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BIG Data A Brief (ish) History of…
C 18,000 BCE Humans use tally sticks to record data for the first time. These are used to track trading activity and record inventory.
C 2400 BCE The abacus is developed, and the first libraries are built in Babylonia
300 BCE – 48 AD The Library of Alexandria is the world’s largest data storage center – until it is destroyed by the Romans.
100 AD – 200 AD The Antikythera Mechanism – the first mechanical computer – is developed in Greece
1663 John Graunt conducts the first recorded statistical-analysis experiments in an attempt to curb the spread of the bubonic plague in Europe
1865 The term “business intelligence” is used by Richard Millar Devens in his Encyclopaedia of Commercial and Business Anecdotes
1881 Herman Hollerith creates the Hollerith Tabulating Machine which uses punch cards to vastly reduce the workload of the US Census.
1926 Nikola Tesla predicts that in the future, a man will be able to access and analyze vast amounts of data using a device small enough to fit in his pocket.
1928 Fritz Pfleumer creates a method of storing data magnetically, which forms basis of modern digital data storage technology.
1944 Fremont Rider speculates that Yale Library will contain 200 million books stored on 6,000 miles of shelves, by 2040.
1958 Hans Peter Luhn defines Business Intelligence as “the ability to apprehend the interrelationships of presented facts in such a way as to guide action towards a desired goal.”
1965 The US Government plans the world’s first data center to store 742 million tax returns and 175 million sets of fingerprints on magnetic tape.
1970 Relational Database model developed by IBM mathematician Edgar F Codd. The Hierarchal file system allows records to be accessed using a simple index system. This means anyone can use databases, not just computer scientists.
1976 Material Requirements Planning (MRP) systems are commonly used in business. Computer and data storage is used for everyday routine tasks.
1989 Early use of term Big Data in magazine article by fiction author Erik Larson – commenting on advertisers’ use of data to target customers.
1991 The birth of the internet. Anyone can now go online and upload their own data, or analyze data uploaded by other people.
1996 The price of digital storage falls to the point where it is more cost-effective than paper.
1997 Google launch their search engine which will quickly become the most popular in the world. Michael Lesk estimates the digital universe is increasing tenfold in size every year.
1999 First use of the term Big Data in an academic paper – Visually Exploring Gigabyte Datasets in Realtime (ACM) First use of term Internet of Things, in a business presentation by Kevin Ashton to Procter and Gamble.
2001 Three “Vs” of Big Data – Volume, Velocity, Variety – defined by Doug Laney
2005 Hadoop – an open source Big Data framework now developed by Apache – is developed. The birth of “Web 2.0 – the user-generated web”.
2008 Globally 9.57 zettabytes (9.57 trillion gigabytes) of information is processed by the world’s CPUs. An estimated 14.7 exabytes of new information is produced this year.
2009 The average US company with over 1,000 employees is storing more than 200 terabytes of data according to the report Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition and Productivity by McKinsey Global Institute.
2011 The McKinsey report states that by 2018 the US will face a shortfall of between 140,000 and 190,000 professional data scientists, and warns that issues including privacy, security and intellectual property will have to be resolved before the full value of Big Data will be realised.
2014 Mobile internet use overtakes desktop for the first time 88% of executives responding to an international survey by GE say that big data analysis is a top priority
I originally wrote this overview for IBM for Midsize Business. To read more on this topic, visit IBM’s Midsize Insider. Dedicated to providing businesses with expertise, solutions and tools that are specific to small and midsized companies, the Midsize Business program provides businesses with the materials and knowledge they need to become engines of a smarter planet.