The Media is the Pedagogy

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The Media is the Pedagogy Jon Dron & Terry Anderson Athabasca University

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Learning & Networks Trump Teaching, Innovation and Pedagogy

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Values We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. Student control and freedom is integral to 21st century life-long education and learning. Continuing education opportunity is a basic human right.

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E-Learning is not the same

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Learning as Dance (Anderson, 2008) Technology sets the beat and the timing. Pedagogy defines the moves.

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learning together

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The two biggest e-learning success stories so far?

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The two biggest e-learning success stories so far?

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A typology of social forms Learning Alone The group Hierarchies, membership, intentionality, collaboration, boundaries The net Personal connections, fuzzy boundaries, emergence The set Publication, aggregation, anonymity, cooperation The collective Computational agents, algorithms, analytics, visualization, crowd wisdom/mob stupidity

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Learning Alone Maximizes Freedom: Space, time, pace, Allows and promotes individualization Freedom from “group think” Power of auto-didacticism Lifelong learning Freedom from groups

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Self Directed or Self Paced learning Learner sets start date and the time to completion Continuous assessment Maximizes learner control Higher drop out Ted Talks, Khan Academy, OERU Only one of the Major MOOCs (Udacity) providers offers this option

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Everyone can own a MOOC

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Then there was groups…

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Constructivist Learning in Groups Long history of research and study Established sets of tools Classrooms Learning Management Systems (LMS) Synchronous (chat, video & net conferencing) Email, wikis, blogs Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.

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Increase in learning outcomes, social skills, positive attitudes to learning BUT “the need for cooperative teams to mature implies that cooperative learning does not yield an immediate improvement …need for patience and persistence… students experienced in cooperative learning” Hsiung, C.-m. (2012). The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning. Journal of Engineering Education, 101(1), 119-137.

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Flipped Classroom

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Formal Education offers only these two models

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…then networks

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Networks Emergent Persistent Bursty Span boundaries Easy entry & exit Often informal Communities of practice

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Networks add diversity to learning “People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90 Edge effects, estuary learning

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Estuary Learning

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Social Network Tools Tools for Building Personal Networks of people and Resources Means to reify and share knowledge Ownership and identity Supports long term networking partnerships, relationships, alumni Weak and strong ties Boundary crossing and serendipity Place for coalescence of sets into networks and groups, nets into groups. Discovery, external validation and cross network enrichment

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Privacy Concern by Age 26 Anderson, T., Poelhuber, B., & McKerlich, R. (2010). Self Paced Learners Meet Social Software: An exploration of Learners’ attitudes, expectations and experience. . Online Journal of Distance Education Administration, 13(3). http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/Fall133/anderson_poellhuber_mcKerlich133.html.

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There were always sets… …but we didn’t pay much attention to them

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Sets: People with shared attributes and a common virtual or physical space

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Cooperation Sharing Curation Tagging Co-editing Co-creating

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Co-operation: working independently for the greater good Collaboration: working together for the greater good

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Why sets?

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Eric Whitacer’s Virtual Choir (4)

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Sets are good for… finding answers finding people starting groups and networks diverse perspectives serendipity learner choice freedom reducing loneliness

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Set of all people suffering from anxiety in online classes Please take my survey on anxiety in online classes:  https://unt.az1.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_8qdDXVgm7vmYEtL   This is a rather short survey (22 questions).  It is for an in-class assignment, is a pilot for future study, and the results will not be published.  More details are on the survey’s informed consent form.    Thank you!   --Alana S. Phillips   doctoral student University of North Texas alanaphillips@my.unt.edu Sets for Research as well as Learning

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Why contribute to a set?

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Depth and engagement

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Trust The problem of evil The problem of stupidity The problem (?) of diversity

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open unprotected disclosed exposed insecure closed protected private hidden safe Dron, J., & Anderson, T. (2014) Agoraphobia and the modern learner. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 3. http://jime.open.ac.uk/article/2014-03/html.

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capture process feedback

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Collective concerns filter bubbles path dependencies intentional abuse selection bias Matthew Effect missing pedagogical models echo chambers

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Universities departments companies nations Tribes Social networks - friends, work, community Subject areas Geographically collocated people Classes Tutorial groups Seminars Project teams ad-hoc learning networks clubs & societies Communities of practice Wikipedia editors Subject area mailing lists alumni networks Blends and combinations

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Generations of distance learning pedagogies Behaviourist/Cognitive – Self Paced, Individual Study, Social constructivist – Groups, classes Connectivist – Networks Holist - Sets and Collectives Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations of distance education pedagogy. International Review of Research on Distance and Open Learning, 12(3), 80-97 Private Public net group set individual

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Is the LMS BAD? Bricolage – the LMS as Enterprise Systems doesn’t allow or cater for bricolage. Affordances – resulting in an inability to leverage the affordances of technology to improve learning and teaching. Distribution – the idea that knowledge about how to improve L&T is distributed and the implications that has for the institutional practice of e-learning." http://davidtjones.wordpress.com/ David Jones

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Walled Gardens (with windows) Connectivist learning thrives in safe learning spaces with windows allowing randomness, external participation and public presentation

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Athabasca Landing User owned and generated tool kit

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Enactment At Athabasca Landing

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Landing.athabascau.ca Elgg based, open source Walled garden WITH windows – very fine permissions controls Beyond the LMS Adoption issues

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The Social Aggregations and Tech of 3 Generations of Connective Pedagogies Individuals Groups Networks Sets 3rd Gen. Connectivist 2nd Gen. Social Constructivist 1st Gen Cognitive/Behavioural Self Paced Learning Tech LMS Network Tools

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aupress.ca www.irrodl.org Open Scholars Write and Read Open Access Books Teaching in Blended Learning Environments: Creating and Sustaining Communities of Inquiry Vaughan, Cleveland-Innes, & Garrison

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Jon Dron - jond@athabascau.ca http://jondron.athabascau.ca http://jondron.org @jondron on almost everything Terry Anderson- terrya@athabascau.ca http://terrya.edublogs.org Coming soon (July 2014)…. Teaching Crowds: Learning and Social Media http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120235

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Slides at http://tinyurl.com/CNIE2014 Terry Anderson terrya@athabascau.ca Blog: terrya.edublogs.org Your comments and questions most welcomed!

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Student - Teacher/Content Interaction “MOOC video producers currently base their production decisions on anecdotes, folk wisdom, and best practices distilled from studies with at most dozens of subjects and hundreds of video watching sessions.” Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: An empirical study of mooc videos. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning@ scale conference. Retrieved from http://groups.csail.mit.edu/uid/other-pubs/las2014-pguo-engagement.pdf

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Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: An empirical study of mooc videos. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning@ scale conference. Retrieved from

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Guo, P. J., Kim, J., & Rubin, R. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: An empirical study of mooc videos. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning@ scale conference. Retrieved from