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Learning and Connectivism in MOOCs

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Learning and Connectivism in MOOCs Stephen Downes Pereira, Colombia 11 September 2014 http://www.downes.ca/presentation/347


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How I See the World


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How I See the World A connectivist perspective The World People, things, ideas, concepts, all connected to each other My Brain Neurons and neural connections Perception and Communication The world speaks to me and I speak to the world


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How I See the World The MOOC MOOC A learning network My Brain Neurons and neural connections Perception and Communication


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How I See the World Perception and Communication Image: http://devblogs.nvidia.com/parallelforall/cuda-spotlight-gpu-accelerated-deep-neural-networks/


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How I See the World The Critical Literacies


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Syntax Not just rules and grammar Forms: archetypes? Platonic ideals? Rules: grammar = logical syntax Operations: procedures, motor skills Patterns: regularities, substitutivity Similarities: Tversky ? properties, etc Image: http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/blog/?author=1


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Syntax Learning Theories: trying to find patterns in phenomena Behaviourism – learning & practice Instructivism – learning from worked examples, testing Cognitivist – the importance of models and comprehension Constructivist – creating our own learning Image: http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/blog/?author=1


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Syntax Networks and Connections in the World The way things are organized in the world is important A pile of sand is different from a sand castle We observe individual entities self-organizing These form complex networks from the brain to galaxies Image: http://www.visualcomplexity.com/vc/blog/?p=1312


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Syntax Massive / Open / Online / Course Massive – networks grow Open – networks have no edges Online – creates the first real networks for learning Courses – creating temporary networks Image: http://themoocexperience.wordpress.com/2013/03/08/being-social-in-a-mooc/


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Semantics Theories of truth / meaning / purpose / goal ? Truth and belief: sense and reference ? Interpretation and models (probability, logical space, frequency, wagering / strength) ? Learning theories: Hebbian, back?prop, Boltzmann ? Decisions: voting / consensus / emergence Image: https://darkjapanese.wordpress.com/tag/collocations/


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Semantics A MOOC as a way of Seeing the World Image: http://rathchakra.wordpress.com/ The MOOC brings together many perspectives No one perspective is correct or true The whole is created by interaction


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Semantics Knowledge is not Transmitted, it is Created Each piece contributes to the whole Each person sees the new from a certain perspective We feed back and forth


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Semantics What We Learn Depends on How We Interact Autonomy – each individual decides for him or her self Diversity – each person has their own values and goals Openness – new members and new ideas are welcome Interactivity – we learn through communication


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Pragmatics Use / actions / impact • Speech acts (J.L. Austin, Searle) assertives, directives, commissives, expressives, declarations (but also ? harmful acts, harassment, etc) • Interrogation (Heidegger) and presupposition Image: http://ftp.tnt.uni-hannover.de/print/papers/view.php?ind=1&ord=month&mod=DESC


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Pragmatics How to Do Things With MOOCs Educate – model and demonstrate processes and actions Inform – tell stories, recount experiences Promote - Pass on an idea or a way of life (memetics) Recruit – find others to join


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Pragmatics How to do things in MOOCs Aggregate – listen to many diverse sources Remix – bring these different perspective together Repurpose – reform these new ideas in your own way Feed Forward – share your perspectives Image: http://www.lifeaftercoffee.com/2008/11/03/hello-iamthenode-and-im-here-to-make-you-vomit/


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Pragmatics What a MOOC Does Asks questions Experiments Explores Discovers Creates Image: http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/topics/moocs/


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Context Placement, environment ? explanation (Hanson, van Fraassen, Heidegger) ? meaning (Quine); tense ? range of possibilities ? vocabulary (Derrida); ontologies, logical space ? Frames (Lakoff), worldviews Image: http://www.visualcomplexity.com/VC/index.cfm?domain=Pattern%20Recognition


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Context Possibilities for Learning on the Internet The internet created a location where networks could form Online communities already learning in self-organizing groups eg. OSS, Napster…


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Context Learning in the Workplace ? the skills gap ? informal learning ? just-in-time learning (vs just-in-case) ? learning as something we support rather than provide Image: http://www.goodpractice.com/blog/future-of-workplace-learning-in-2015/


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Cognition Reasoning, inference and explanation • description ? X (definite , allegory, metaphor) • definition ? X is Y (ostensive, lexical, logical (necess. & suff conds), family resemblance, identity, personal identity, etc • argument ? X therefore Y ? inductive, deductive, abductive, modal, probability (Bayesian), deontic (obligations), doxastic (belief), etc.) • explanation ? X because of Y (causal, statistical, chaotic/emergent) Image: http://www.jfsowa.com/pubs/challenge


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Cognition The Challenge of Learning Analytics Image: http://horicky.blogspot.com/2013/01/optimization-in-r.html ? Analytics predict performance using neural network techniques (machine learning) - But this process requires ‘Big Data’ – with resulting privacy issues


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Cognition How do we infer someone has learned? Traditional testing is a very poor sort of induction We identify good doctors, good food, good writers by recognizing them In a MOOC, achievement is demonstrated in open work, and recognized by peers


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Change Graphs / Drivers / Attractors / Forces ? relation and connection: I Ching, logical relation ? flow: Hegel ? historicity, directionality; McLuhan ? games, for example: branch and tree, database ? scheduling ? events; activity theory / LaaN Image: http://www.motikon.com/2011/12/19/from-data-to-design/


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Change Varieties of Change Easy to think things will always be the same (vs the Tipping Point) Cycles and Arcs The dialectic


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Change Consequences of Change Image: http://www.provenmodels.com/18/four-laws-of-media/marshall-mcluhan/ What do MOOCs and connectivism enhance? What do they reverse? What thing from the past do they retrieve and make new? What current thing do MOOCs make obsolete?


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Change Drivers and (Strange) Attractors Image: http://chaoticatmospheres.deviantart.com/art/Strange-Attractors-The-Dadras-Attractor-376066266 We think of the future in terms of today’s imperatives: jobs, money, security But what is important to us today may not always be There’s no way to predict but we can imagine what will matter…


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How I See the World


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How I See the World


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Stephen Downes http://www.downes.ca


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