Put Your Personas to Work

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Put Your Personas to Work! #workingpersonas Maria Cordell Wyatt Starosta @mcordell @wyattstarosta August 22, 2013

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Agenda Introduction 09:00 – 09:15 15 min Part 1: Generate Ideas 09:15 – 10:05 50 min Part 2: Evaluate Fit 10:05 – 10:50 45 min Break 10:50 – 11:00 10 min Part 3: Humanize the Journey 11:00 – 11:50 50 min Part 4: Integrate Views 11:50 – 12:20 35 min Wrap and Q&A 12:20 – 12:30 10 min 2

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generate ideas Focus product, service, and feature ideation around the needs and goals of your intended audience 1 2 evaluate fit Assess how current and future product and service elements map to your audience Informed Direction integrate views Create organizational buy-in 
 by mapping personas to market segments and institutional understanding 4 3 humanize journeys Understand individual experience for the overall journey and at key points along the way 3

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Let’s level set. • Why personas? • What’s a persona? • How might it look? • How might it be used? 4

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why personas? Personas provide a common language for communicating about users, their needs and the ways in which they differ. They’re great for informing strategy and design decisions at multiple stages of product (and service) ideation and development. They can help to define and prioritize features and functionality relative to user needs — and help to assess the likelihood of adoption or engagement by target audiences. 5

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The best personas are an outcome of qualitative field research They embody what we learn about the needs, motivations, and behaviors of real people 6

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Research Methods and Outputs Type of Inquiry Demographic Who are they? Age, sex, geography Behavioral How do things get done? Behavior patterns, conceptual models Motivational Why are they doing it? Goals, emotions, preferences, desires Evaluative How does it work for them? Method Application/Result Surveys Database analysis Lay of the land Audience segmentation Inform/validate other research Field research Contextual interviews Card sorting Prototype testing & iteration Product strategy Features and functions Interaction design Information architecture Field research Contextual interviews Surveys Product Strategy Framing the experience Visual interpretation Branding Usability testing Log analysis Customer feedback Card sorting Interaction design Interaction flow Page layout Nomenclature 7

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Elements of Good Personas core identity Background, goals, motivations, 
 and attitudes or behaviors that distinctly represent the persona current experience How this persona lives or works today, who they interact with, and relevant activities, tools, or information sources needs & challenges What this persona needs to 
 accomplish goals, as well as unmet 
 needs, obstacles, and pain points themes & insights Representative scenarios or themes that illustrate how this persona feels, interacts, or behaves 8

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 form factors From large wall posters to 3x5” cards, and even easels, personas can be used in a variety of formats depending on the objective. Large personas have all the detail and are best for more detailed work. 
 Card-sized personas are great for quick reference or for use with activities like the ones we’ll try out today. 10

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Elements of Good Personas: Key Differentiators Openness to New Experiences resists change open, needs to be convinced of benefits open, but not actively seeking explores new things Tech Progressiveness
 laggard Attitude Toward 
 MF Companies late majority early majority early adopter skeptical open, but on adviser’s terms open, if on approved list open, not soliciting help Client Approach emotional THE EXPERT THE PRACTICE BUILDER dependent on for info intellectual functional THE CONDUIT pioneer THE RELATIONSHIP BUILDER THE COUNSELOR 11

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Elements of Good Personas: Attitudes & Personality THE EXPERT THE CONDUIT al F THE PRACTICE BUILDER Emot ion onal cti un ntellectual I THE COUNSELOR THE RELATIONSHIP BUILDER 12

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Any questions?

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Today’s inputs • The client • The personas 14

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company background • Nationally recognized retail brand • Focused on toys and products for kids • Known for its great in-store experience • Founded 1952; online since 2001 • Website last updated 2008 online channel objectives • Bring ACME’s in-store magic online • Attract new customers • Increase repeat visits • Increase conversion 15

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Personas Melissa Jessica Susan Angie Francis The Practical Provider The Producer The Director The Kid at Heart The Indulger Melissa is oriented towards grandkids’ education and creativity. She’s driven by and enjoys supporting their academic success. Jessica loves to plan and manage events for the kids and the whole family. She’s driven to plan and host events and activities for the kids. Susan is a household visionary who likes to stand out from the crowd. She works steadily to fulfill her vision of home and family. Angie is driven by own sense of play. She loves to engage with the kids, and is always looking for new kids’ toys, clothes, and activities. Francis sees parenting as providing whatever the kids want. She’s a spontaneous buyer who likes to frequently reward the kids. 16

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Personas The Director e Intell ctual ional ct un Emot ion F The Producer al The Practical Provider The Kid at Heart The Indulger 17

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Just one more thing... 19

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In the real world ... you would ... • workshop these methods with a lot of people • involve multiple departments, roles, and perspectives • spend more time on an activity (half day or more) • employ multiple (or all) activities • mix and match, modify — and invent your own! and, of course, you’d also ... • be working with research-based personas • know the personas very well • have additional research-based user insights 21

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Logistics for today Go, team! Each table is a team Each team works with a single persona Team members discuss ideas and do activities together 22

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Ready? Here’s Wyatt!

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Part 1: eas e Id rat ene G e, and servic the duct, us pro ion around Foc ideat your ture fea oals of and g needs ience ed aud intend 24

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Ever experience this? I have a great idea! When my wife goes shopping ... I know just what this needs! Well, I would like it to ... This is a product for everybody! Hm ... nevermind, that won’t work for people in Japan... 25

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A Typical Approach to Generating Ideas idea! idea! idea! idea! 26

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Generating Ideas with Personas 1 2 3 27

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Product and service ideas can come from a lot of places. Deeply addressing the needs of specific archetypes allows us to arrive at a richer set of ideas and concepts that assure adoption and engagement. Personas help us generate focused product and service ideas around real people and their real situations and needs. key ! int po

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exercise 1 ACME Strategic Objectives 1. Bringing in-store magic to the online experience 5. Maintaining / increasing conversion 2. Attracting new customers 6. Cross- and up-selling products 3. Increasing existing customer engagement 4. Increasing repeat visits 7. Interconnecting physical and online channels 29

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exercise 1 Generate Mobile App Ideas (30 min) 1. Spend some time getting to know your persona (10 min) 2. Individually, brainstorm app ideas for your persona (10 min) - Reference ACME’s business objectives, but think broadly - Generate ideas and write them on stickies; 1 idea per note 3. As a group, look over your pile of ideas (10 min) - Discuss ideas with other group members - Identify, cluster, and label themes 30

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exercise #1 Show & Tell! (10 min) 31

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rt 2: Pa Fit ate valu E future t and n curre ments how ssess ice ele A d serv uct an udience prod your a map to 32

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Feature rationale comes from many sources “It’s a competitive advantage!” “It’s in the product requirements document!” “Our competitors are doing it!” “It’s in the strategic roadmap!” “It’s something a product manager thought up, 
 and engineering loved it, so it’s in!” 
 (But we’re not sure what it is or who would use it.) “It’s something we identified through a
 ‘generate ideas’ exercise we tried out!” 33

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fe a t ur e fe fe u re at u re at fe a e t ur 34

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Imagine if we had a tool to... ✓ see the big picture of product appeal or suitability ✓ map features and capabilities to the target audience ✓ see relative value of features by user type ✓ show gaps in supporting or meeting user needs ✓ evaluate a range of features — current or planned! 35

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Persona-based Feature Evaluation

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A Basic Matrix A B C Feature X ✓ ✓

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The Persona Fit Matrix A B C Feature X 2 2 -1 Feature Y 2 0 -1 Feature Z 0 1 0 1 38

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The persona fit matrix helps us see the big picture of product or service appeal, suitability, and gaps. It provides perspective for broader teams and a strong foundation for making informed decisions about what to keep, improve, or omit. key ! int po

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exercise 2 Planned ACME Features 1. Shopping & Wish Lists 6. Toy of the Month Club 2. Rich Product Descriptions 7. Promotions & Rebates 3. Product Reviews & Ratings 8. Find in Store 4. Related Products & Pairings 5. Expert Reviews 41

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ACME’s Web Feature Set 42

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exercise 2 Evaluate Fit (25 min) 1. Review the ACME feature list, and place feature cards in 1st column of the feature-fit matrix by number. (5 min) 2. Discuss and rate each feature according to value you feel it has for your persona. Put these in the 2nd column. (10 min) 3. Address the three lowest-rated features by discussing and noting opportunities for making them better for your persona. Write this in the 3rd column. (10 min) fit scale 1 0 1 2 barrier neutral some value ideal / high value 43

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exercise #2 Show & Tell! (10 min) 44

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rt 3: Pa nize uma H eys urn Jo idual d indiv eps in an erstan Und key st nce at xperie rney e all jou over 45

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Customer Journey Map A specific journey Experience Map A generalized experience 47

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Persona Based Experience Map Search View Purchase 48

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Maps show aggregate experience over time, but it’s important to evaluate what happens at a human level. Personas help us to understand how individual experience is affected over time based on specific needs, goals, and attitudes. Personas also highlight key points that may be improved — and how. key ! int po

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ACME Web Experience Map 50

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exercise 3 Humanize Journeys (30 min) 1. In the top row, describe your persona’s goals for each stage in the experience (10 min) 2. In the second row, describe how ACME can help your persona achieve her goals for at each stage (10 min) 3. Step back, think about the points in-between, and tie it all together into a cohesive story that describes the ideal experience for your persona (10 min) 51

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exercise #3 Show & Tell! (10 min) 52

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rt 4: Pa ws Vie rate teg In y-in 
 nal bu rket nizatio e orga rsonas to ma Creat ing pe ional pp by ma s and institut ment seg anding derst un 53

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about market segments... 54

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What’s their annual salary? What kind of car do they drive? But ... how do I use this for marketing? What age band Does this meeting do they fall in? include lunch? This work will never be accepted if the personas don’t include market 
 Where do segment information! they live? 55

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so what? Segments that are useful to marketing may not be meaningful differentiators or guides for product strategy and design. That’s usually because segments don’t map cleanly — or at all — to how people behave, think, or act. Our objective: Help everyone understand how personas fit with what they know. 56

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personas Member Persona/Segmentation Map Sarah CSAA095LS Life Stages Screener Naveed Sofia Alexandra James persona-segment matrix Younger Singles & DINKS Older Singles & DINKS Young Families Teen Families Empty Nesters Young Retirees Older Retirees Cross-maps Perspectives
 Maps personas directly and visibly to the segments used and trusted by the company. Auto Insurance Segmentation Placemat Service Seeker segments No Face-toFace Skeptics Minimizers Low Involvement ERS Customer Segmentation Card Active Enthusiasts Security Conscious Value Driven Makes Clear Connections
 The mapping is very explicit and helps everyone make connections between the personas and what they know. Middle-of-the-Road No Hassle Convince Me AAA Lifestages Timeline 20s 30s 40s 50s Drives Conversation
 It helps people talk about similarities and differences that help them see the role of personas.
 60s 70s 2007 Strategic Planning Guide Non-Member Member Honeymooner 58

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Service Seeker No Face-toFace sure, but what about overlaps? Skeptics Member Persona/Segmentation Map Minimizers Low Involvement Sarah Naveed Sofia Alexandra James CSAA095LS Life Stages Screener ERS Customer Segmentation Card Younger Singles & DINKS Active Enthusiasts Older SinglesConscious Security & DINKS Young Families Value Driven Teen Families Middle-of-the-Road Empty Nesters No Hassle Young Retirees Convince Me Older Retirees AAA Lifestages Timeline Auto Insurance Segmentation Placemat 20s Service Seeker 30s No Face-toFace 40s Skeptics 50s Minimizers 60s Low Involvement 70s ERS Customer Segmentation Card 2007 Strategic Planning Guide Active Enthusiasts Non-Member Security Conscious Member Value Driven Honeymooner Middle-of-the-Road True Blue 59

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personas persona-segment matrix segments Shows likelihood and degree
 The dot size relates to the likelihood of finding that person in a given segment, from more likely to less likely. It’s a working approximation
 It’s not a precise or scientific correlation — but it’s a very useful interpretation based 
 on research data and findings. 

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Persona characteristics and market segments and rarely map 1:1. In fact, individual characteristics often map to multiple market segments — and to varying degrees! Cross-mapping requires correlation, and correlation requires interpretation. key ! int po

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exercise 4 ACME Market Segments 1. Life Stage: 
 Non-parents | Parents | Grandparents 2. Marital Status:
 Married / Partnered | Single 3. Annual Household Income: 
 < $50K | $50-100K | > $100K 4. Customer Type: 
 Brand Driven | Value Driven | Frequent Shopper
 Occasional Shopper | Sale-only Shopper 62

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exercise 4 Integrate Views (15 min) 1. Place ACME’s segments in the first column of the segment-persona matrix (2 min) 2. In the second column, use stickies of varying sizes to represent extent to which your persona maps to each segment (13 minutes) rating scale less likely more likely 63

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exercise 4 Show & Tell! (5 min) 64

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That was fun!

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Stay in touch! Maria Cordell
 mcordell@gmail.com @mcordell flickr.com/mcordell Wyatt Starosta wyatt.starosta@gmail.com @wyattstarosta

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