2015 92 7 1 1 0 100 India Spring, 2015 71 20 3 2 3 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 44 34 15 3 4 100 Japan Spring, 2015 60 30 7 1 2 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 42 37 16 3 1 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 64 26 7 1 2 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 59 33 8 0 0 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 64 31 3 1 1 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 60 24 8 5 4 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 82 15 3 0 0 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 82 15 2 1 0 100 Chile Spring, 2015 83 14 2 0 0 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 73 19 5 2 1 100 Peru Spring, 2015 78 18 3 1 1 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 74 23 3 0 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 31 17 24 26 3 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 65 18 10 6 1 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 45 31 16 8 0 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 54 24 14 7 0 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 39 21 14 25 0 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 67 21 7 3 2 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 61 17 14 8 0 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 42 19 25 15 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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43 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q56d. How important is it to have ____ in our country? Is it very important, somewhat important, not too important or not important at all? d. people can say what they want without <state or government> censorship Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not important at all DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 71 24 2 1 2 100 Canada Spring, 2015 61 31 3 2 3 100 France Spring, 2015 67 28 3 2 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 86 12 1 0 1 100 Italy Spring, 2015 62 28 7 2 2 100 Poland Spring, 2015 57 34 6 1 2 100 Spain Spring, 2015 76 20 3 0 1 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 57 33 5 2 3 100 Russia Spring, 2015 43 41 12 1 2 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 61 31 5 1 2 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 43 29 11 8 8 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 38 38 16 7 2 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 85 10 4 1 0 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 35 35 20 7 2 100 Israel Spring, 2015 58 31 8 3 1 100 Australia Spring, 2015 52 37 7 1 3 100 India Spring, 2015 44 32 7 4 13 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 29 38 19 6 8 100 Japan Spring, 2015 57 33 7 1 2 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 43 39 13 3 2 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 51 33 10 2 5 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 50 37 11 2 0 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 56 37 5 1 1 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 38 34 15 4 8 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 77 19 3 1 1 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 68 25 5 1 0 100 Chile Spring, 2015 76 20 3 0 1 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 65 25 7 2 1 100 Peru Spring, 2015 60 32 7 1 2 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 69 26 5 1 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 35 31 19 9 6 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 55 24 13 7 1 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 43 35 17 5 0 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 48 31 15 5 1 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 50 27 15 6 2 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 56 26 11 4 3 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 32 31 26 11 1 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 41 29 20 10 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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44 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q56e. How important is it to have ____ in our country? Is it very important, somewhat important, not too important or not important at all? e. honest elections are held regularly with a choice of at least two political parties Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not important at all DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 79 15 2 3 1 100 Canada Spring, 2015 81 13 1 2 2 100 France Spring, 2015 66 25 4 4 1 100 Germany Spring, 2015 76 18 2 2 2 100 Italy Spring, 2015 73 19 5 2 1 100 Poland Spring, 2015 58 32 6 0 4 100 Spain Spring, 2015 79 16 4 1 0 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 76 17 2 2 3 100 Russia Spring, 2015 57 34 6 2 1 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 69 24 3 1 2 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 50 21 10 10 8 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 50 35 6 8 1 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 89 11 0 0 0 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 53 28 12 3 4 100 Israel Spring, 2015 56 31 10 2 1 100 Australia Spring, 2015 75 18 3 2 2 100 India Spring, 2015 49 27 8 5 11 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 43 28 15 6 8 100 Japan Spring, 2015 60 23 10 2 5 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 67 23 6 1 3 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 45 31 10 4 10 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 55 32 12 1 1 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 62 31 5 1 2 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 38 24 12 12 14 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 80 18 2 1 0 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 71 24 4 1 1 100 Chile Spring, 2015 68 22 5 1 3 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 59 28 9 3 1 100 Peru Spring, 2015 62 29 7 1 2 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 73 24 2 1 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 50 21 14 7 8 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 74 12 9 5 1 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 57 29 11 3 1 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 56 27 9 6 1 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 52 23 15 8 3 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 58 25 11 3 4 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 48 26 15 6 5 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 75 19 5 2 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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45 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q56f. How important is it to have ____ in our country? Is it very important, somewhat important, not too important or not important at all? f. people can use the internet without <state or government> censorship Very important Somewhat important Not too important Not important at all DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 69 22 4 3 2 100 Canada Spring, 2015 60 30 4 3 3 100 France Spring, 2015 50 33 8 9 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 69 21 4 2 3 100 Italy Spring, 2015 61 24 10 3 2 100 Poland Spring, 2015 55 33 7 1 4 100 Spain Spring, 2015 69 22 5 2 2 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 53 29 7 5 6 100 Russia Spring, 2015 44 35 11 3 7 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 56 28 7 2 6 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 44 24 14 10 9 100 Jordan Spring, 2015 33 28 27 10 1 100 Lebanon Spring, 2015 64 20 11 5 0 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 29 31 26 12 3 100 Israel Spring, 2015 51 32 12 5 1 100 Australia Spring, 2015 53 31 7 4 5 100 India Spring, 2015 38 29 8 5 20 100 Indonesia Spring, 2015 21 32 23 10 15 100 Japan Spring, 2015 40 33 15 3 9 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 32 39 18 6 5 100 Pakistan Spring, 2015 25 25 15 15 20 100 Philippines Spring, 2015 40 38 17 3 1 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 50 38 10 1 1 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 36 29 17 7 11 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 71 21 6 1 1 100 Brazil Spring, 2015 57 27 10 3 3 100 Chile Spring, 2015 68 21 6 2 3 100 Mexico Spring, 2015 54 29 10 5 2 100 Peru Spring, 2015 50 34 10 2 4 100 Venezuela Spring, 2015 64 29 5 1 1 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 21 19 23 12 25 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 45 23 19 9 4 100 Kenya Spring, 2015 31 32 23 10 3 100 Nigeria Spring, 2015 44 33 14 6 3 100 Senegal Spring, 2015 32 19 17 18 15 100 South Africa Spring, 2015 55 25 9 5 5 100 Tanzania Spring, 2015 28 25 22 15 9 100 Uganda Spring, 2015 28 25 22 11 15 100 www.pewresearch.org


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46 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q70. Do you use the internet, at least occasionally? Yes 100 82 18 0 100 78 22 0 100 Spring, 2015 90 10 0 100 75 25 0 100 Spring, 2015 73 27 0 100 75 25 0 100 73 27 0 100 78 22 0 100 71 29 0 100 Spring, 2015 84 16 0 100 80 20 0 100 Spring, 2011 79 21 0 100 Spring, 2010 77 23 0 100 Spring, 2007 66 34 0 100 Spring, 2015 70 29 0 100 Spring, 2012 62 38 1 100 Spring, 2007 38 62 0 100 Spring, 2015 68 31 1 100 Spring, 2014 63 37 0 100 Spring, 2013 62 37 1 100 Spring, 2012 58 42 1 100 Spring, 2011 57 42 1 100 Spring, 2010 58 42 1 100 Spring, 2007 45 54 0 100 Spring, 2015 84 16 0 100 Spring, 2012 79 21 0 100 Spring, 2011 77 23 0 100 Spring, 2010 68 32 0 100 Spring, 2007 54 46 0 100 Spring, 2015 86 14 0 100 Spring, 2012 85 15 0 100 Spring, 2011 80 20 0 100 Spring, 2010 83 17 0 100 Spring, 2007 72 28 0 100 Spring, 2015 71 28 0 100 Spring, 2014 72 28 0 100 Spring, 2013 65 35 0 100 Spring, 2012 58 42 0 100 Spring, 2011 50 49 1 100 Spring, 2010 44 56 0 100 Spring, 2007 25 74 1 100 Spring, 2015 60 40 0 100 Spring, 2014* Turkey 0 Spring, 2012 Ukraine 17 Spring, 2007 Russia 100 83 Spring, 2010 United Kingdom 0 Spring, 2011 Spain 21 Spring, 2012 Poland 100 79 Spring, 2007 Italy 0 Spring, 2007 Germany Total 13 Spring, 2010 France DK/Refused 87 Spring, 2011 Canada No Spring, 2015 Spring, 2012 United States 52 48 0 100 Spring, 2015 68 31 1 100 Spring, 2013 38 61 0 100 Spring, 2012 43 56 1 100 Spring, 2011 38 59 3 100 Spring, 2010 39 60 1 100 Spring, 2007 26 72 2 100 www.pewresearch.org


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47 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q70. Do you use the internet, at least occasionally? Yes No DK/Refused Total Spring, 2015 62 38 0 100 Spring, 2014 44 56 0 100 Spring, 2013 40 60 0 100 Spring, 2012 35 65 0 100 Spring, 2011 36 63 1 100 Spring, 2010 32 68 0 100 Spring, 2007 30 68 2 100 Spring, 2015 65 35 0 100 Spring, 2014 59 41 0 100 Spring, 2013 57 43 0 100 Spring, 2012 49 51 0 100 Spring, 2011 39 61 0 100 Spring, 2010 35 65 0 100 Spring, 2007 42 58 0 100 Spring, 2015 69 30 0 100 Spring, 2007 48 48 3 100 Spring, 2015 84 16 0 100 Spring, 2011 80 20 0 100 Spring, 2007 69 30 1 100 Australia Spring, 2015 92 8 0 100 India Spring, 2015 17 82 0 100 Spring, 2014 14 84 2 100 Winter, 2013-2014 11 86 3 100 Spring, 2015 28 70 2 100 Spring, 2014 22 77 0 100 Spring, 2013 21 79 0 100 Spring, 2011 13 86 1 100 Spring, 2010 9 90 1 100 Spring, 2007 7 93 0 100 Spring, 2015 68 32 0 100 Spring, 2012 66 34 0 100 Spring, 2011 59 41 0 100 Spring, 2010 64 36 0 100 Spring, 2015 63 37 1 100 Spring, 2014 51 48 1 100 Spring, 2013 42 57 1 100 Spring, 2007 23 76 0 100 Spring, 2015 10 89 1 100 Spring, 2014 6 93 1 100 Jordan Lebanon Palest. ter. Israel Indonesia Japan Malaysia Pakistan Spring, 2013 7 92 1 100 Spring, 2012 5 94 1 100 Late Spring, 2011 5 93 2 100 Spring, 2011 4 94 1 100 Spring, 2010 100 5 100 Spring, 2015 36 64 0 100 39 61 0 100 30 69 1 100 Spring, 2015 89 11 0 100 Spring, 2010 78 22 0 100 Spring, 2007 Vietnam 1 90 Spring, 2013 South Korea 94 6 Spring, 2014 Philippines 6 Spring, 2007 80 20 0 100 Spring, 2015 45 54 0 100 Spring, 2014 41 59 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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48 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q70. Do you use the internet, at least occasionally? Yes No DK/Refused Total Spring, 2015 68 32 0 100 Spring, 2014 60 40 0 100 Spring, 2013 65 35 0 100 Spring, 2010 47 52 1 100 Spring, 2007 35 64 1 100 Spring, 2015 58 42 0 100 Spring, 2014 49 51 0 100 Spring, 2013 48 52 0 100 Spring, 2012 49 51 0 100 Spring, 2010 43 57 0 100 Spring, 2015 76 24 0 100 Spring, 2014 74 26 0 100 Spring, 2013 62 38 0 100 Spring, 2007 33 66 0 100 Spring, 2015 53 47 0 100 Spring, 2014 48 52 0 100 Spring, 2013 43 57 1 100 Spring, 2012 37 63 0 100 Spring, 2011 37 63 0 100 Spring, 2010 38 61 1 100 Spring, 2007 31 68 1 100 Spring, 2015 50 50 0 100 Spring, 2014 45 55 0 100 Spring, 2007 41 59 0 100 Spring, 2015 64 36 0 100 Spring, 2014 65 35 0 100 Spring, 2013 56 44 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 14 86 0 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 22 78 0 100 Spring, 2014 19 81 0 100 Spring, 2013 23 77 0 100 Spring, 2007 20 74 5 100 Spring, 2015 36 64 0 100 Spring, 2014 29 71 0 100 Spring, 2013 33 67 0 100 Spring, 2011 27 72 1 100 Spring, 2010 24 76 0 100 Spring, 2007 11 88 1 100 Spring, 2015 36 64 0 100 Spring, 2014 35 64 1 100 Spring, 2013 31 68 1 100 Spring, 2010 22 78 0 100 Spring, 2015 27 73 0 100 Spring, 2014 28 72 0 100 Spring, 2013 31 67 2 100 Spring, 2015 35 64 1 100 Spring, 2014 33 66 1 100 Spring, 2013 34 64 2 100 Spring, 2015 20 80 0 100 Spring, 2014 18 81 1 100 Spring, 2007 5 90 4 100 Spring, 2015 11 88 1 100 Spring, 2014 13 83 4 100 Spring, 2013 11 88 1 100 Spring, 2007 9 91 0 100 Argentina Brazil Chile Mexico Peru Venezuela Kenya Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tanzania Uganda www.pewresearch.org


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49 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q71. Do you own a cell phone? Yes 0 100 89 11 0 100 86 14 0 100 85 15 0 100 82 18 0 100 81 19 0 100 Summer, 2002 61 39 0 100 Spring, 2015 83 17 0 100 Spring, 2013 79 21 0 100 Spring, 2007 60 40 0 100 Summer, 2002 48 52 0 100 Spring, 2015 85 15 0 100 Spring, 2014 85 15 0 100 Spring, 2013 86 14 0 100 Spring, 2012 86 14 0 100 Spring, 2011 85 15 0 100 Spring, 2010 84 16 0 100 Spring, 2007 83 17 0 100 Summer, 2002 65 35 0 100 Spring, 2015 94 6 0 100 Spring, 2014 90 10 0 100 Spring, 2013 88 11 0 100 Spring, 2012 89 11 0 100 Spring, 2011 88 11 0 100 Spring, 2010 88 12 0 100 Spring, 2007 84 16 0 100 Summer, 2002 71 29 0 100 Spring, 2015 95 5 0 100 Spring, 2014 93 7 0 100 Spring, 2013 92 7 1 100 Spring, 2012 91 9 0 100 Spring, 2007 79 21 0 100 Summer, 2002 79 21 0 100 Spring, 2015 88 12 1 100 Spring, 2014 84 15 0 100 Spring, 2013 84 15 1 100 Spring, 2012 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2011 78 21 0 100 Spring, 2010 77 23 0 100 Spring, 2007 73 26 1 100 Summer, 2002 Spain 10 Spring, 2007 Poland 100 89 Spring, 2010 Italy 0 Spring, 2011 Germany Total 9 Spring, 2012 France DK/Refused 91 Spring, 2013 Canada No Spring, 2015 Spring, 2014 United States 40 58 2 100 Spring, 2015 96 4 0 100 Spring, 2014 91 9 0 100 Spring, 2013 91 9 0 100 Spring, 2012 95 5 0 100 Spring, 2011 96 4 0 100 Spring, 2010 92 8 0 100 Spring, 2007 84 16 0 100 www.pewresearch.org


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50 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q71. Do you own a cell phone? Yes DK/Refused Total 92 8 0 100 92 8 0 100 Spring, 2013 92 8 0 100 Spring, 2012 92 8 0 100 Spring, 2011 89 11 0 100 Spring, 2010 91 9 0 100 Spring, 2007 83 17 0 100 Summer, 2002 76 24 0 100 Spring, 2015 96 4 0 100 Spring, 2014 96 3 0 100 Spring, 2013 94 6 0 100 Spring, 2012 88 12 0 100 Spring, 2011 86 14 0 100 Spring, 2010 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2007 65 35 1 100 8 91 1 100 Spring, 2015 90 10 0 100 Spring, 2014* 90 10 0 100 Spring, 2015 95 5 0 100 Spring, 2013 87 12 1 100 Spring, 2012 85 15 0 100 Spring, 2011 84 16 0 100 Spring, 2010 77 22 1 100 Spring, 2007 73 26 1 100 Summer, 2002 49 50 1 100 Spring, 2015 98 2 0 100 Spring, 2014 97 3 0 100 Spring, 2013 95 6 0 100 Spring, 2012 94 6 0 100 Spring, 2011 95 5 0 100 Spring, 2010 94 5 0 100 Spring, 2007 57 43 0 100 Summer, 2002 35 65 0 100 Spring, 2015 88 12 0 100 Spring, 2014 85 15 0 100 Spring, 2013 86 14 0 100 Spring, 2012 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2011 79 21 0 100 Spring, 2010 79 21 0 100 Spring, 2007 84 16 0 100 Summer, 2002 62 38 0 100 Spring, 2015 92 8 0 100 Spring, 2013 93 7 0 100 Spring, 2007 68 31 1 100 Spring, 2015 97 3 0 100 Spring, 2014 93 6 1 100 Spring, 2013 92 5 3 100 Spring, 2011 95 5 0 100 Spring, 2007 93 7 0 100 Spring, 2015 94 6 0 100 Spring, 2013 Russia No Spring, 2015 Spring, 2014 United Kingdom 91 9 0 100 Spring, 2015 78 22 0 100 Spring, 2014 81 19 0 100 Winter, 2013-2014 77 23 1 100 Summer, 2002 Ukraine Turkey Jordan Lebanon Palest. ter. Israel Australia India www.pewresearch.org


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51 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q71. Do you own a cell phone? Yes 0 100 78 22 0 100 78 22 0 100 55 45 0 100 Spring, 2010 46 54 0 100 Spring, 2007 27 73 0 100 Spring, 2015 89 11 0 100 Spring, 2014 87 13 0 100 Spring, 2013 85 15 0 100 Spring, 2012 87 13 0 100 Spring, 2011 86 14 0 100 Spring, 2010 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2015 93 7 1 100 Spring, 2014 92 8 0 100 Spring, 2013 89 10 0 100 Spring, 2007 70 30 0 100 Spring, 2015 56 44 0 100 Spring, 2014 47 53 0 100 Spring, 2013 53 47 0 100 Spring, 2012 52 48 0 100 Late Spring, 2011 48 52 0 100 Spring, 2011 47 52 1 100 Spring, 2010 38 61 1 100 Spring, 2007 34 65 1 100 5 94 1 100 Spring, 2015 70 30 0 100 Spring, 2014 74 26 0 100 Spring, 2013 71 29 0 100 Summer, 2002 28 72 0 100 Spring, 2015 100 0 0 100 Spring, 2014 100 0 0 100 Spring, 2013 100 0 0 100 Spring, 2010 97 3 0 100 Spring, 2007 97 3 0 100 Summer, 2002 93 7 0 100 Spring, 2015 86 14 0 100 Spring, 2014 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2015 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2014 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2013 83 17 0 100 Spring, 2010 77 23 0 100 Spring, 2007 63 36 1 100 Summer, 2002 28 72 0 100 Spring, 2015 86 15 0 100 Spring, 2014 87 13 0 100 Spring, 2013 80 20 0 100 Spring, 2012 84 16 0 100 Spring, 2010 Pakistan Total 23 Spring, 2011 Malaysia DK/Refused 77 Spring, 2013 Japan No Spring, 2015 Spring, 2014 Indonesia 73 27 0 100 Spring, 2015 93 7 0 100 Spring, 2014 93 7 0 100 Spring, 2013 91 9 0 100 Spring, 2007 71 29 0 100 Summer, 2002 Philippines South Korea Vietnam Argentina Brazil Chile www.pewresearch.org


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52 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q71. Do you own a cell phone? Yes No DK/Refused Total Spring, 2015 72 28 0 100 Spring, 2014 74 26 0 100 Spring, 2013 63 37 0 100 Spring, 2012 63 37 0 100 Spring, 2011 57 42 1 100 Spring, 2010 51 48 1 100 Spring, 2007 44 56 0 100 Summer, 2002 37 63 0 100 Spring, 2015 78 22 0 100 Spring, 2014 77 23 0 100 Spring, 2007 42 58 0 100 Summer, 2002 18 81 0 100 Spring, 2015 83 16 0 100 Spring, 2014 88 12 0 100 Spring, 2013 86 14 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 79 21 0 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 75 25 0 100 Spring, 2014 83 17 0 100 Spring, 2013 79 21 1 100 Spring, 2007 34 66 0 100 8 91 1 100 Spring, 2015 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2014 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2013 82 18 0 100 Spring, 2011 74 25 0 100 Spring, 2010 65 35 0 100 Spring, 2007 33 66 1 100 9 91 0 100 Spring, 2015 89 11 0 100 Spring, 2014 89 11 0 100 Spring, 2013 78 21 0 100 Spring, 2010 74 26 0 100 Spring, 2015 83 17 0 100 Spring, 2014 83 17 0 100 Spring, 2013 81 19 0 100 Spring, 2015 89 10 1 100 Spring, 2014 89 10 0 100 Spring, 2013 91 9 0 100 Summer, 2002 33 67 0 100 Spring, 2015 73 27 0 100 Spring, 2014 73 27 0 100 Spring, 2007 42 58 0 100 Summer, 2002 10 90 0 100 Spring, 2015 57 43 0 100 Spring, 2014 65 34 1 100 Spring, 2013 59 41 0 100 Spring, 2007 29 71 0 100 Summer, 2002 10 89 1 100 Mexico Peru Venezuela Summer, 2002 Kenya Summer, 2002 Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tanzania Uganda www.pewresearch.org


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53 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q72. ASK CELL PHONE OWNERS ONLY: Some cell phones are called "smartphones" because they can access the internet and apps. Is your cell phone a smartphone, such as an iPhone, a Blackberry (COUNTRY SPECIFIC EXAMPLES)? Yes, smartphone No, not a smartphone DK/Refused Total United States Spring, 2015 79 20 1 100 Canada Spring, 2015 81 17 2 100 France Spring, 2015 57 42 0 100 Germany Spring, 2015 63 36 1 100 Italy Spring, 2015 64 35 1 100 Poland Spring, 2015 46 53 0 100 Spring, 2014 34 65 1 100 Spring, 2013 25 75 0 100 Spain Spring, 2015 74 25 1 100 United Kingdom Spring, 2015 75 25 1 100 Russia Spring, 2015 46 53 0 100 Spring, 2014 35 65 1 100 Spring, 2013 24 74 2 100 Spring, 2015 30 70 1 100 Spring, 2014* 20 79 1 100 Spring, 2015 62 38 0 100 Spring, 2013 20 80 1 100 Spring, 2015 52 48 0 100 Spring, 2014 43 57 0 100 Spring, 2013 40 60 0 100 Spring, 2015 59 41 0 100 Spring, 2014 56 44 0 100 Spring, 2013 52 48 0 100 Palest. ter. Spring, 2015 62 38 0 100 Israel Spring, 2015 76 24 0 100 Australia Spring, 2015 83 17 0 100 India Spring, 2015 21 78 1 100 Spring, 2014 17 79 3 100 Winter, 2013-2014 15 82 3 100 Spring, 2015 27 72 1 100 Spring, 2014 19 80 1 100 Spring, 2013 14 85 1 100 Japan Spring, 2015 44 56 0 100 Malaysia Spring, 2015 70 30 0 100 Spring, 2014 51 49 0 100 Spring, 2013 35 65 0 100 Spring, 2015 19 81 1 100 Spring, 2014 8 92 1 100 Spring, 2013 6 91 4 100 Spring, 2015 31 67 1 100 Spring, 2014 27 73 1 100 Spring, 2013 25 74 1 100 South Korea Spring, 2015 88 12 0 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 40 60 0 100 Spring, 2014 29 71 0 100 Spring, 2015 59 41 0 100 Spring, 2014 42 58 0 100 Spring, 2013 41 59 0 100 Spring, 2015 47 53 0 100 Spring, 2014 27 72 1 100 Spring, 2013 19 80 1 100 Ukraine Turkey Jordan Lebanon Indonesia Pakistan Philippines Argentina Brazil www.pewresearch.org


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54 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q72. ASK CELL PHONE OWNERS ONLY: Some cell phones are called "smartphones" because they can access the internet and apps. Is your cell phone a smartphone, such as an iPhone, a Blackberry (COUNTRY SPECIFIC EXAMPLES)? Yes, smartphone No, not a smartphone DK/Refused Total Spring, 2015 70 30 0 100 Spring, 2014 62 36 2 100 Spring, 2013 43 56 1 100 Spring, 2015 49 50 1 100 Spring, 2014 38 61 1 100 Spring, 2013 33 67 0 100 Spring, 2015 32 67 1 100 Spring, 2014 20 77 2 100 Spring, 2015 54 45 1 100 Spring, 2014 44 56 0 100 Spring, 2013 36 64 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 18 82 1 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 28 71 1 100 Spring, 2014 17 81 2 100 Spring, 2013 19 79 2 100 Spring, 2015 32 68 0 100 Spring, 2014 19 81 0 100 Spring, 2013 23 76 1 100 Spring, 2015 31 69 0 100 Spring, 2014 30 69 1 100 Spring, 2013 24 75 1 100 Spring, 2015 23 76 0 100 Spring, 2014 18 81 1 100 Spring, 2013 16 82 3 100 Spring, 2015 42 57 1 100 Spring, 2014 38 60 2 100 Spring, 2013 36 63 1 100 Spring, 2015 15 85 1 100 Spring, 2014 10 89 1 100 Spring, 2015 7 93 0 100 Chile Mexico Peru Venezuela Kenya Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tanzania Uganda Spring, 2014 8 91 1 100 Spring, 2013 7 93 1 100 www.pewresearch.org


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55 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q152. How important is religion in your life — very important, somewhat important, not too important or not at all important? Very important Not too important Not at all important DK/Refused Spring, 2015 53 22 11 13 1 100 Spring, 2012 United States Somewhat important 54 24 11 9 2 100 Total Spring, 2011 50 27 10 11 1 100 Spring, 2010 56 25 9 9 1 100 Fall, 2009 55 27 8 9 1 100 Spring, 2009 53 29 8 9 1 100 Spring, 2008 55 27 9 7 2 100 Spring, 2007 56 26 9 8 1 100 Spring, 2006 54 29 10 6 1 100 Summer, 2002 59 25 8 6 1 100 Spring, 2015 27 26 16 29 2 100 Spring, 2013 Canada 24 29 18 26 2 100 Spring, 2009 29 28 19 23 1 100 Spring, 2007 27 31 19 22 1 100 Summer, 2002 France 30 30 18 21 1 100 Spring, 2015 14 26 24 37 0 100 Spring, 2011 13 23 25 38 0 100 Spring, 2010 12 22 24 43 0 100 Fall, 2009 13 24 27 36 0 100 Spring, 2009 13 24 23 39 1 100 Spring, 2008 10 27 26 36 0 100 Spring, 2007 12 26 27 36 0 100 Spring, 2006 13 31 25 30 0 100 Summer, 2002 11 27 28 33 1 100 Spring, 2015 21 33 20 26 0 100 Spring, 2011 Germany 21 31 23 24 1 100 Spring, 2010 25 32 20 23 1 100 Fall, 2009 25 32 18 24 1 100 Spring, 2009 24 32 18 25 1 100 Spring, 2008 22 35 21 21 0 100 Spring, 2007 24 32 20 24 1 100 Spring, 2006 30 30 20 21 0 100 Summer, 2002 Italy 21 28 25 25 0 100 Spring, 2015 26 39 19 13 3 100 Spring, 2013 30 39 17 10 4 100 Spring, 2012 26 40 20 12 3 100 Fall, 2009 24 47 20 8 2 100 Spring, 2007 25 45 19 8 3 100 Summer, 2002 Poland 27 42 21 8 1 100 Spring, 2015 28 47 16 6 4 100 Spring, 2013 24 48 16 5 6 100 Spring, 2012 29 46 15 6 4 100 Spring, 2011 27 49 17 4 3 100 Spring, 2010 25 54 13 5 3 100 Fall, 2009 33 46 14 3 4 100 Spring, 2009 30 50 14 3 3 100 Spring, 2008 29 50 14 2 4 100 Spring, 2007 Spain 38 44 13 3 3 100 Spring, 2015 21 26 20 31 1 100 Spring, 2011 22 27 19 31 1 100 Spring, 2010 24 30 16 30 0 100 Fall, 2009 23 32 21 24 1 100 Spring, 2009 23 29 19 28 1 100 Spring, 2008 19 27 23 30 1 100 Spring, 2007 18 26 24 31 1 100 Spring, 2006 25 23 24 27 1 100 www.pewresearch.org


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56 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q152. How important is religion in your life — very important, somewhat important, not too important or not at all important? Very important Not too important Not at all important DK/Refused Spring, 2015 21 23 20 34 2 100 Spring, 2011 United Kingdom Somewhat important 17 21 21 40 1 100 Total Spring, 2010 17 25 23 34 1 100 Fall, 2009 19 26 23 31 1 100 Spring, 2009 21 25 22 31 1 100 Spring, 2008 18 24 23 34 1 100 Spring, 2007 18 24 24 34 1 100 Spring, 2006 25 37 26 13 1 100 Spring, 2015 19 42 21 11 7 100 Spring, 2013 Russia 18 38 25 11 9 100 Spring, 2012 19 40 22 12 8 100 Spring, 2011 18 39 24 10 9 100 Spring, 2010 15 35 28 15 7 100 Fall, 2009 21 32 25 17 5 100 Spring, 2009 20 40 24 9 6 100 Spring, 2008 18 39 24 14 5 100 Spring, 2007 16 34 33 14 4 100 Spring, 2006 17 43 29 11 2 100 Summer, 2002 14 33 28 21 4 100 Ukraine Spring, 2015 22 42 21 8 6 100 Turkey Spring, 2015 56 27 7 3 8 100 Spring, 2013 70 18 4 1 7 100 Spring, 2011 74 14 4 1 6 100 Spring, 2010 77 16 3 2 3 100 Spring, 2009 72 21 2 1 4 100 Spring, 2008 84 10 2 2 1 100 Spring, 2007 82 12 3 2 2 100 Spring, 2006 69 21 4 2 3 100 Summer, 2002 65 24 6 5 1 100 Spring, 2015 83 15 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2013 82 14 2 2 0 100 Spring, 2012 80 15 2 3 0 100 Spring, 2011 83 13 1 3 0 100 Spring, 2010 83 12 3 2 0 100 Spring, 2009 82 16 1 1 0 100 Spring, 2008 79 20 0 0 0 100 Spring, 2007 77 20 3 1 0 100 Spring, 2006 71 25 3 1 0 100 Spring, 2015 57 35 6 2 0 100 Spring, 2013 57 36 5 1 0 100 Spring, 2012 56 35 8 1 0 100 Spring, 2011 56 32 10 2 1 100 Spring, 2010 53 33 12 1 0 100 Jordan Lebanon Spring, 2009 53 34 11 2 0 100 Spring, 2008 48 31 16 5 1 100 Spring, 2007 33 13 4 1 100 74 21 2 1 1 100 85 11 3 1 1 100 Spring, 2009 89 9 1 1 0 100 Spring, 2007 82 11 2 1 4 100 Spring, 2015 34 29 17 20 0 100 Spring, 2013 Israel 50 Spring, 2015 Spring, 2013 Palest. ter. 25 28 24 22 1 100 Spring, 2011 24 44 15 15 2 100 Spring, 2009 30 31 21 16 2 100 Spring, 2007 Australia 27 36 19 15 2 100 Spring, 2015 18 26 19 37 0 100 Spring, 2013 India 21 22 22 34 1 100 Spring, 2008 21 25 22 31 1 100 Spring, 2015 80 15 3 1 1 100 Winter, 2013-2014 72 20 4 3 1 100 www.pewresearch.org


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57 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q152. How important is religion in your life — very important, somewhat important, not too important or not at all important? Very important Not at all important DK/Refused Total Spring, 2015 95 4 0 0 1 100 94 3 1 0 1 100 Spring, 2011 96 2 1 1 0 100 Spring, 2010 94 5 0 0 0 100 Spring, 2009 95 4 0 1 0 100 Spring, 2008 95 4 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2007 96 3 0 0 0 100 Spring, 2006 97 3 0 0 0 100 Spring, 2015 11 29 34 24 1 100 Spring, 2012 Japan Not too important Spring, 2013 Indonesia Somewhat important 10 25 36 28 1 100 Spring, 2011 11 29 38 21 1 100 Spring, 2010 12 28 36 23 1 100 Spring, 2009 14 27 36 22 1 100 Spring, 2008 13 28 33 24 2 100 Spring, 2007 6 20 41 30 2 100 Spring, 2006 12 35 31 21 2 100 Summer, 2002 22 1 100 2 0 0 100 77 18 3 0 1 100 78 15 4 2 0 100 Spring, 2015 93 6 1 0 0 100 98 2 0 0 0 100 Spring, 2012 94 5 1 0 0 100 Late Spring, 2011 96 2 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2011 94 5 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2010 90 8 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2009 93 4 1 1 1 100 Spring, 2008 95 3 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2007 94 4 0 1 0 100 Spring, 2006 97 2 0 0 1 100 Summer, 2002 91 7 0 0 2 100 Spring, 2015 87 11 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2013 86 13 1 0 0 100 Summer, 2002 88 11 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2015 19 29 29 22 0 100 Spring, 2013 South Korea 36 13 Spring, 2013 Philippines 28 84 Spring, 2007 Pakistan 12 Spring, 2015 Spring, 2013 Malaysia 19 30 30 19 1 100 Spring, 2010 20 24 28 27 2 100 Spring, 2009 17 27 30 25 1 100 Spring, 2008 16 29 31 22 2 100 Spring, 2007 14 29 34 22 2 100 Vietnam Spring, 2015 28 22 36 13 2 100 Argentina Spring, 2015 35 35 18 12 0 100 Spring, 2013 32 33 20 14 0 100 Spring, 2010 32 34 20 12 1 100 Spring, 2009 37 28 20 14 1 100 Spring, 2008 39 30 18 12 1 100 Spring, 2007 22 11 1 100 34 14 12 1 100 Spring, 2015 74 16 7 3 0 100 74 16 6 3 0 100 Spring, 2012 75 16 5 4 1 100 Spring, 2011 78 13 6 3 0 100 Spring, 2010 Chile 32 39 Spring, 2013 Brazil 34 Summer, 2002 77 13 6 4 0 100 Spring, 2015 27 34 17 20 2 100 Spring, 2013 39 32 18 10 0 100 Spring, 2007 46 31 11 10 3 100 www.pewresearch.org


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58 PEW RESEARCH CENTER Q152. How important is religion in your life — very important, somewhat important, not too important or not at all important? Very important Not too important Not at all important DK/Refused Spring, 2015 37 47 11 5 1 100 Spring, 2013 Mexico Somewhat important 45 37 12 5 1 100 Total Spring, 2012 33 38 21 7 1 100 Spring, 2011 36 39 17 7 1 100 Spring, 2010 42 39 13 6 1 100 Spring, 2009 36 43 15 5 1 100 Spring, 2008 58 28 8 4 2 100 Spring, 2007 46 39 11 4 0 100 Spring, 2015 66 25 6 2 1 100 Spring, 2007 68 23 4 3 1 100 Summer, 2002 69 24 4 3 0 100 Spring, 2015 42 43 12 3 0 100 Spring, 2013 42 44 10 3 0 100 Burkina Faso Spring, 2015 92 5 1 1 1 100 Ghana Spring, 2015 90 8 2 0 0 100 Spring, 2013 89 9 1 1 0 100 Spring, 2007 82 12 4 1 0 100 Summer, 2002 84 13 2 0 1 100 Spring, 2015 86 11 3 0 0 100 Spring, 2013 87 12 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2011 84 12 3 0 0 100 Spring, 2010 74 18 6 2 0 100 Spring, 2009 78 17 4 1 0 100 Spring, 2007 82 13 4 1 1 100 Summer, 2002 85 13 1 1 0 100 Spring, 2015 88 9 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2013 90 7 2 1 0 100 Spring, 2010 87 10 3 1 0 100 Spring, 2015 97 3 0 0 0 100 Spring, 2013 97 3 0 0 0 100 Spring, 2015 67 24 5 2 1 100 Spring, 2013 69 21 5 3 1 100 Spring, 2008 81 12 3 3 1 100 Summer, 2002 87 8 3 3 0 100 Spring, 2015 90 8 1 1 0 100 Spring, 2008 94 5 0 1 0 100 Spring, 2007 95 3 0 1 0 100 Summer, 2002 83 12 3 1 2 100 Spring, 2015 94 5 1 0 0 100 Spring, 2013 86 12 2 1 0 100 Spring, 2007 82 15 2 1 0 100 Summer, 2002 85 12 2 1 0 100 Peru Venezuela Kenya Nigeria Senegal South Africa Tanzania Uganda www.pewresearch.org


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