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Design Therapist

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TRUE CONFESSIONS N O R M C O X OF A Design Therapist


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Design Interaction Experience Information Interface Usability Human Factors Research Digital Online Web Analyst Architect Consultant Contractor Developer Designer Engineer Evangelist Manager Researcher Specialist “Hello. My name is Norm, and I’m a… UI GUI UCD User Usability Visual Junior/Senior Lead/Head Strategic Principal Human


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“What’s my destiny, Mama?” Forrest Gump


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ARCHITECTURE LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY ARCHITECTURE


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X E R O X , c. 1972 - 1982 Xerox Memorywriter 6015


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X E R O X , c. 1972 - 1982 Xerox 820 Word Processor


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A L T O, c. 1976


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A L T O, c. 1976 Bitmap display Detachable keyboard 3-button Mouse First email program First WYSIWYG editor Vector graphics editor Raster (paint) editor Cursors Overlapping windows UI Ethernet connectivity


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A L T O, c. 1976 M A Z E W A R


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A L T O, c. 1976


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A L T O, c. 1976


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David Liddle Director: Xerox Sys. Dev. Founder: Metaphor C.S., Interval Research Prof: Stanford Univ. Bill Verplank Teacher, Mentor, Scholar IxD, HFE Prof: Stanford Univ., Interaction Design Inst., Ivrea Alan Kay Inventor: GUI, OOP, Smalltalk, “OLPC: One Laptop Per Child” Prof: UCLA, Kyoto Univ., MIT Rsrch Fellow: Apple, Disney, HP Founder: Viewpoints Rsrch. Inst. John Warnock Founder: Adobe Systems Inventor: Postscript, PDF Larry Tessler VP Apple Research Dir. Apple Lisa, Mac UI development Charles Simonyi Developed WYSIWYG editing Directed development of MS Word, Excel Traveled to space Dating Martha Stewart Charles Irby Director: Xerox Adv. Dev. Founder: Metaphor C.S. David Canfield Smith Inventor: GUI, icons, KidSim Ralph Kimball Pioneer and author: Data Warehousing Founder: Metaphor C.S., Red Brick Systems, Kimball Univ. Stu Card Sr. Research Fellow, Xerox PARC Director PARC UI Research Author Adjunct Prof: Stanford Univ. John Seely Brown Chief Scientist: Xerox Director: PARC Founder: Inst. for Research on Learning Visiting scholar: USC P A R C R O L L C A L L, c. 1978 Bob Metcalfe Co-Inventor: Ethernet Founder: 3 Com Yogen Dalal Co-Inventor: Ethernet Founder: Claris, Metaphor C.S. Managing Director: Mayfield Fund


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T H E P A R C C U L T U R E


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T H E P A R C C U L T U R E


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Alto’s bitmapped display (far left) Smalltalk graphical U I (left) Doug Englebart’s “mouse” (far left) Early commercial 3-button mouse (left) T H E P A R C C U L T U R E Laser Printing Ethernet


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“T H E O R I G I N A L D E S K T O P” C O N C E P T, c. 1976 Taken from Dave Smith’s Stanford doctoral thesis entitled “Pygmalion”. Dr. David Canfield Smith The Alto workstation


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S T A R I C O N F O R M A T, c. 1978 72 x 72 pixels


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S T A R I C O N S T U D I E S, c. 1978-79


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S T A R I C O N U S A B I L I T Y T E S T R E S U L T S, c. 1979 Final icon designs refined from test results.


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S T A R I C O N U S A B I L I T Y T E S T R E S U L T S, c. 1979 Printer Tissue box Shredder Suggestion box Fax machine Toilet paper dispenser


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S T A R I C O N R E F I N E M E N T S


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S T A R U N I F O R M V I S U A L L A N G U A G E


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S T A R S C R O L L B A R E N I G M A


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A P P L E L I S A c. 1983 A P P L E M A C c. 1984


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X E R O X S T A R c. 1981 Document-centric model A P P L E M A C c. 1984 Application-centric model MacPaint MacWrite MacDraw


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M E T A P H O R C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S, c. 1983 Decision Support System (DSS) Ralph Kimball Pioneer and author: Data Warehousing Founder: Metaphor C.S., Red Brick Systems, Kimball Univ.


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I B M C O R P O R A T E D E S I G N P R O G R A M , c. 1988 ? Tom Hardy Director: IBM Corp. Design Program Sam Lucente Manager, Corporate Design Richard Sapper Corporate Industrial Design Consultant Milan, Italy Paul Rand Corporate Graphic Design Consultant Yale University Edward Tufte Corporate Information Design Consultant Yale University Norm Cox Corporate Experience Design Consultant


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E D W A R D T U F T E Professor emeritus of Political Science, Statistics and Computer Science, Yale University Author, Artist and Pioneer in the field of Data Visualization


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O S / 2 O P E R A T I N G S Y S T E M, c. 1988-90 + OS/2 Operating System


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1 9 9 6 S U M M E R O L Y M P I C S, A T L A N T A , c. 1995


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1 9 9 6 S U M M E R O L Y M P I C S, A T L A N T A , c. 1995


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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B U S I N E S S P R O C E S S M A N A G E M E N T, c. 1997 CUSTOMER SALES ACCOUNTING FINANCE PRODUCTION SUPPLIER SHIPPING WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5


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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B U S I N E S S P R O C E S S M A N A G E M E N T, c. 1997 CUSTOMER SALES ACCOUNTING CREDIT BUREAU PRODUCTION SUPPLIER SHIPPING WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5


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B U S I N E S S P R O C E S S M A N A G E M E N T, c. 1997


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V O I C E R E C O G N I T I O N, c. 1995


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V O I C E R E C O G N I T I O N, c. 1995 ViaVoice® an.thro.po.morph.ism n: To attribute human qualities or characteristics to an animal, object or organization.


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vs. A P P L E v. M I C R O S O F T , c. 1988 - 1993 T H E S T A K E S • $14B in damages • Ownership of “concept” of GUI • “Bundling” of concepts • New precedent copyright law


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A P P L E v. M I C R O S O F T , c. 1989 W I N D O W S 2 . 0 W I N D O W S 1 . 0 W I N D O W S 3 . 0 A P P L E L I S A


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A P P L E v. M I C R O S O F T , c. 1989


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Operates 12,000 outlets in 90 countries worldwide. Employs more than 300,000 staff. Parent company (YUM Brands is the largest restaurant company in the world. Serves more than 1.3 million pizzas daily. Offers approx. 1,000,000 different combinations of pizza. H O L I S T I C D E S I G N P I Z Z A H U T , c. 2001


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H O L I S T I C D E S I G N P I Z Z A H U T , c. 2001 50% OF MY PIZZAS ARE WRONG! FINALLY!


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H O L I S T I C D E S I G N P I Z Z A H U T , c. 2001 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM not so cleverly disguised as an EXPLODED VIEW Build a perfect pizza!


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H O L I S T I C D E S I G N Proposed redesign of order entry terminals. Consistent visual language Expanded “natural language” order tickets Visual job aids redesigned to be simpler, more flexible, and easy to read and understand. Ergonomic recommendations for “just in time” information and maximum task efficiency.


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R E D U C I N G P I Z Z A S T R E S S . . . Opinionaire: 400 respondents On-site observations: 12 restaurants


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errors E U R E K A F I N D I N G : L A W O F U N I N T E N D E D C O N S E Q U E N C E S slip lapse mistake violation Unintentional Intentional } }


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errors E U R E K A F I N D I N G : L A W O F U N I N T E N D E D C O N S E Q U E N C E S Compensation Policies for franchisees were actually encouraging “violations” of quality standards in the restaurants. slip lapse mistake violation Unintentional Intentional } }


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Psychology Interactive systems Information design Visual language design Task analyses Ethnography Anthropometrics Ergonomics Human Factors Process analysis User surveys Statistical analysis Contextual inquiry Graphic design Usability testing Anthropology Instructional design Interactive systems B Y T H E N U M B E R S ... 67% Reduction in training time for pizza production staff (Reduced from 3 shifts to 1). 60% Reduction in time to become proficient in pizza assembly (Reduced from 3-5 days to 1-2). 80% Production accuracy percentage (Up from 50%, with some restaurants reporting near 100% accuracy). 50% Improvement in staff confidence ••• Greatly improved relationships between corporate management and RGMs, resulting in less stress, less turnover and more profitable working environments.


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T H I N K E R V T H E


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V INTERACTION DESIGN


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V problem problem problem problem problem problem


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“luck (success) is a matter of preparation meeting opportunity.” Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Conservative Roman philosopher, statesman, dramatist ( 4 BC – 64 AD ) “If you only have a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.” Abraham Maslow, American Psychologist, Creator of “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs” ( 1908 – 1970 )


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Thank you. 4901 BEHRENS ROAD COLLEYVILLE, TX 76034 www.COXHALL.com NCOX@COXHALL.com 817-688-2467 mobile


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