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Data Visualization For Social Problems

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Data Visualization For Social Problems S Anand, Chief Data Scientist, Gramener


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Most discussions of decision-making assume that only senior executives make decisions or that only senior executives’ decisions matter. This is a dangerous mistake… Peter F Drucker Data generation and analysis are not sufficient. Consuming it as a team and acting in cohesion is.


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SHOW me what is happening with the data Explain to me why it’s happening Allow me to explore and figure it out Just expose the data to me Low effort High effort High effort Low effort Creator Consumer There are many ways to aid data consumption


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SHOW me what is happening with the data Explain to me why it’s happening Allow me to explore and figure it out Just expose the data to me


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SHOW me what is happening with the data Explain to me why it’s happening Allow me to explore and figure it out Just expose the data to me


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Education Predicting marks What determines a child’s marks? Do girls score better than boys? Does the choice of subject matter? Does the medium of instruction matter? Does community or religion matter? Does their birthday matter? Does the first letter of their name matter?


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TN Class X: English


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TN Class X: Social Science


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TN Class X: Mathematics


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Detecting Fraud Energy utility


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This plot shows the frequency of all meter readings from Apr-2010 to Mar-2011. An unusually large number of readings are aligned with the tariff slab boundaries. This clearly shows collusion of some form with the customers. This happens with specific customers, not randomly. Here are such customers’ meter readings. If we define the “extent of fraud” as the percentage excess of the 100 unit meter reading, the value varies considerably across sections, and time New section manager arrives … and is transferred out … with some explainable anomalies. Why would these happen?


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SHOW me what is happening with the data Explain to me why it’s happening Allow me to explore and figure it out Just expose the data to me … to inform and to entertain


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SHOW me what is happening with the data Explain to me why it’s happening Allow me to explore and figure it out Just expose the data to me


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Jain Harini Shweta Sneha Pooja Ashwin Shah Deepti Sanjana Varshini Ezhumalai Venkatesan Silambarasan Pandiyan Kumaresan Manikandan Thirupathi Agarwal Kumar Priya


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  Based on the results of the 20 lakh students taking the Class XII exams at Tamil Nadu over the last 3 years, it appears that the month you were born in can make a difference of as much as 120 marks out of 1,200. June borns score the lowest The marks shoot up for Aug borns … and peaks for Sep-borns 120 marks out of 1200 explainable by month of birth An identical pattern was observed in 2009 and 2010… … and across districts, gender, subjects, and class X & XII. “It’s simply that in Canada the eligibility cutoff for age-class hockey is January 1. A boy who turns ten on January 2, then, could be playing alongside someone who doesn’t turn ten until the end of the year—and at that age, in preadolescence, a twelve-month gap in age represents an enormous difference in physical maturity.” -- Malcolm Gladwell, Outliers


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Let’s look at 15 years of US Birth Data This is a dataset (1975 – 1990) that has been around for several years, and has been studied extensively. Yet, a visualization can reveal patterns that are neither obvious nor well known. For example, Are birthdays uniformly distributed? Do doctors or parents exercise the C-section option to move dates? Is there any day of the month that has unusually high or low births? Are there any months with relatively high or low births? Very high births in September. But this is fairly well known. Most conceptions happen during the winter holiday season Relatively few births during the Christmas and Thanksgiving holidays, as well as New Year and Independence Day. Most people prefer not to have children on the 13th of any month, given that it’s an unlucky day Some special days like April Fool’s day are avoided, but Valentine’s Day is quite popular More births Fewer births … on average, for each day of the year (from 1975 to 1990)


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The pattern in India is quite different This is a birth date dataset that’s obtained from school admission data for over 10 million children. When we compare this with births in the US, we see none of the same patterns. For example, Is there an aversion to the 13th or is there a local cultural nuance? Are holidays avoided for births? Which months have a higher propensity for births, and why? Are there any patterns not found in the US data? Very few children are born in the month of August, and thereafter. Most births are concentrated in the first half of the year We see a large number of children born on the 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th and 25th of each month – that is, round numbered dates Such round numbered patterns a typical indication of fraud. Here, birthdates are brought forward to aid early school admission More births Fewer births … on average, for each day of the year (from 2007 to 2013)


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This adversely impacts children’s marks It’s a well established fact that older children tend to do better at school in most activities. Since many children have had their birth dates brought forward, these younger children suffer. The average marks of children “born” on the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th etc. of the month tend to score lower marks. Are holidays avoided for births? Which months have a higher propensity for births, and why? Are there any patterns not found in the US data? Higher marks Lower marks … on average, for children born on a given day of the year (from 2007 to 2013) Children “born” on round numbered days score lower marks on average, due to a higher proportion of younger children


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# contestants Winner margin More contestants did not reduce the winner margin Karnataka, Assembly Elections 2008


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# contestants Runner-up margin More contestants did reduce the runner-up margin Karnataka, Assembly Elections 2004


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Adult Education Adminisrative Reforms Agricultural Marketing Agriculture Animal Husbandry Cooperative Excise Finance Fisheries Fisheries & Inland water transport Food & Civil Supplies Forest Fuel Haz & Wakf Health and family welfare Higher Education Home Horticulture Housing Information & Technology Kannada & Culture Labour Law & Human Rights Major & Medium Industries Medical Education Medium and Large Industries Mines & Geology Minor Irrigation Muzrai P.W.D. Parliamentary Affairs and Human Rights Planning Planning and Statistics Primary and Secondary Education Primary Education Prison Public Library Revenue Rural Development and Panchayat Raj Rural Water Supply Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sericulture Small Scale Industries Small Industries Social Welfare Sugar Textile Tourism Transport Transportation Urban Development Water Resources Woman & Child Development Youth and Sports Youth Service & Sports BJP focus JD(S) focus INC focus What topics did parties focus on during questions? Karnataka, 2008-2012


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P.W.D. Health and family welfare Revenue Rural Development and Panchayat Raj Social Welfare Urban Development Water Resources Minor Irrigation Fuel Housing Agriculture Primary Education Primary and Secondary Education Woman & Child Development Higher Education Home Cooperative Forest Adminisrative Reforms Labour Food & Civil Supplies Tourism Finance Animal Husbandry Transportation Horticulture Muzrai Haz & Wakf Transport Medical Education Medium and Large Industries Excise Major & Medium Industries Kannada & Culture Textile Fisheries Parliamentary Affairs and Human Rights Adult Education Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Mines & Geology Small Industries Youth and Sports Sugar Planning and Statistics Agricultural Marketing Rural Water Supply Fisheries & Inland water transport Small Scale Industries Youth Service & Sports Sericulture Law & Human Rights Prison Planning Information & Technology Public Library What topics did the young & old focus on during questions? Karnataka, 2008-2012 Young Old


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SHOW me what is happening with the data Explain to me why it’s happening Allow me to explore and figure it out Just expose the data to me … to connect the dots for your readers


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SHOW me what is happening with the data Explain to me why it’s happening Allow me to explore and figure it out Just expose the data to me


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https://gramener.com/aapdonations


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Exploring the Mahabharata How does Mahabharata, one of the largest epics with 1.8 million words lend itself to text analytics? Can this ‘unstructured data’ be processed to extract analytical insights? What does sentiment analysis of this tome convey? Is there a better way to explore relations between characters? How can closeness of characters be analysed & visualized?


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SHOW me what is happening with the data Explain to me why it’s happening Allow me to explore and figure it out Just expose the data to me … to allow your users to tell stories


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Visualisation is imperative for Data > Insights > Action Spot the unusual Communicate patterns Simplify decisions


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We handle terabyte-size data via non-traditional analytics and visualise it in real-time. A data analytics and visualisation company gramener.com for more examples


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