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UI/UX Foundations for Research

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UI/UX Foundations: Research & Analysis Meg Kurdziolek and Karen Tang


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Your Goals What would you like to learn today?


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Our Goals We want you to… talk confidently to UX researchers critically understand research presented to you conduct basic UX research on your own have a basis to continue learning about UX research


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Activity (setup) Which of these problems do you feel strongly about? Pittsburgh public transportation Food delivery in Pittsburgh Finding family-friendly activities in Pittsburgh Pittsburgh public schools


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Agenda 09:00 - 09:20 Breakfast and Introductions 09:20 - 09:30 User-Centered Design 09:30 - 10:10 Surveys, Diary Studies, Interviews 10:10 - 10:55 Usability Studies, Field Studies 10:55 - 11:25 A/B Testing, Log Analysis 11:25 - 12:00 Adapting Your Methods 12:00 - 12:30 LUNCH 12:30 - 01:00 Interpreting Your Data 01:00 - 01:40 Special Topics: Dark UX Patterns 01:40 - 01:50 Case Studies 01:50 - 02:00 Group reflections & wrap-up Q&A


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User-centered design (n.) - a framework of processes in which the needs, wants, and limitations of end users of a product are given extensive attention at each stage of the design process. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-centered_design


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Design Process Refine Learn Build


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UX Research & Design Refine Build Learn


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UX Research & Design Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Refine Build Learn


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UX Research & Design Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Refine Build Learn


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UX Research & Design A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Diary Studies Ethnography Field Studies Focus Groups Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation Interviews Lab Testing Log Analysis Remote Testing Think-Aloud Surveys User Observation Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Refine Build Learn


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Need Finding A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Diary Studies Ethnography Field Studies Focus Groups Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation Interviews Lab Testing Log Analysis Remote Testing Think-Aloud Surveys User Observation Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Refine Build Learn


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Need Finding A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Diary Studies Ethnography Field Studies Focus Groups Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation Interviews Lab Testing Log Analysis Remote Testing Think-Aloud Surveys User Observation Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Refine Build Learn


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Surveys http://www.baerpm.com/blog/what-a-customer-survey-can-do-for-your-business/


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overall impressions Surveys are good for learning: who your users are (demographics) outstanding opinions who’s might participate in further research


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Common Survey Example How likely is it that you’d recommend [brand] to a friend? Not at all Likely 1 Very Likely Neutral 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


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Net Promoter Score NPS: “research has shown that your NPS® acts as a leading indicator of growth. If your organization’s NPS is higher than those of your competitors, you will likely outperform the market…” https://www.netpromoter.com/know/


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Surveys: Pros and Cons Benefits Limitations Cheap (in $ and time) Limited in type & scope of data Easy to recruit participants Question interpretation issues May receive high response rate Response bias Easy to analyze Easy to misinterpret or *over*interpret results


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Silly Survey Example Do you like to eat lunch alone? Yes No


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Diary Studies http://hciresearch4.hcii.cs.cmu.edu/M-HCI/2011/BOA-PlanningTools/


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day-to-day habits & patterns Diary Studies are good for…. when, how, and why they use your product reflections on real problems encountered and how they were solved


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Diary Studies: Pros and Cons Benefits Limitations A longitudinal scope of data Costly (in $ and time) Get a look at the mundane, Difficult to recruit every-day interactions and participants (& high attrition) behaviors Relies on self-report


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Example Diary Study Radar: Intellicast vs. Weather Underground


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“Hot” Radar


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Interviews


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user’s background Interviews are good for…. their use of technology their goals and motivations their pain points what problems need to be addressed or solve


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Interviews: Pros and Cons Benefits Limitations Cheap (in $) Takes a moderately amount of time Can target specific users or be opportunistic Can engage with users personally Can get the answer to lots of “why” questions Results indicate what people *say* they do (rather than actual behavior)


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Interview Tips Start broad, then narrow-in. example: “Overall, how do you think Pittsburgh public transit compares to other cities?” Ask clarifying questions, and use their words. example: “You said the bus system is hard to predict, could you explain that to me?” It’s okay to play-dumb. (But be honest.) example: “I’ve never used public transit here. Can you tell me how you would find out the schedules and figure it out how to get downtown from here?”


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More Interview Tips Avoid “Yes/No” questions. Avoid asking about feelings. Ask about behaviors instead. Don’t number your questions. Organize by topics you want to cover. Be prepared to skip around. Always be prepared to go off-script. Ask the question, then pause. Don’t rush to fill silence.


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Activity - Part 1 Partner with someone who is interested in a different topic than you. You will interview them on their chosen topic. It’s your job to explore what the needs are and uncover the main issues, feelings, thoughts, and pain-points. Round 1: (5 minutes) Develop your Script Goal: Individually, develop a rough script that you will use to interview your partner. Start broad to gather overall impressions, then narrow in on specific topic areas. Remember, you are trying to understand overall impression and the biggest pain-points. Round 2: (20 minutes) Interview (10 minutes each) Goal: Take turns interviewing each other. Be sure to keep notes.


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How do you know when you are done conducting interviews? Saturation (n.) - when the same topics (or themes) keep emerging in your interviews, and conducting more interviews results in no new themes. Rule of thumb - 12 interviews for saturation


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Example of one thing you can do with interviews: build robust personas


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Need Finding A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Diary Studies Ethnography Field Studies Focus Groups Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation Interviews Lab Testing Log Analysis Remote Testing Think-Aloud Surveys User Observation Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Refine Build Learn


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Validation & Evaluation A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Diary Studies Ethnography Field Studies Focus Groups Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation Interviews Lab Studies Log Analysis Remote Testing Think-Aloud Surveys User Observation Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Build Learn


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Types of Usability Testing Formative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation Interviews ✔ ✔ ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ Summative ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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Lab Usability Studies Formative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation ✔ ✔ Hypothesis Testing Interviews ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ Summative ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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Lab Usability Testing http://trydevkit.com/blog-post/a-beginner-s-guide-to-usability-testing/81da0af5-fb17-fd8e-016b-536948e32ced


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http://trydevkit.com/blog-post/a-beginner-s-guide-to-usability-testing/81da0af5-fb17-fd8e-016b-536948e32ced


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http://usabilitygeek.com/an-introduction-to-website-usability-testing/


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Usability Studies are good for…. learning how easy or difficult it is for users to learn and use your interface if language and iconography are intuitive how users encounter and recover from errors


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Lab Usability Studies Benefits Limitations Cheap (in $) Usually takes a moderate amount of time and set-up Observe user behavior as they encounter a design for the first time See the consequences of design decisions first-hand Can sometimes feel staged, or unauthentic


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Running a Usability Study Planning: create test plan, recruit participants Pilot: practice with internal users, resolve any technical or logistical issues Test session: run test plan, be present (formative) or simply observe (summative) Debrief: short Q&A with participants, discuss observations with other study observers Analysis


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Example Usability Study


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Contextual Usability Studies Formative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation ✔ ✔ Hypothesis Testing Interviews ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ Summative ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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Field Studies http://www.oracle.com/webfolder/ux/applications/getInvolved/customerFeedback.html


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Field Studies are good for…. learning how customers actually use your product in day-to-day life


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Field Studies Benefits Limitations Allows you to observe authentic, contextual, user behavior Significant cost ($) Can observe the day-to-day experience users have with your product, across a longer period of time Takes more time to run


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Field Study Example


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Field Study Example One laptop + projector Laptop Carts Computer Lab


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Field Study Example [00:24:19.08] Boy says to the girl on his right: "you cheating” [00:24:21.19] Girl to the left: "what? Its fun. ::mumble:: the simulation. Look.” [00:24:25.21] The boy looks to the girl on his left, then back to the girl on the right, then down to his workbook in front of him. He puts his head on the table.


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Contextual Usability Studies Formative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation ✔ ✔ Hypothesis Testing Interviews ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ Summative ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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A/B Testing


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A/B Testing http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2010/06/the-ultimate-guide-to-a-b-testing/


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A/B Testing asking “how much”, “how many”, “which one is better” is good for…. sampling from actual users testing live apps/services


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A/B Testing Benefits Limitations Low maintenance: release and wait for data Missing context of why users take an action Can measure very specific questions May have no results, not guaranteed to be conclusive Live testing, measures actual Only measures certain user vs. self-reported user behavior interactions


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Running an A/B Test Make sure to: test conditions simultaneously (fewer confounding factors) be consistent, keep track of which users see which version deploy tests cautiously; user research can help inform Things to watch out for: don’t jump to conclusions, wait for statistical significance waiting too long could cost you potential conversions you might be interfering with user habit


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Running an A/B Test Make sure to: test conditions simultaneously (fewer confounding factors) be consistent, keep track of which users see which version deploy tests cautiously; user research can help inform Things to watch out for: don’t jump to conclusions, wait for statistical significance waiting too long could cost you potential conversions you might be interfering with user habit


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https://medium.com/@adlon/threats-of-a-b-tests-and-ux-research-adoption-time-and-incrementalism-991c0c3c61b6


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A/B Testing Tools Optimizely Visual Website Optimizer Unbounce*


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Log Analysis


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Log Analysis seeing page views, entry/ exit, platforms, engagement is good for…. sampling from actual users testing live apps/services


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Log Analysis Benefits Limitations Low maintenance: release and wait for data Missing context of why users take an action Flexibility, can measure a wide range of data Often requires initial development overhead Live testing, measures actual vs. self-reported user behavior


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Example: Google Analytics Question: how many mobile users does my app have? http://www.smallbox.com/blog/quick-and-dirty-ux-3-things-google-analytics-can-tell-you-about-your-users


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Example: Google Analytics Question: how many mobile users does my app have? http://www.smallbox.com/blog/quick-and-dirty-ux-3-things-google-analytics-can-tell-you-about-your-users


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Example: Google Analytics Question: what paths do users take on my site/app?


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Example: Google Analytics Question: what paths do users take on my site/app?


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Example: Google Analytics Question: what paths do users take on my site/app? http://www.smallbox.com/blog/quick-and-dirty-ux-3-things-google-analytics-can-tell-you-about-your-users


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Example: Google Analytics Question: how long are users spending on my site? http://www.smallbox.com/blog/quick-and-dirty-ux-3-things-google-analytics-can-tell-you-about-your-users


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Example: Google Analytics Question: how long are users spending on my site? http://www.smallbox.com/blog/quick-and-dirty-ux-3-things-google-analytics-can-tell-you-about-your-users


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Example: Google Analytics Custom logging: track any event you want (links, performance, etc.) http://www.sitepoint.com/5-ways-use-google-analytics-ux-research/


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Usability Studies Formative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation ✔ ✔ Hypothesis Testing Interviews ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ Summative ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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How to Choose a Usability Study? Triangulation (n.) - using two or more methods to discover and validate a finding.


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Blind Men and the Elephant Parable


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Consider Tradeoffs and Select Methods that Meet Your Needs


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Usability Studies Formative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation ✔ ✔ Hypothesis Testing Interviews ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ Summative ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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Usability Studies what are you testing? what kind of results do you want? Formative Summative Quantitative Qualitative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation ✔ ✔ Hypothesis Testing Interviews ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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Usability Studies what are you testing? what kind of results do you want? Formative Summative Quantitative Qualitative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation ✔ ✔ Hypothesis Testing Interviews ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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Potential Pitfalls of Quantitative Research Easy to make mistakes: phantom correlations finding may not generalize (participant selection) requires sound experimental design But it’s a great supplement to qualitative research


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Butterfly Ballot


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Activity - Part 2 Reflect on the one interview you conducted. How has your knowledge grown? What do you still need to learn about? What do you need to get there? (What do you need to do complete a full persona?) How would you build a research plan for your topic?


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Usability Studies what are you testing? what kind of results do you want? Formative Summative Quantitative Qualitative A/B Testing Field Studies Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation ✔ ✔ Hypothesis Testing Interviews ✔ Log Analysis Remote Testing Surveys Think-Aloud Wizard of Oz ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔


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Validation & Evaluation A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Diary Studies Ethnography Field Studies Focus Groups Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation Interviews Lab Studies Log Analysis Remote Testing Think-Aloud Surveys User Observation Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Learn


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Understanding Your Data http://anotheruxguy.com/2015/07/06/analysis-is-cool/


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So Why Doesn’t My UI Work? Seven Stages of Action Mental Models Psychological Biases Dark UX Patterns


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Seven Stages of Action Evaluate system state Establish goal Gulf of Evaluation What does it mean? Form intention EXECUTION Gulf of Execution How do I do it? Execute action Interpret system state Perceive system state USER Specify action sequence EVALUATION SYSTEM


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The Gulfs Gulf of Execution Does your app have good mappings? Can they easily figure out how to execute on their desired goal? Gulf of Evaluation Does your app provide good feedback and visual cues? Can users easily interpret what the data the app is conveying to them?


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Mental Models Designer Users


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Experimental Biases Selection Bias Confirmation Bias Diagnosis Bias Regression Towards the Mean


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confirmation bias (n) - the tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one’s preconceptions possible pitfalls: you focus your questioning on behaviors that you expected to see, that confirm or validate your design you discount negative comments about your design


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diagnosis bias (n) - the tendency to label things based on initial impressions, and the difficulty or inability to change minds after the initial impression possible pitfalls: discounting a participant’s responses based on their initial responses to selected questions


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regression towards the mean (n) - when a nonrandom sample is selected, the average of that sample tends to regress towards the mean possible pitfalls: thought your intervention was the reason for an improvement, but it was simply due to sampling


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Cognitive Biases Anchoring Framing Change Blindness Illusion of Control Loss Aversion


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Anchoring Anchor (n) - something that serves as a reference point


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Anchoring Frame (n) - the way we present a decision may highlight different attributes A pound of meat that is 90% lean or A pound of meat that is 10% fat


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Framing Frame (n) - the way we present a decision may highlight different attributes This treatment has a 90% chance of saving your life or This treatment has a 10% chance of failure, resulting in death


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Change Blindness


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change blindness (n) - the tendency to overlook alterations, especially when they appear immediately after a visual interruption


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change blindness (n) - the tendency to overlook alterations, especially when they appear immediately after a visual interruption


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change blindness (n) - the tendency to overlook alterations, especially when they appear immediately after a visual interruption


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Illusion of Control


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Loss Aversion the tendency that loss is more acutely felt than gain


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Dark UX Patterns


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Dark UX Patterns Privacy: Should it be opt-in or opt out?


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UX is a holistic approach, driven by process & iterations


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Case-Study: Anemia in Cambodia Iron deficiency is a global problem In the US: affects 3.5 million Americans each year In Cambodia: affects 68% of children, 50% of adults


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Solution


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Uh, gross.


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Solution 2


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Image borrowed from: http://www.bustle.com/articles/84173-the-lucky-iron-fish-helps-fix-irondeficiencies-just-by-boiling-it-with-food-and-it


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UX Research & Design A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Diary Studies Ethnography Field Studies Focus Groups Hallway Testing Heuristic Evaluation Interviews Lab Studies Log Analysis Remote Testing Think-Aloud Surveys User Observation Data Collection, Validation, Evaluation Refine Build Learn


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Feedback & QA Questions? Comments? Are there topics you wished we spent more time on? How do you see some of these topics applying to your current work?


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Thank you! Meg Kurdziolek Karen Tang meg.kurdziolek@gmail.com karen@kptang.com www.megkurdziolek.com www.kptang.com


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Resources Surveys: http://uxmastery.com/better-user-research-through-surveys/ Interviews: http://theuxreview.co.uk/user-interviews-the-beginners-guide/ http://www.nngroup.com/articles/interviewing-users/ https://whitneyhess.com/blog/2010/07/07/my-best-advice-for-conducting-userinterviews/ Usability Studies: http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/usability-testing.html


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Resources Lucky iron fish TED Talk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Lf6glgKt3Q


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Great UX Research Books Just Enough Research by Erika Hall Usability Testing Essentials by Carol M. Barnum Observing the User Experience by Elizabeth Goodman


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