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The Mystery of MOOCs Laura Czerniewicz & Sukaina Walji

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The Mystery of MOOCs Laura Czerniewicz & Sukaina Walji 30 September 2014


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Introduction: the context of MOOCs


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Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Content Traditionally: a single package Time Space


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Disaggregation Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Platform


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Disaggregation Content Teaching & learning interaction Assessment & certification Time Platform


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Access to content Legal Digital Analogue Illegal Textbooks Some photocopying E-Textbooks Open Education Resources Photocopying Pirate sites File sharing


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Disaggregation Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Place


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Disaggregation Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Platform


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Learning platforms Hill, P (6 Feb 2014) http://mfeldstein.com/resilient-higher-ed-lms-canvas/


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Free content Pay to access platform


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Changes in teaching & learning Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Place


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On campus Remote Internet supported Fully online F2F only Forms of provision Location of students Internet dependent Online-intensive


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Disaggregation Content Teaching & learning interaction Certification Time Platform


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Certification: non university providers


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Certification: new forms Badges- micro, granular certification A form of formal(ised) recognition for informal learning processes for chunks of content for competencies


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Certification: new forms & providers “Degreed is a community of college students, professionals, and lifelong learners dedicated to advancing their education. When you join Degreed, you get tools to help you track, organize, share, and validate everything you learn. “ Degreed - launched in 2013


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Certification: new forms


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Certification: new forms


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Certification: new forms ? 119 Pearson Vue Test Centre ? 24


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Changing monetisation models


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MOOCs


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On campus Remote Internet supported Fully online F2F only Forms of provision Location of students Internet dependent Online-intensive MOOCs


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MOOCs did not just appear Open education Distance education Online education Long history 2012


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April 2012 http://edutechnica.com/moocmap


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October 2012 http://edutechnica.com/moocmap


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April 2013 http://edutechnica.com/moocmap


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October 2013 http://edutechnica.com/moocmap


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Participants


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Mapping the course landscape


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Types of MOOCs


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Showcase teaching and introduce topics with high-profile ‘rockstar’ presenters Introduce fields and support students in undergraduate study Develop skills and introduce topics for postgraduate study. Showcase research and special interest topics of interest to postgraduate level Showcase professional careers for continuing education and qualifications


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Category 1 Teaching showcase General interest high profile course Showcases the institution by means of an engaging subject or personality led. Global interest and matches a popular understanding of high profile MOOCs n High production costs | high enrollment | loose curriculum ties May attract external funding


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Category 1 Teaching showcase General interest high profile course Showcases the institution by means of an engaging subject or personality led. Global interest and matches a popular understanding of high profile MOOCs n High production costs | high enrollment | loose curriculum ties May attract external funding


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Category 2 Gateway skills Provides foundational, bridging or enhancement skills for pre HE entry or during undergraduate pathways towards specialisation. Could replace teaching for 'bottleneck courses.’ Local interest, either within the institution or at a country-wide setting. Moderate production costs | low enrollment | close curriculum ties May attract external funding |


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Category 3 Graduate literacies Post-graduate level courses to support application or programmes of study Focussed on building postgraduate literacies. Likely to be of local or national interest. Moderate production costs | low enrollment | close curriculum ties May attract external funding


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Category 4 Professional showcase Geared towards vocational skills development, re-tooling and professional development. Could be offered in conjunction with professional bodies. Likely to be of local interest, although some specialised topics may be globally relevant. . Moderate to high production costs |medium to high enrollment Close curriculum ties |May attract organisational funding High potential for pathway to credit or revenue generation


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Category 5 Research showcase Showcase research or more specialised topics of interest Offered at postgraduate level and assume some background in the topicstill geared towards general or leisure learning. Likely to have global appeal. Moderate/high production costs | medium/high enrollment Loose curriculum ties


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Category 5 Research showcase Showcase research or more specialised topics of interest Offered at postgraduate level and assume some background in the topicstill geared towards general or leisure learning. Likely to have global appeal. Moderate/high production costs | medium/high enrollment Loose curriculum ties


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Course offered simultaneously as a formal and as a open course. Small private open course nested inside a MOOC Massive Online Course: formal course inspired by MOOC pedagogy Students in a course taking a MOOC with added local support and additional material Massive Open Online Course Formal course with lectures and support.


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Perspectives on MOOCs What MOOCs exist and why might I want to do a MOOC? What is there is learn from MOOCs? How can I use and develop MOOCs? Why are MOOCs useful?


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Why take a MOOC Learn a new skill for use in your work/life (eg stats for research) Learn for fun/self enrichment (eg. about climate change) Gives yourself a ‘taste’/trial of a new field or subject Experience online learning Earn a certificate


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What kind of learning Participant can choose: ‘Drop-in’ and have a look (like a magazine) Start out and decide how much (like taking a book out of the library) Pick and choose what you want to explore(like a reference book) Go along for the ride (like auditing a class) Engage fully with the intention of learning (like taking a class)


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University of Pennsylvania MOOC Registrants http://www.gse.upenn.edu/pdf/ahead/perna_ruby_boruch_moocs_dec2013.pdf


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Completion Rates http://www.katyjordan.com/MOOCproject.html


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The reasons for doing a MOOC are interesting but the reasons for not completing tell us more http://www.edcentral.org/


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Perspectives on MOOCs What MOOCs exist and why might I want to do a MOOC? What is there is learn from MOOCs? How can I use and develop MOOCs? Why are MOOCs useful?


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Why use MOOCs? extending the classroom building networks exposure to different contexts accessing experts bringing in diversity and depth of experience putting African participants into a global network benefit from other (high quality) educational resource inputs supplement gaps in current provision


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Why use MOOCs Putting Africa into global network “Clinicians from Africa (and other low resourced settings) were given direct access to experts and people fortunate enough to have more access to education and educational resources, in other words it provided access to education to those that really needed it who could then directly impact peoples lives” (Workshop participant).


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Why use MOOCs Benefit from other educational resource inputs “give students access to high quality materials” “MOOCs can lower the burden of overflowing ‘face-to-face classes’ for staff and can liberate the learner to construct his/her own knowledge” “academic staff development through accessing latest courses that are available in the MOOC platforms. Offers less experienced academic staff access to leading academics knowledge (a teaching development resource)”


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How you can use MOOCs Create your own MOOCs including variants Creating MOOCs can be very resource intensive but need not be – depends on purpose and choices you make. Use existing MOOCs


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Course offered simultaneously as a formal and as a open course. Small private open course nested inside a MOOC Massive Online Course: formal course inspired by MOOC pedagogy Students in a course taking a MOOC with added local support and additional material Massive Open Online Course Formal course with lectures and support.


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Creating variants An example: ‘open boundary course’ can be a lower cost approach to offering a MOOC and is where an existing course is simultaneously opened out to others who are not formally enrolled Key benefit: Bringing a more diverse student body into existing course – open boundary courses Distance education in developing world & Africa has been offering massive enrollments but only now tentatively venturing into online and blended forms e.g. Unisa offering MOCs


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Using existing MOOCs Flipping courses with MOOCs Blending MOOCs with face-to-face classroom sessions Use MOOCs as Learning Resources Use for Professional Development Wrapping a MOOC to supplementary skills for students


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http://ctl.utexas.edu/teaching


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Perspectives on MOOCs What MOOCs exist and why might I want to do a MOOC? What is there is learn from MOOCs? How can I use and develop MOOCs? Why are MOOCs useful?


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A research opportunity The massiveness of MOOCs, their accessibility, and the wide range of questions they raise make the topic a very fertile area for research, and this is likely to generate new methods of research and analysis in the educational field (Bates, 2014)


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What we’d like MOOCs to do “I believe that MOOCs can lower the burden of overflowing ‘face-to-face classes’ for staff and can liberate the learner to construct his/her own knowledge. Also, this can raise professional education as access to tertiary education can be increased and extended to the working class”. (Participant in a recent workshop on Developing World MOOCs)


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What the research indicates… “But the people most likely to stay the course and gain a free qualification are well-educated men in their 30s working in professional jobs. Research by MOOC provider Coursera shows that 85% of MOOC participants already have university degrees. So the problem MOOCs succeed in solving is: to provide free university teaching for highly qualified professionals. (Diana Laurrilard)”


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What research says about succeeding in a MOOC Require digital literacies and know-how to navigate the online space, make sense of resources and (esp. Connectivist MOOCs) Connectivity & bandwidth constraints for signed up participants in developing countries (heavy video-based courses) Cultural and language factors Highly motivated learners (hence plenty of e.g. of plucky individuals from developing countries succeeding in MOOCs)


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“Alin used MOOCs to get a better job. He took Introduction to Computer Science at Udacity and at Codecademy, Introduction to R, a programming language used mainly for statistical analysis. Neither of these courses were part of his curriculum at Dhaka University. Noting it on his CV, he was not only hired by his employer but was made supervisor of a team of three holding similar finance degrees to himself. He admits not having noteworthy grades at DU, but given his MOOC knowledge, he was able to convince his employer he was qualified for the job”


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MOOC design evolving Many models of MOOC designs emerging E.g. George Siemens piloting a dual pathway MOOC where learners either work though a linear pathway or through project-based groups (Siemens 2014). SPOCs and other variants result of understanding student interactions. Platform design to scale – FutureLearn based on ‘conversational framework at scale’. MOOCs are NOT suitable in many contexts e.g. San Jose experiment and Sebastian Thrun’s ‘pivot’ (Chafkin). Supported learning better here. Researching MOOCs can shed light on about participant behaviour, video styles, lengths and formats, design of activities & assessment


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MOOCs can inform online learning design Huge amount of data and research that can be mined (Harvard & MIT released anonymised data) Pedagogy enacted in public (pre MOOCs most courses hidden from all but registered students – even from other lecturers) MOOCs in semi-formal and non-formal spaces so experiments tolerated


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MOOCs inform classroom/on-campus learning design MOOC materials used in blended and hybrid models MOOC materials used in flipped classroom models MOOCs used in wrapped modes


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For researchers in Africa… It would be a missed opportunity not to build knowledge around African contexts for MOOCs, online learning and classroom-based learning. Opportunity is now to define forms of MOOCs, designs for MOOCs or how MOOCs inform the provision of more diverse and flexible forms of learning Many models of MOOCs, not just one. If not us, then who ??


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Practicalities


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Planning MOOCs The six ‘P’s approach: purpose possibilities pedagogy platforms & partners provisioning process to roll out


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Reading list Czerniewicz, L; Deacon, A; Small, J and Walji, S (2014) Developing world MOOCs: A curriculum view of the MOOC landscape, in Journal of Global Literacies, Technologies, and Emerging Pedagogies (JOGLTEP) Vol. 2, Issue 3, July 2014, Michigan State, available at http://joglep.com/files/7614/0622/4917/2._Developing_world_MOOCs.pdf CILT MOOC Reading List on MOOCs in Africa http://goo.gl/Sfb2fH Curation of MOOC resources: http://www.scoop.it/t/moocswatch


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Contact Laura.Czerniewicz@uct.ac.za Andrew.Deacon@uct.ac.za Janet.Small@uct.ac.za Sukaina.Walji@uct.ac.za This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Twitter: @cilt_uct @czernie @sukainaw


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