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Designing for the World: Culturally-Conscious Design

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DESIGNING FOR THE THE WORLD Culturally-conscious Design


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CHRISTINE IMAIZUMI User Experience Lead, Thomson Reuters @XTEEN


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WORKED FOR LOCAL DALLAS STARTUPS MyMail Technology GodTube.com | tangle.com YouPlusDallas.com


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:)


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"Their smiles looked strange to me. They opened their mouths too widely, and raised the corners of their mouths in an exaggerated way.”


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( ^_^ )


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AROUND THE WORLD Many usability and user experience best practices were created in western cultures and may not translate in other parts of the world.


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That taught us the importance that you really need to go where your consumers are, not just to talk to them, but observe and spend time with them to gather the key insight. Alberto Carvalho VP of Global Gillette CULTURAL CONSIDERATION Considering the cultural traditions, economic status and demographics of a potential market helps to build a better, user-focused product.


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UNDERSTANDING CULTURAL DIFFERENCES


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STAND UP YES, YOU.


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WHAT IS THEIR FAVORITE COLOR? WHERE DID THEY GROW UP? WHAT IS THEIR ETHNICITY? WHAT IS THEIR FAVORITE FOOD?


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HARAGEI: BELLY TALK A highly developed intuition that allows a person to understand the the nature of the situation without verbal communication. Modern societies, holding fast to traditions.


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CROSS-CULTURAL COMMUNICATION


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We didn’t all come over on the same ship, but we’re all in the same boat. - Bernard Baruch, American financier


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HOFSTEDE ‘S FIVE CULTURAL DIMENSIONS Hofstede created cultural dimensions to provide a measurable way to categorize different cultures.


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POWER DISTANCE The degree people are comfortable with influencing upwards. Acceptance of inequality in distribution on power in society.


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POWER DISTANCE The degree people are comfortable with influencing upwards. Acceptance of inequality in distribution on power in society. Since the US has a lower power distance, the product needs to have a tone of respect and show interest in their needs. Communicating in a more informal and participative way will gain their trust. Distribution of power distance around the world. A high score indicates a bigger power distance.


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INDIVIDUALISTIC/COLLECTIVISTIC How personal needs and goals are prioritized vs. the needs and goals of the group or organization.


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INDIVIDUALISTIC/COLLECTIVISTIC How personal needs and goals are prioritized vs. the needs and goals of the group or organization. US McDonald’s site is focused on the user navigating their own way throughout the site. Individualistic societies have their own interest and goals.


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INDIVIDUALISTIC/COLLECTIVISTIC How personal needs and goals are prioritized vs. the needs and goals of the group or organization. Where as a collective culture, shown in the Turkish McDonald’s site focuses on what’s popular or common, testimonials or social media sharing options.


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MASCULINE/FEMININE Masculine societies have different rules for men and women, less so in feminine cultures.


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MASCULINE/FEMININE Masculine societies have different rules for men and women, less so in feminine cultures. Masculine cultures have high expectations and require upfront information to establish expertise.


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MASCULINE/FEMININE Masculine societies have different rules for men and women, less so in feminine cultures. Cultures that are primarily feminine, such as Norwegia, have a much more playful and happy look and feel, with less need for a serious tone and design.


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UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE How comfortable are people with changing the way they work or live (low UA) or prefer the known systems (high UA).


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UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE How comfortable are people with changing the way they work or live (low UA) or prefer the known systems (high UA). Cultures with a high degree of uncertainty avoidance would need limited choices, restricting the amount of data they can access and simple metaphors. Color cues and fonts are rejected by cultures with a high degree of uncertainty because they prefer clean, distinct choices. COUNTRIES WITH HIGH UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE Greece Portugal Guatamala Uruguay Belgium


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LONG TERM VS. SHORT TERM ORIENTATION Focuses on the outlook of the society, do they look to the future or stay in the past and present.


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LONG TERM VS. SHORT TERM ORIENTATION Focuses on the outlook of the society, do they look to the future or stay in the past and present. Long term societies are oriented in the future and are consistently pragmatic. These cultures reward persistence and saving. - Value content and navigation structure. - Share future features with users


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LONG TERM VS. SHORT TERM ORIENTATION Focuses on the outlook of the society, do they look to the future or stay in the past and present. Short term societies focus on the past and present. - These cultures or societies value tradition and current social hierarchy - Immediate gratification


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HOW DOES THIS RELATE TO DESIGN?


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ELEMENTS OF A CULTURALLY CONSCIOUS USER EXPERIENCE


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CULTURABILITY A systematic usability method using Cultural Markers such as - Religion - Language - Customs - Colors - Metaphors - Icons & Symbols to display patterns within the interface based on country and genre. Barber & Badre, Culturability: The Merge of Culture and Usability


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CRITICAL CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DESIGN LANGUAGE Being cautious of quality of translation, representation and tone LAYOUT Placement of menu items, banners, navigational orientation and reading direction SYMBOLISM Metaphors and symbols vary greatly from culture to culture. Icons, currencies and other elements will differ as well MULTIMEDIA When to use video, animation, static images and/or sound COLOR Color varies across cultures and can impact a user’s expectations Cyr (2004). Localization of Web Design


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OUR APPROACH TO GLOBAL TAX


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TAXATION ACROSS THE WORLD Taxation and cultural characteristics of three different countries: Chile, Egypt and Hong Kong


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CHILE National Language: Spanish Spoken Language: Chilean Spanish, Chileno Tax Jurisdiction Language: Spanish Currency: Peso Reading Direction: Left to Right, Top to Bottom Writing Direction: Left to Right, Top to Bottom Moving Forward Caution, Happiness Warning, Victory


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HONG KONG National Language: Chinese, English Writing System: Traditional Chinese, Latin Alphabet Spoken Language: Chinese (Cantonese) Tax Jurisdiction Language: Chinese (Cantonese), English Currency: Hong Kong Dollar Reading Direction: Left to Right, Horizontal Writing Direction: Left to Right, Horizontal Assurance, Infidelity Good Fortune, Victory Neutrality, Mourning Person is Deceased


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EGYPT National Language: Arabic, Egyptian Arabic Spoken Language: Egyptian Arabic Tax Jurisdiction Language: Arabic Currency: Egyptian Pound Reading Direction: Right to Left, Top to Bottom Writing Direction: Right to Left, Top to Bottom Color of Joy, Happiness Caution, Warmth Warning, Victory


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TAKEAWAYS Localization does not end with language Take cultural cues for menu items, banners, & navigational orientation Be aware of icons, currency/decimal points and other elements from culture to culture. Color varies across cultures and can impact a user’s expectations.


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LOSE THE WESTERN FOCUS SEE THE WORLD


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RESOURCES Culturability: The Merging of Culture and Usability Wendy Barber and Albert Badre Cross-Cultural User Interface Design for Mobile Phones: A Literature Survey Huijuan Wu, Anthony Norcio, A Ant Ozok Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, 2001 Full questionnaire as standardized, 1971 Hofsteded, Kraut and Simonetti ALSO READ Brejcha, Jan. “Chapter 6: UI Language Components and Cultural Markers” CrossCultural Human-Computer Interaction and User Experience Design. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.


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