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Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical Preservatives

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Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical Preservatives C.P. Ulpathakumbura AG/2008/2009/148 Department of Animal and Food Sciences Faculty of Agriculture Rajarata University of Sri Lanka


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Introduction Milk is the most natural and nutritious, single food on the earth Cows’ milk use for make several types of foods Cheese is a preserved form of milk made by using live cultures to transform the milk through chemical process, and then by the coagulation


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Problem and Justification Cheese have high nutritional value Preservatives use for the prevent the spoilage


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By using chemical preservatives Can use biological preservatives


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Nisin Lysozyme Lactic Acid Bacteria


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Objectives General Objective Development of a Cheddar cheese using biological Preservatives as substitute for chemical preservatives Preservatives


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Specific Objectives To evaluate sensory properties of the cheddar cheese To assess the microbial properties of cheddar cheese To evaluate the physico-chemical properties of the cheddar cheese


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Methodology


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Raw milk Cooling milk Pasteurization Standardization Add preservatives Add CaCl2 Starter inoculation Add rennet Incubation Remove whey Heat/Cooking 1 Cut curd Milling Heat/ Cooking 2 Remove whey Pressing Salting Cheddar cheese Waxing & Storing Molding Cheddar Cheese Making Process


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Preliminary Studies Study 01 - Select optimum time for the incubation pH were measured in each samples


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Study 02 - Select the optimum level of Rennet Flavor was checked in each sample during storage


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Study 03 - Select the optimum temperature for cooking Flavor and odor were checked in each sample during storage


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Selection of the best sample made by using different preservatives


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Sensory Evaluation Used 35 untrained panelists Ranking test (5-like very much to 1-dislike very much) Color, Flavor, Texture, Odor and Overall acceptability


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Analysis of Cheese Samples A. Physico-chemical analysis B. Microbial analysis C. Proximity analysis D. Sensory evaluation A B A B A B D A B A B C


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Physico-chemical Analysis Dry matter percentage (DM %) - Oven dry method Moisture percentage (M %) - (100 – DM%) Texture - Instron machine pH - pH meter Titratable acidity - Titrating with NaOH


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Proximate analysis Fat content - Gerber method Protein content - Kjeldhal method Ash content - Ignition in Muffle furnace


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Microbial Analysis Yeast and Mold count - PDA Total lactic acid bacteria count - MRS agar Coliform count - Violet red bile agar


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Data Analysis Parametric data analysis ANOVA for significance under ?=0.05 level using SAS Data from sensory analysis Friedman non – parametric test using Minitab Data from microbial analysis Compare with Sri Lankan Standards (SLS 773-1987)


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Study 01 - Select optimum time for the incubation 45 min in 32°C incubated sample (T2) was given optimum pH (5.6-5.9) Results and Discussion


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Study 02 - Select the optimum level of rennet 0.05% and 0.06% had bitter taste (1 week storage) 0.04 % able to obtain a fine textured cheese without bitter taste 0.06 % 0.04 % 0.05 %


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Study 03 - Select the optimum temperature for cooking T3 sample (38°C in 40 min) was better than other No bitter taste and off odor during storage


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Sensory Evaluation The best sample is nisin incorporated sample There was a significant difference in all attributes except in colour


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Physico-chemical Analysis Titratable acidity variation of samples


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pH variation of samples


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Texture variation of samples


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Dry matter content variation of samples


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Moisture content variation of sample


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Proximate Analysis Fat content


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Protein content


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Ash content


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Microbial Analysis Yeast and Mold count


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Total lactic acid bacteria count Coliform count were zero during storage


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Conclusion Biological preservative can be used to preserve the Cheddar cheese effectively without affecting the sensory qualities Nisin is the best biological preservative among the tested preservatives


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Suggestions Use biological preservatives as a blend and evaluate the preservative ability Incorporation of starter culture with probiotic microorganisms may bring additional benefits and preservative ability


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Thank you


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Cost Benefit Analysis 1l 40g – 50g


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