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Higher Education for the Knowledge Economy

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Higher Education for the Knowledge Economy Prof Lap-Chee Tsui, Vice-Chancellor and President, HKU OECD – IMHE General Conference 17 September 2012 1


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Overview 2 Brief description of HKU Highly qualified personnel for knowledge economy Role of higher education Developed vs developing countries Challenges for HE Globalization Mismatch of expectations Trend of HE Internationalization Private supplementary tutoring HKU as an international university in China Our educational aims Curriculum reform


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HKU Founded in 1911 The HK College of Medicine (established 1887) One of the oldest higher education institutions in Asia 3


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A Brief Introduction 4 10 Faculties Architecture Arts Business & Economics Dentistry, Education Engineering Law Medicine Science Social Sciences 15,000 undergraduates (from ~50 countries) 12,000 postgraduates (Research PG, Taught PG) HKU School of Professional and Continuing Education (SPACE, including Community College)


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Highly qualified personnel for the knowledge economy Role of higher education Developed vs developing countries 5


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Role of higher education 6 Development of talents and leaders High quality students Range of disciplines + breadth of curriculum Employability Advancement of scholarship Research and discovery Academic excellence Knowledge sharing Active engagement in knowledge transfer/exchange + serving the community


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Pyramid of human talents 7 Shape of the pyramid varies with needs of the country Top level decision makers Middle management High-skilled labor, office workers, … post-secondary education Universities


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Challenges for higher education worldwide Globalization Mismatch of expectations 8


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Challenges of Globalization (1) Interconnectivity, intensity, simultaneity, multi-dimensionality, accessibility and instantaneity, rapid generation of new knowledge The world is getting smaller, but the scale and complexity of issues and problems are getting bigger New forms of activity are learnt as they are being created Confronted with more and more novel situations and ill-defined problems Fewer moral certainties and more moral dilemmas 9 From HKU Curriculum Reform chaired by PVC T&L Amy Tsui


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Challenges of Globalization (2) 10 The global environment Massification of higher learning and need for innovation Globalization and greater demands for programs with a strong international component and for graduates with intercultural skills Financial crises University rankings …


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The rise of rankings 11 THE / QS / Shanghai Jiaotong Different league tables have different methodologies and performance indicators But, changing methodologies / criteria / weighing / goalposts ‘Itemisation’ of parts of the ranking Impacts on institutions Good – recruitment, funding, donation, … Bad – ill-informed decisions, vicious competition, … Nonetheless, rankings boast huge ‘market’, which is here to stay One size fits all? Modified from Michelle Li, HK SAR EDB


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One size fits all? Stefan Collini, The Guardian, UK wrote in The threat to our universities: … Universities are said to serve two purposes – and two purposes only. The first is to "equip" "young people" to get jobs in "the fast-moving economy of tomorrow”, and the other is to contribute to "growth", to develop the "cutting-edge products" needed in "today's competitive global marketplace" (and preferably to discover the odd miracle drug, too) … 12


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13 How do we define quality for universities? Quality = Large, comprehensive and elitist? Small colleges > large comprehensive universities Vocational / technical / teaching universities > research universities Three types of HEI according to pursuit and objectives (Chen Yu-kun on undergraduate teaching evaluation in China, 2008) (1) Top universities (to become world class universities) Quality = “pursuit of excellence” “Pursuit” = to be ranked as top 100 in the world” (2) Vocational & technical colleges and universities Quality = “client satisfaction” = high employment rates. “Being trusted by employing sectors means high quality” (3) Colleges & universities between (1) & (2) – majority “Quality means the extent to which their objectives are fulfilled” Courtesy of Amy Tsui, HKU PVC T&L 13


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What is expected of higher education? Research, education and service to community Different expectations from Tax payers Governments Parents Students Employers However, there is increasing emphasis on the importance of whole person education 14


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Ask the Employers … According to HKU’s employer survey on about 40 attributes that university graduates ought to have today 15


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The goals of education 16


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Trend of higher education worldwide Internationalization Impact of private supplementary tutoring 17


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Internationalization Internationalization of universities Research collaboration Teaching and learning International student body Enrich learning environment; cultural diversity adds to understanding; tolerance of difference Students going abroad Learning experience; global perspectives; cultural understanding Curriculum Staff and student exchanges Knowledge Exchange Cooperation with other universities to advance human knowledge and higher learning Global socioeconomic development would be the ultimate gain for human kind Sharing of knowledge, information, good practice, … 18


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Source: New trends in international student mobility . Hendrik van der Pol, Director, UIS Courtesy of John Spinks, HKU Sr Advisor to VC 19


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By percentage of population (0.6%) Courtesy of John Spinks, HKU Sr Advisor to VC 20


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Source: New trends in international student mobility. Hendrik van der Pol, Director, UIS Courtesy of John Spinks, HKU Sr Advisor to VC 21


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Changes in student mobility Courtesy of John Spinks, HKU Sr Advisor to VC 22


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International Student Mobility ASEAN COUNTRIES Japan China Korea EAST ASIA USA Germany Canada France UK Australia New Zealand Adapted from: International Student Mobility and Asian Higher Education Framework for Global Network Miki SUGIMURA, Ph.D. Department of Education, Faculty of Humanities, Sophia University, Japan The traditional educational destinations, USA, UK etc. Malaysia Subcontinent Courtesy of John Spinks, HKU Sr Advisor to VC 23


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International Student Mobility ASEAN COUNTRIES Japan China Korea EAST ASIA USA Germany Canada France UK Australia New Zealand Adapted from: International Student Mobility and Asian Higher Education Framework for Global Network Miki SUGIMURA, Ph.D. Department of Education, Faculty of Humanities, Sophia University, Japan The new Global Regionalism (Don Olcott), EU Malaysia Europe (Bologna) Subcontinent Courtesy of John Spinks, HKU Sr Advisor to VC 24


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International Student Mobility ASEAN COUNTRIES Japan China Korea EAST ASIA USA Germany Canada France UK Australia New Zealand Adapted from: International Student Mobility and Asian Higher Education Framework for Global Network Miki SUGIMURA, Ph.D. Department of Education, Faculty of Humanities, Sophia University, Japan The new Global Regionalism (Don Olcott), Asia Malaysia Europe (Bologna) Malaysians ? UK dropped from 18K (1997) to 11K (2006); ? Egypt were 5.5K (2006) Subcontinent Courtesy of John Spinks, HKU Sr Advisor to VC 25


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External Obstacles to Internationalization (of student bodies) - 2nd & 3rd most important Source: Ross Hudson (2010). Internationalization of Higher Education the 3rd IAU Global Survey Report . Recognition of qualification / programme Sample size N=745 Wld Language barrier Visa restrictions on our students AF Recognition of qualification / programme Recognition of qualification / programme AP Language barrier Recognition of qualification / programme EU Language barrier Recognition of qualification / programme LAC Language barrier Visa restrictions on our students ME Recognition of qualification / programme Visa restrictions on foreign students NA Internationalization not national priority Courtesy of Amy Tsui, HKU PVC T&L 26


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Private supplementary tutoring Courtesy of Mark Bray, HKU Education 27


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Shadow Education (Mark Bray, HKU Education) Additional to the provision of mainstream schooling As the size and shape of the mainstream changes, so does that of the shadow May be one-to-one, in small groups, large classes, or huge lecture theatres; and now includes internet tutoring Long been vigorous in East Asia and parts of South Asia Lower numbers but also deep roots in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Emerging in Africa and Arab States Also in Western Europe, North & South America, Australia 28


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Scale of private tutoring Azerbaijan: 92% of senior secondary China: 29% lower secondary Egypt: 52% rural primary; 64% urban primary France: 25% lower secondary, 33% upper secondary Hong Kong: 45% primary, 72% upper secondary India: West Bengal, 57% primary; Kerala, 72% secondary Japan: 16% Primary 1; 65% Secondary 3 Korea: 88% elementary, 72% middle, 60% high Sri Lanka: 92% Grade 10; 98% Grade 12 UAE: 65% of Emirati students in Grade 12 Courtesy of Mark Bray, HKU Education 29


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Costs France: US$2.8 billion India: US$6.4 billion Japan: US$12 billion Korea: US$17.3 billion; equivalent to 80% of government expenditure on primary and secondary education Greece: US$2.1 billion; equivalent to 20% of government expenditure on primary and secondary education Egypt: 1.6% of GDP Courtesy of Mark Bray, HKU Education 30


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Implications Good Bad 31 Helps student learning and pass examinations Provides incomes and employment for professional tutor Contribution to knowledge economy Distorts the teaching and learning processes Create peer pressure and anxiety, both among students and among parents Mainstream teachers reducing effort in classroom, especially when providing tutoring to their own pupils Affects admissions policies Hard to tell high grades from high achievements Narrowly examination driven vs selection of well-rounded individuals Exacerbates social stratification and inequalities Modified from Mark Bray, HKU Education


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It is coming your way Courtesy of Mark Bray, HKU Education 32


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HKU as an international university in China Our Education aims Curriculum reform 33


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Challenges to HE in Hong Kong 34 Concerns of the community and employers with quality of university graduates Increasing demand for graduates with generic capabilities and global outlook Constraints imposed by government funding approach on curriculum structure Less mature university entrants; need for guidance in academic pursuit and personal development Pragmatic and utilitarian orientation of parents, students, and the community as a whole Students more vocationally oriented and less academically oriented Ethics and moral and civic values have assumed less importance in the undergraduate curriculum Admission largely based on examination results and students’ reliance on private tutoring From HKU Curriculum Reform chaired by PVC T&L Amy Tsui


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HKU rearticulated Educational Aims 35 To enable students to develop capabilities in: the pursuit of academic/professional excellence, critical intellectual inquiry and life-long learning tackling novel situations and ill-defined problems enacting personal and professional ethics, self-reflection and greater understanding of others intercultural understanding and global citizenship communication and collaboration leadership and advocacy for the improvement of the human condition From HKU Curriculum Reform chaired by PVC T&L Amy Tsui


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Seven Distinctive Features of the New Curriculum 36 Flexible Curriculum structure Development of moral and civic values Engagement with local and global communities Inter-disciplinary enquiry and collaboration Multiple modes of learning and assessment Experiential learning Inquiry in multiple contexts


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Common Core Curriculum Centre piece of our curriculum reform To help students to see interconnectedness and the interdependent nature of human existence through exploring some common human experiences Four Areas of Inquiry Scientific and Technological Literacy The Humanities China: Culture, State and Society Global Issues (6 courses to be taken in Years 1 and 2, at least one from each area, making up 15% of the whole curriculum) 37


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Experiential Learning 38 Learning in authentic work environment Novel situations Problems are not well-defined Need to consider many contextual factors and the interconnection between them No perfect solution – live with dilemmas Synergy between theory and practice Degree-related internships Research mentorships Personal mentorships Study tours Summer schools General education


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. Service learning HKU students have been working in the Thai-Burma border refugee camps each vacation for several years “Social innovation” and “Global Citizenship” as graduation requirements 39


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Knowledge exchange in Myanmar Working with NGOs and donors to provide scholarships for Burmese students each year Partnership with universities (library book donations, visiting students to HKU, HKU students teaching in Yangon, places in M.S.W. & M.Ed. Programmes, Ph.D. places for faculty) Partnership with education ministry (workshops on IT in education, teacher education) Partnerships with donors for funding Working with other Consul-Generals and MoE’s, e.g., Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Mongolia … 40


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Concluding remarks 41 Role of higher education for knowledge economy Highly qualified personnel for different needs Challenge of globalization Mismatch of expectations from stakeholders Internationalization a trend of HE Private supplementary tutoring something to watch out HKU as an international university in China Our educational aims Curriculum reform


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THANK YOU 42


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