The impact of open scholarship on teaching and scholarly practice

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The impact of open scholarship on teaching and scholarly practice Martin Weller

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About me Prof at the Open University Digital Scholarship book bit.ly/digscholar OER Research Hub oerresearchhub.org Blogger edtechie.net The Battle for Open

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This talk What is open scholarship? What’s it got to do with me? Pedagogy OERs and teaching Open practice The battle for open Conclusions

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Weller (2011) open scholars are likely to: Have a distributed online identity Have a central place for their identity Have cultivated an online network of peers Have developed a personal learning environment from a range of tools Engage with open publishing Create a range of informal outputs Try new technologies Mix personal and professional outputs Use new technologies to support teaching and research Automatically create and share outputs

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But what’s it got to do with me?

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Pedagogy of scarcity? Lecture – one to many Library Instructivism/didactic http://www.flickr.com/photos/skyfaller/8394194/

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What would a pedagogy of abundance look like? http://www.flickr.com/photos/42903611@N00/387761039/

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Assumptions Content is free Content is abundant Content is varied Sharing is easy Social based Connections are ‘lite’ Crowdsourcing Network is valuable

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Resource based learning: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mlgkhc/3284242747/

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Problem based learning http://www.flickr.com/photos/donnagrayson/195244498/

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Constructivism http://www.flickr.com/photos/auro/230377281/

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Communities of practice http://www.flickr.com/photos/antphotos/3489600094/

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Connectivism! http://www.flickr.com/photos/feuilllu/153570089/

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3 possible reactions There is nothing in the pedagogy of abundance We have enough theories just need to recast them None of the existing theories quite captures new tech & behaviour & new one is required http://www.flickr.com/photos/cawley/894692611/

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Open Educational Resources teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. (Hewlett Foundation n.d.)

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OERs & the OER Research Hub Oerresearchhub.org

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OER improve student performance/satisfaction Educators believe this somewhat, learners more so Stronger for related factors, eg confidence, interest, enthusiasm, experimentation Access to resources & ownership important “I went from being horrible in AP Biology … and went from a D 66% up to a A 90% so far.”

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People use OER differently from other online materials Adaptation is high – a continuum of practice Majority of educators think open licensing is important, but only 12% share with CC Open licence less important than relevance & reputation Openness as virus “It’s given me the desire to share more openly”

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OER widen participation in education Students use OER to trial subjects Students use OER to supplement study Some use OER as replacement to formal study “It has allowed me to develop knowledge easily in areas that I thought would be difficult to learn due to the inability to buy an in-depth textbook.”

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OER use leads educators to reflect on their practice Strong evidence that educators: a broader range of teaching and learning methods; reflected more on the way that they teach; more frequently compare their own teaching with others get new ideas for teaching; prepare for teaching; to learn about new topics; & to supplement lessons An under-reported benefit of OER

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OER adoption brings financial benefits for students/institutions Strong evidence for savings Mainly OpenTextbooks, not online OERs Continued access to current material more sig? “I think that it is highly beneficial to have a brand new text to use, I would have been forced through budgetary constraints to purchase other texts which are 5-10 years old”

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OER Active OER as facilitator OER consumer http://oerresearchhub.org/ engaged with issues around open education, are aware of open licenses and are often advocates for OERs have some awareness of OERs, or open licenses, but they have a pragmatic approach to them. OERs are of secondary interest to their primary task use OERs amongst a mix of other media and often not differentiate between them. Awareness of licenses is low and not a priority Types of OER usage https://flic.kr/p/dCB8ne

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Open practice

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My online identity

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Some numbers Blog (since 2006) – 500,000 views Blipfoto - 155,000 views over800 entries Citations - 1,620 Slideshare - 250,000 views (7 years, 59 presentations) Colored dice by sgs 1019: http://www.flickr.com/photos/visionwithin/133942381/

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Confession I don’t know what these numbers mean in terms of impact! http://www.flickr.com/photos/ransomtech/9555643908/ I don’t know what these numbers mean in terms of impact

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Complementary process link links promotes automatic publish comments subscribes discusses retweets

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It’s distributed Reflections by stephen dooley http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2577006675/

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It’s evolving

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It’s default

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Staircase of the Vatican museum by _robertC_ http://www.flickr.com/photos/r_catalano/404014466/ It’s moving to the centre

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It mixes personal & professional

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New routes for impact 2400 visitors 52,000 visitors = 163 hits/month = 1000 hits/day Open Research Online

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Do we need different skills to compete in an attention economy?

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Video Networks Data visualisation Analytics Curation/filtering Writing for online Liveblogging http://www.flickr.com/photos/stevendepolo/5749192621/ New skills

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Open scholarship example Katy doing MOOC, blogs final assignment Picked up by Phil Hill at eliterate Becomes defacto piece on completion rates Invited to submit proposal for funding Conference & journal articles follow

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Who knows where it will end? Keynote invites Guardian events Book as staff development MOOCs

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Challenges Open access is key, not always encouraged Takes investment to reach the pay-off “It’s not proper!” Not much of: stealing ideas, online abuse, conflict with traditional role http://www.flickr.com/photos/quinnanya/5893328472/

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Tips Get started! Find your voice/tool Give a bit of you Be a good networker Use a mix Don’t overplan Be open http://www.flickr.com/photos/kamranmeyer/9399451939/

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The dark side of open

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Perils of Open scholarship Trolls Job perils Promotion

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“The failure of MOOCs to disrupt higher education has nothing to do with the quality of the courses themselves, many of which are quite good and getting better. Colleges are holding technology at bay because the only thing MOOCs provide is access to world-class professors at an unbeatable price.” A means for tech to undermine education

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Creates false dichotomies

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Lessons from the VLE Rapid adoption & mainstreaming Outsourcing & sedimentation

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https://flic.kr/p/dNxyCd The charges Systems - privileges a technology management mindset Silos – does not allow for the benefits of openness Missed opportunities – learners use a system unlike anything outside of education Costs – drain the financial and also the human resources, Confidence – ed techs are required to manage the system (Groom J & Lamb B (2014) ‘Reclaiming Innovation’. EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 49, no. 3

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Openness is not just a peripheral interest now

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https://flic.kr/p/fLj2C2 Ultimately it is a battle of ownership

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What can openness do for you?

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Some links: Digital Scholarship: bit.ly/digscholar Battle for Open book: http://www.ubiquitypress.com/site/books/detail/11/battle-for-open/ Blog: http://blog.edtechie.net/ Oerresearchhub.org