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Beyond Borders: Global Learning in a Networked World

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Beyond Borders: Global Learning in a Networked World Stephen Downes Yerevan, Armenia November 2, 2014


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Beyond Borders… We speak many different languages This is both the challenge and the opportunity


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The MOOC Revolution http://mfeldstein.com/mooc-history-presented-aacn13-conference/


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What does it mean?


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The point of the MOOC is to be open But that means more than just free stuff, and more than just online videos


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It’s a way of thinking, a way of relating to the world


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It’s a way of creating harmony through diversity When each of us speaks a different language we all have something unique to say


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Open learning… Open University opens in 1971 Athabasca University (1970/72) Indira Gandhi National Open University (1985)


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Open learning (2) Over time – enhanced accessibility distance learning reduction of financial barriers tuition reductions subsidies progressive pedagogies Creation of distance learning pedagogies Moore, Merrill, Gagne


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Open resources Project Gutenberg Open Archives Initiative BOAI Dspace ROAR Wikipedia Curricki Wikiversity WikiEducator


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The OERu Logic Model Taylor, J.C. 2007. Open courseware futures: Creating a parallel universe. e-Journal of Instructional Science and Technology (e-JIST), Vol 10, No. 1. Online: http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/e-jist/docs/vol10_no1/papers/full_papers/taylorj.htm


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Criticism of the Logic Model Traditional Curricular based approach a focus on articulation & credit transfer closed federation of traditional institutes Tight link to traditional credentials


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It’s open delivery, but it’s not open learning… Friere: it’s the banking method of education


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Open versus closed delivery Learning objectives concrete and stated Learning Objectives vs. unstated and multiple objectives Organization of subject matter knowledge of vs knowledge about linear organization vs knowledge community


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Open versus closed assessment Subject and content-focused assessment, vs. performance-based and networked-based Assessment against external criteria vs. self-assessment Assessment by-instructor vs. 3rd-party assessment


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Free Learning Connectivist, or network, learning Network design principles: distributed, disintermediated, dynamic Design based on the ‘semantic principle’


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Learning is a matter of personal growth, not an accumulation of facts


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Connectivist Learning Design A non-curricular based approach course content is the ‘McGuffin’ learning takes places through interaction and creativity


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But… why It’s a formal recognition that people have different destinations, different tastes Based on an understanding that knowledge varies according to these Expresses the principle that networks – communities – are stronger with multiple diverse perspectives Knowledge learned is better – indeed, known


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In diversity, harmony and growth


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A Map of the Community Connectivism: A Theory of Personal Learning Stephen Downes, December 3, 2008, Educational Development Centre, Ottawa http://www.downes.ca/presentation/208


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Our MOOC Model MOOC: Massive Open Online Course There is no central core feature – no core content, group, etc Course design is a network, or a map, or a community Resources are distributed, and aggregated Participants are encouraged to create their own resources, communities, groups


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Connectivism & Connective Knowledge http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eW3gMGqcZQc


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How to be Successful in a MOOC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8avYQ5ZqM0 Dave Cormier


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The madness and mayhem of DS106 DS = Digital Storytelling DS106 redefined activities and participation Jim Groom http://ds106.us/


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eduMOOC underground Jeff Lebow, Google+ hangout, and Livestream: Taking something ordinary, and making it something special – YOU make the MOOC http://www.livestream.com/jefflebow/ Jeff Lebow


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2011: Year of the MOOC


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AI-Class: Redefining Massive More than 100,000 people signed up for pre-registration – they got videos and online quizzes http://www.ai-class.com/


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2014: Year of the Anti-MOOC


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Transforming the system


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New cultures of learning


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Autonomy Freedom as the factors affecting mental states (empirical, cognitive, psychological)


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Freedom as the capacity to act on mental states (physical, social, structural, resources)


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Scope and range of autonomous behaviour (expression, association, selection, method)


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Diversity Composition - many types of entities Intention (of goals, desires (cf JS Mill)) Perspective (uniqueness of point of view, language)


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Mathematics of diversity (multiple inputs produce mesh networks) http://lemire.me/fr/documents/publications/DiversityTechReport_October2008.pdf Putnam, Florida, and the rest of it Homophily and associationism http://profesorbaker.wordpress.com/2011/01/30/homophily-and-heterophily-what-fires-together-wires-together-cck11/


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Openness Open education, yes Open content, teaching, assessment Stages of openness and terminal path


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Open networks (clustering instead of grouping) Flow (input, output, feedback, plasticity) Open Educational Resources as the medium of communication


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Interactivity Influence vs emergence (thought-bubbles – “we perceive wholes where there are only holes”) http://www.downes.ca/post/55001 http://connect.downes.ca/post/44222


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Knowledge as pattern recognition Ontological (real) vs perceptual (recognized)


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Critical Literacies Understanding how we use artifacts to communicate in online and other learning networks http://www.downes.ca/presentation/232


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New Roles for Government Communications and Education Infrastructure Support for Open Educational Resources Support for Free Learning Management of assessments and credentialing


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The Digital Infrastructure Public high-speed backbone networks used not only for education but for other public services: police, fire and emergency, hospital, municipalities, etc. Local Access eg. Community Access Points Legal Framework policy on digital rights and copyright net neutrality and similar regulations


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A Note on Sustainability Whatever we really want is sustainable Like, say, highways and roads


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Sustaining Infrastructure Support for existing programs and services cost reductions in communications overhead improved efficiency of public service delivery Overhead on entertainment and commercial infrastructure similar to broadcast ‘CanCon’ requirements


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Open Educational Resources Traditional Resources Already developed and paid for by government Open access initiatives Public Policy Resources design to serve a public end or objective focus on basic literacies & community empowerment


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Sustaining OERs Redirection of existing resource allocations eg. OA mandates for grants and programs community outreach for existing agencies eg, NASA Support for community-based OER process integration of OER development and use within publicly supported curricula use of OERs in public services and programs - Stephen Downes, Models for sustainable Open Educational Rsources, ijklo.org/Volume3/IJKLOv3p029-044Downes.pdf http://www.downes.ca/presentation/76 - OER Help with Keynote Slides, OER-Forum http://lists.esn.org.za/pipermail/oer-forum/2011-October/thread.html


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Software and Service Support Software and environment support eg. Public Knowledge Project, Open Journal Systems, Moodle, et Service networks and support JISC / CETIS, EdNA, etc. Common Services - eFramework


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Sustaining Support Systems Development and systems research support Public adoption of open licensing FLOSS GNU/GPL, BSD, etc Creative Commons directs resources toward multi-sector development Community service requirement for commercially sourced software


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Assessment and Credentialing Support for Personal Learning provision of personal learning environments and frameworks promote lifelong learning link to skills database, corporate training registries direct support for employment and funding personal portfolios and credential banks voluntary, self-managed optional identity frameworks


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The Old School 2.0 School 2.0 etoolkit http://etoolkit.org/etoolkit/


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New Models for Schools


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New Roles for Research


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Community = Interactions Not simply ‘spreading the word’ Not ‘amplification’ But rather, the creation of our own society, together emergent from the free actions of each of us not based on the ideas of one (or a small number) of individuals


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Open communities speak many languages


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Stephen Downes http://www.downes.ca


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