Accessible UX Beyond the checklist to great experiences

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Accessible UX Beyond the checklist to great experiences Whitney Quesenbery @whitneyq | @AWebforEveryone Presented at IAAP2015

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On today's agenda Usability and accessibility Problems interact Accessible UX needs diversity Rethinking usability testing Going forward 2

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Usability and accessibility Twins separated at birth 3

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Accessibility The usability of a product, service, environment or facility by people with the widest range of capabilities. ISO 9241-20 Usability The effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which the intended users can use a product to meet their goals ISO 9241-11 4

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The user-centered design process 1. Understand people and context of use 2. Identify requirements 3. Explore design solutions 4. Evaluate with users Source: ISO 9241-210 (formerly ISO-13407)

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Accessibility error priorities Critical An absolute barrier to access Serious A barrier that could cause frustration to most and be a barrier to some, causing a need for work-arounds Moderate A frustration that would not prevent someone from using the site Minor A WCAG error that is unlikely to cause problems - Glenda Sims, Deque Source: 2103 Accessibility Summit: http://environmentsforhumans.com

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Usability problem priorities Critical A problem that will prevent some users from completing a common task Serious A problem that will slow down some users and force them to find work-arounds Medium A problem that will cause frustration but will not affect task completion Low A quality or cosmetic problem, such as a spelling error, that can damage the credibility of a site. - David Travis, User Focus Source: http://www.userfocus.co.uk/articles/prioritise.html

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Prioritize problems by their impact on people

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Accessibility testing in layers

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Inspection Check for basic accessibility errors Quick checks that are perceivable without special technology Image "alt" text Text size and contrast Captions and transcripts Meaningful links and buttons Easy access to content (skip links) Keyboard navigation

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Code review Check for accessible coding Look for robust code that meets standards. Forms coding Semantic markup for content structure Reading order with a keyboard Coded to W3C standards Appropriate use of ARIA and HTML5 elements

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Use Check with assistive technology Check that it is operable and understandable with assistive technology. Use the technology with Screen readers: NVDA, VoiceOver or JAWS Magnifiers: Browser magnification and ZoomText Keyboard: Emulators, dual switches, Braille notes

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Expert review Check with expert AT users Expert review by people who use assistive technology to be sure it is operable and understandable. Does it work well with a range of AT? Are there good cues for navigation and orientation through the task? Can they complete all basic tasks, from the start to finish?

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Usability testing Check with voters with disabilities Test again with a diverse set of "regular users" to be sure it works for non-experts. Can they complete all basic tasks, from the start to finish? Does it work with their own AT, with their usual settings? Are there good cues for navigation and orientation through the task?

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Usability and accessibility problems interact When interaction problems hide

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Noisy problems mask critical ones Accessibility (noisy) Missing alt text Inconsistent heading coding Confusing labeling of sections But the real problem was Accessibility (critical) No way to jump past the infinite ribbon at the top of the page

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Critical features may not be accessibly usable Accessibility (serious) The overall site is accessible but The insert task links rely on visual position Thanks to Jayne Schurick and Jeanine Lineback for this example

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Participants with disabilities add perspectives to a usability problem Usability & accessibility (serious) The general interface is both usable and accessible, but the language and terminology in the content created serious and critical problems for people who did not know university terminology. Thanks to Jayne Schurick for this example

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Poor usability can become critical accessibility barriers Usability (serious) 281 links, 45 lists 98 Poor headings Overly complex information Accessibility (critical) Missing semantic coding for headings and in-page navigation Thanks to Jayne Schurick for this example

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People with disabilties can show where orientation is difficult Source: OpenIDEO.com Usability (serious) Complicated structure of a page for an unusual interactive site. Everyone had trouble learning how to use the site Accessibility (critical) Missing semantic coding made it impossible to distinguish different sections of the page and join the challenge.

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To understand accessible UX we have to look at real people and real behavior.

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Accessible UX needs diversity People with different interaction styles make usability testing more valuable. Source: rosenfeldmedia.com/books/a-web-for-everyone/#resources

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Recruit "people" not "disabilities" Aptitude motivation, emotion, risk tolerance, persistence, optimism, tolerance for frustration Attitude current knowledge, ability to make inferences or innovate solutions, expertise, habits Ability needs and preferences for interaction and display, digital and reading literacy http://www.slideshare.net/danachisnell/character-creator

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Vishnu "I want to be on the same level as everyone else" Engineer working on software for medical products Speaks 5 languages Needs to adjust text size and contrast to see the screen well

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Vishnu "I want to be on the same level as everyone else" Engineer working on software for medical products Speaks 5 languages Needs to adjust text size and contrast to see the screen well

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Steven "My only disability is that everyone doesn't sign." Graphic designer in a marketing agency Prefers visuals to text, doesn't spell well Uses video conferencing, captions and CART Complete set of personas and images available at: rosenfeldmedia.com/books/a-web-for-everyone/#resources

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Rethink usability testing methods Aim to learn about people not just "tasks"

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Maybe you think usability testing looks like this. Photo: www.unic.com

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Usability testing can also look like... Photos: UXBlog.com and Jenny Greeve

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What makes it a usability test? We observe behavior Quietly And use the results to inform design

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Build relationships in the community Get to know Community centers Independent living centers Organizations and associations Schools and universities Churches Libraries Adult literacy centers

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Engage expertise in many ways Think outside the "lab" – especially early in a project Design studio workshops A panel of repeat testers Customer councils Advisory committee Photos: ITIF AVTI/CATEA

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Aim for a rich view Take time to: Ask how they work now Talk to participants about their experiences and preferences. Get them to show you the products they use (or even find delightful). Explore what features are valuable, what barriers tolerable (or not) Go back over interactions to see why and how they worked well (or not-so-well).

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Expand your recruiting reach Think about where to advertise Identify transit options in the notice Use snowball methods Ask for help reaching a new community Be explicit about being inclusive

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Work with your participants Tips and tricks for successful usability sessions with diverse users

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Think beyond the "task" Are your research sessions flexible enough to adapt to a range of interaction styles? Are you open to variations in how they complete tasks? Are you flexible about the length of time for each session? Can you adapt the session to react to unexpected barriers?

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Getting set-up is part of the session Watch how participants get comfortable in a new place, on a new system, or in a new situation. Allow time for participants to get settled in the space and identify where everything is. Make sure they are comfortable with your system or that theirs connects to the network and other technology. Learn how they set audio volume, colors, or speech speed.

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Be flexible about devices Using their device Their choice of browsers or apps Their assistive technology and settings How they set up their preferences But there may be problems with a prototype Using your device Tested with your app, site, prototype Control of browser and application versions But they on a system they don't know Small differences in settings can be disorienting

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Include a preliminary activity Use this time to learn more about how they use the web. What strategies do they use with familiar and trusted sites? What strategies do they use to explore a new site? What cues help them assess the experience they are about to encounter?

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Decide on the research location At your site, look for Availability of public transportation, parking Friendly reception area for an assistant Space in the room for wheelchairs or dogs At their site, be sure to check Reliable internet Quiet area for the session Know how and exactly where you will meet Rules for use of the space

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Consider your recording options Check for conflicts between assistive technology and recording software. Avoid recording on the participant's computer. It can interfere with AT the participant's interactions. Use WebEx or GoToMeeting to display the participant's screen on a second computer and record from there. Use an 'over-the-shoulder' camera to record the screen.

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Recording setup with screen sharing GoToMeeting recording does not capture faces. Check the audio setup to avoid tech conflicts. The participant computer connects by telephone (but doesn't dial in). The room mic on the recording computer captures audio. External speakers for system and screen reader audio. This setup also allowed remote observers to watch easily.

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Recording setup with 2 cameras Morae has an option to record from two cameras. The screen camera is on a stand just to the right of the participant. The face camera is on a stand across the table. External speakers for system and screen reader audio. A mic on the Morae computer captures the room audio. This setup is also useful when you have a mix of devices. An adjustable stand lets you put the camera overhead to see a tablet, too.

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Interacting with the participant Don't distract Give them time to get oriented on each page. Let them tell you if they are lost or stuck. Use small retrospectives instead of talk-aloud. Watch and listen How do they navigated efficiently? Solve problems? Stay oriented? Do they have any unexpected uses for the product? What is novel or unexpectedly delightful for them? And all the usual rules about staying neutral.

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Be prepared. Don't panic. Sharing a web address or task instructions Set up bookmarks Have easy-to-type page with links Send a text message Getting past accessibility barriers Decide in advance how (and when) you will assist with problems. Be prepared by knowing the site well. Know when you will abandon a task or ask them to persist.

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Above all, be human.

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You can... Help usability and accessibility reunite. Look for ways that extreme interactions styles can suggest innovation. Look for personal adaptations that can suggest useful design tactics Include a wide range of people, not just those who are technically adept. Adjust your research methods to 'work with' and learn from your participants.

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Whitney UX research, plain language, accessibility, civic design http://civicdesign.org AUX Personas Personas shown in the presentation are available here:http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/a-web-for-everyone/ A Podcast for Everyone on UIE All You Can Learn, iTunes, Rosenfeld Mediahttp://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/a-web-for-everyone/#a-podcast-for-everyone https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/a-podcast-for-everyone/id833646317 48

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Session description Accessible UX: beyond the checklist Checklists, standards, and even patterns can only make sure that basic rules are followed. Even products that meet standards can be difficult or even impossible to use. But the questions we want to focus on are: How easy, useful, efficient, and delightful is this? Is this something people want to use? Is it a great experience?