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Why Open Education?

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Why Open Education? Three Arguments David Wiley Lumen / BYU / Creative Commons


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This presentation is licensed CC BY unless indicated otherwise in notes


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Download these slides davidwiley.org


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< philosophical >


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education


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education =


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education = sharing


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sharing


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what you know


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sharing


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feedback


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sharing


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encouragement


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sharing


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passion


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sharing


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yourself


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education


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searching for parking


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faculty meetings


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tenure and promotion


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educative acts


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ALL


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sharing


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if


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sharing


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education


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“rivalrous”


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“nonrival”


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sharing


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asynchronously?


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externalize


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externalized ideas


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converted to rivalrous


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externalized & nonrivalrous?


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“internet”


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externalized ideas


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externalized ideas + internet =


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nonrival


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unprecedented capacity


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sharing


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education = sharing


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unprecedented capacity


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educate


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except we can’t


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©


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Tech Enables Law Forbids


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in the air?


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open


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Open Educational Resources


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open ? free


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open = free + permissions


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The 5Rs


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Retain is fundamental


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The 5Rs


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Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable copyright permissions


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Tech Enables OER Permits


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traditionally © materials + internet


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openly licensed materials + internet


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< / philosophical >


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< innovation >


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Infrastructure


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Infrastructure is “resources that create benefits for society primarily through the facilitation of downstream productive activities.” -- Brett Frischmann


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“downstream productive activities”


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Permissionless Innovation Adam Thierer Equal Participation in Innovation Eric Von Hippel


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Infrastructure and Innovation


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Relatively inexpensive Broad permissions


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thrives when the costs and obstacles to experimenting are low


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“Intellectual infrastructure” is “nonrival input into a wide variety of outputs.” -- Brett Frischmann


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Educational Materials Research Articles Intellectual Infrastructure for Ed


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Extremely expensive Very narrow permissions Educational Materials Research Articles


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Extremely Expensive Only those with significant capital can afford to experiment and innovate


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$1288 $1666


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Textbook Pricing in Context


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Accelerating Journal Costs


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Very Narrow Permissions ALL Rights Reserved


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Trouble with Costs and Permissions?


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Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable copyright permissions


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The Content Oligarchies Textbooks (74%) Pearson Cengage McGraw-Hill Journals (73%) Reed-Elsevier Wiley-Blackwell Springer Taylor & Francis Sage


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Open Education Infrastructure Will enable everyone to innovate Will enable everyone to benefit


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< / innovation >


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< evidence >


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Textbook Costs and Student Success Outcomes Cost Access


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Internet, Textbook Costs, Student Success Outcomes Cost Access


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The Impact of Open Textbooks on Secondary Science Learning Outcomes Robinson, Fischer, Hilton, and Wiley Published in Ed Researcher


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Participants Nebo School District 4183 students 43 teachers Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry


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Method Quasi-experimental design with: Treatment and Control Group Pre and Post Test Dependent variable: Score on 2012 statewide standardized science exam Independent variable: Textbook condition 15 Covariates: including age, gender, special education, English language proficiency, 2011 test data, 2011 GPA, and race


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Propensity Score Matching Increased group balance by 98%


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Outcome: State Standardized Test IRT scaled scores increased with open textbooks, p < .001 Multiple r squared = .635 (variance in scores accounted for in our model)


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A Multi-institutional Study of the Impact of Open Textbook Adoption on the Learning Outcomes of Post-secondary Students Fischer, Hilton, Robinson, and Wiley Accepted in JCHE


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Participants 4909 treatment 11,818 control 50 different undergraduate courses 130 teachers 10 institutions


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Method Quasi-experimental design with: Propensity Score Matching Post Test Only Dependent variables: Completion; C or Better; Credits Enrolled This Term; Next Term Independent variable: Textbook condition 3 covariates: including age, gender, and race


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Results


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Credits Taken


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The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO Model for Sustaining OER Adoption Wiley, DeMarte, Williams, and Hilton Accepted in EPAA


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Associates of Business “Z Degree” Graduate without ever buying a textbook World’s first “all-OER” degree ~30% cheaper for students


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When a student drops, it.. Slows down their graduation Costs the institution tuition dollars (refunds)


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(182 * .89 * $164.35 * 3) in-state + (182 * .11 * $358.95 * 3) out-of-state = $101,042 annual INTRO INTRO Model


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Mad, Glad, Sad, Rad: A Framework for Evaluating the Academic Return on Investment in Textbooks and Other Educational Materials Wiley, Hilton, Fischer, and Puente Submitted


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Cost Completing with C or Better Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200


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Cost Completing with C or Better Commercial Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200


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Cost Completing with C or Better Commercial OER Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200


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Completing with C or Better Student Success per Dollar 0 100% Cost $250 $0


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openedgroup.org/review


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11 Peer Reviewed Studies http://openedgroup.org/


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48,623 Students http://openedgroup.org/


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93% Same or Better Outcomes http://openedgroup.org/


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9 Peer Reviewed Studies of Perceptions of OER Quality http://openedgroup.org/


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4,510 Professors and Students http://openedgroup.org/


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35% Better 15% Worse http://openedgroup.org/


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impact.lumenlearning.com


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< / evidence >


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Why open education?


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Why open education? Better philosophical alignment Increased academic freedom for faculty Better academic outcomes for students Positive institutional budget impacts


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Why not open education?


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Discussion! davidwiley.org


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