Skills Outlook 2015 Youth, Skills and Employability

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May 2015 Andreas Schleicher Skills Outlook 2015 Youth, Skills and Employability

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Young people in OECD countries Many young people struggle in their transition to the labour-market

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Youth neither employed nor in education or training (NEET) As a percentage of population, 15-29 year-olds

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Youth who are neither employed nor in education (NEET) As a percentage of population, 15-29 year-olds

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Young workers in routine jobs Share of workers who consider they have little freedom to change the order of their tasks

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Youth who are badly prepared Share of individuals with low numeracy skills

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7 Share of young NEET by parents’ place of birth

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8 What can we do to strengthen young people’s skills and employability? Build a comprehensive approach

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Skills Scoreboard: strengths and weaknesses France Ireland Italy Spain Denmark Korea Norway Poland Austria Check Rep. Slovak Rep. Sweden UK, US Australia Belgium Canada Estonia Finland Germany Japan Netherlands

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Preparing youths Ensure that all youths leave school with relevant skills

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11 Gap in literacy and problem-solving skills between young NEETs and employed youth

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12 NEET rate by level of literacy skills

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New graduates (<2-years) with low numeracy skills (<226 points)

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Youth who lack basic ICT skills

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15 Self-reported ICT skills deficiency As a percentage of working youth aged 16-29, 2012

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Students and their experience with the labour market

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17 Share of upper secondary graduates who are NEET by programme orientation

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18 Gap in numeracy skills between post-secondary VET students and students in academic programmes who have spent the same number of years in education

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Students in upper secondary vocational education who are participating in work-based learning

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Participation in work-based learning of students in post-secondary VET and academic programmes Students in vocational programmes Students in academic programmes

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Transitions from upper secondary vocational education to higher education Share of upper-secondary VET graduates enrolled in post-secondary education programmes

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22 Share of workers in routine jobs by level of numeracy skills

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Skills Scoreboard: Is the development of skills inclusive? Inequity Equity Low performance at school Strong link between social background and student performance Strong influence of migration background

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Ensure that all young people leave school with relevant skills Take a holistic approach to skills Provide multiple pathways within the education system. Give disengaged youth a second chance to reintegrate into the education system Develop work-based learning programmes across different types of education, including universities Design high quality vocational education and training programmes that develop cognitive and social and emotional skills, and labour market experience Base career guidance services on relevant assessment of the market returns of various career paths Engage employers and other stakeholders in the education system at all levels .

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Reengage youths Identify and help NEETs to reengage

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Youth who risk of falling under the radar NEET who are not looking for a job Youth who are NEET and not looking for a job (inactive) or looking for a job (unemployed), 2013

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Skills scoreboard: How close are NEETs to the labour market? Close Far High share of inactive NEETs Share of NEETs with poor skills Share of NEETs without baseline qualifications Share of long-term unemployed NEETs

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28 Identify and help the NEETs to re-engage Develop a system of mutual obligations between youth and institutions Encourage employment through efficient job-search assistance and training, monitoring and financial incentives Target places in training programmes and job subsidies to youth with low skills and those who face specific barriers in the labour market .

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Reengaging youths Remove institutional barriers to youth employment

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It’s not just skills: some NEETs have good education and cognitive skills Cognitive skills of youth neither in employment nor in education or training

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31 Remove institutional barriers to youth employment Design skills-friendly tax policies to foster employment of low-skilled youth Continue to lower the gap in employment protection legislation between temporary and permanent contracts Encourage end-of-study internships within a framework that combines flexibility and obligations to firms .

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Using skills Make better use of young workers skills

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33 Use of skills by upper secondary vocational students who are combining study and work in and outside of apprenticeships

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Young workers on temporary contracts As a share of total employment in each age group, 2013

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35 Use of skills at work, by type of employment contract

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Skills Scoreboard: do workplaces promote skills? To a large extent To a small extent Task discretion Learning by doing Use of problem-solving skills at work Use of co-operation skills at work

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37 Some drivers of low literacy skills The probability increases The probability decreases

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38 Skills mismatch, by type of mismatch and age group Total Mismatch

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39 Skills mismatch by type of mismatch and age group

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40 Wages and mismatch, by type of mismatch and age group As a percentage change in wages due to mismatch, 2012

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41 Share of individuals interested in entrepreneurship, European countries

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42 Making a better use of young workers’ skills Remove barriers to geographical mobility to allow for local matching of jobs and skills Develop (inter)national qualification frameworks and formal recognition of skills acquired through non-formal and informal learning Promote more effective work organisation and human resource management strategies Remove barriers to entrepreneurship Invest in tools for assessing and anticipating skills needs .

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Find Out More at: http://skills.oecd.org/skillsoutlook.htm All national and international publications The complete micro-level database …and remember: Email Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter @SchleicherEDU 43