The Role of Environmental Impact in Building Material’s Selection

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The Role of Environmental Impact in Building Material’s Selection Hafedh Abed Yahyaa*, and Muna Hanim Abdul Samadb   a&b School of Housing, Building and Planning, University of Science Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

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Titles Content Introduction Impact of Building Materials on Human Health Impact of Building Materials on Ecological Degradation Building Materials Impacts on Energy Consumption Results and Discussion Conclusions

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Annually three billion metric tons of raw materials are consumed to manufacture building materials and products. The building industry is the second largest consumer of raw materials, after the food industry. 1.Introduction

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The shapes of countries have been stretched to indicate their relative consumption patterns. World consumption cartogram

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Buildings and associated uses are responsible for a large part of the environmental load caused by humanity.

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General Problem

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Research aim to diagnose the environmental impact role of building materials through life cycle, in order to reduce the environmental problems related with building materials during selection process.

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2. Impact of Building Materials on Human Health 2.1. Air Pollution “Air pollutants are airborne solid and liquid particles and gases that can pose risks to the environment and human health.”

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Activities caused air pollution Production of electricity Operation of equipment used in manufacture, transport, construction, and maintenance Manufacturing processes, mining and crushing of materials

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Air pollutants can cause cancer reproductive effects birth defects damage to the immune system damage to the developmental damage to the respiratory neurological problems in humans and other species

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2.2. Smog “Smog is a type of air pollution, resulting when industrial and fuel emissions become trapped at ground level and are transformed after reacting with sunlight” Beijing China air on a day after rain (left) and a sunny but smoggy day (right) August 2005. Photo taken by Bobak Ha'Eri

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Activities caused smog Transport of materials, equipments used on the construction site, equipments used on maintenance

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Smog can cause Like air pollutants and acidification compounds, smog can have negative effects on the health of people and other biotic communities

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2.3. Ecological Toxicity Toxic materials can be released into ecosystems As by-products of manufacturing processes fossil-fuel combustion from the direct environmental application of toxic pesticides.

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What materials pose toxic risks to people? asphalt sealants CCA-treated lumber substances resulting from the manufacturing process substances resulting from the using process disposing of plastics, metals, metal finishes, solvents, and adhesives.

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3. Impact of Building Materials on Ecological Degradation The following are the ecological degradation resulting from the two ways of the interaction; As the source materials resources and As a sink for emissions As by-products of manufacturing processes .

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3.1 Global Climate Change Global warming occurs when the earth is reradiated as heat and is absorbed and trapped by greenhouse effect reduces heat loss to space, resulting in warmer temperatures on earth.

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Three-quarter of anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emission are generated from fossil-fuel combustion to power vehicle and power generating plants, and as raw material for production of synthetic polymers

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3.2 Stratospheric Ozone Depletion  Human caused emissions of Ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs; used as a propellant in manufacturing and refrigerant) and Halons (used in fire suppression systems), can cause a thinning of the Ozone layer, resulting in more shortwave radiation on Earth. This has a number of potentially negative consequences, such as impacts on plants and agriculture, and increases in cancer and cataracts in people

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3.3 Acidification  Acidification occurs in surface waters and soils as acidifying gases, primarily sulphur and nitrogen compounds, ether dissolve in water or adhere to solid particles.

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Acid rain also accelerates weathering of building materials such as granite, limestone, concrete, and metals. It may even cause some stainless steel to stain. This can cause premature removal and replace of some building materials

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3.4 Eutrophication “Eutrophication is the addition of nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, in soil or water resulting in over-stimulation of plant growth.”

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3.5 Deforestation, Desertification, and Soil Erosion Table shows the change of the area of forest over the world. Only 36% of the world’s primary forests remain as of 2005

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loss of bio-diversity, global warming, soil erosion, and desertification.. Deforestation, the large-scale removal of forests, contributes to negative environmental impacts such as

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agriculture, mining, new construction of buildings, or roads, when trees are harvested for fuel Lumber For building materials Deforestation occurs when forested land is cleared for

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3.6 Habitat Alteration Habitat alteration is the primary impact resulting from mining and harvesting of materials for the manufacture of building materials. Habitat alteration also can occur as a result of air, water, and land releases from industrial processes that change environmental conditions

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3.7 Loss of Biodiversity Global climate change, the destruction of forests and habitats, and air, water, and soil pollution have all contributed to the loss of biodiversity over the past few centuries. Biodiversity controls the spread of diseases, provides food and drugs for humans, and provides resources for industrial materials such as fibre, dyes, resins, gums, adhesives, rubber, and oils

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3.8 Water Resource Depletion Product manufacturing activities use water, and effluent wastes that are released into water bodies reduce water resources through pollution. In addition, the use of impervious surfaces (such as concrete and asphalt) seriously reduces groundwater recharge

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4. Building Materials Impacts on Energy Consumption The other environmental problems of building material are the degree to which the material consumed energy. The industrial sector is the largest end user of energy, greater ever than the transportation sector or building operation

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4.1 Energy Consumption during the Production of Building Materials “The primary energy consumption (PEC) is the energy needed to manufacture the building product.”

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The table show Energy consumption of selected manufacturing sector

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4.2 Energy Consumption during Building, Use, and Demolition Building materials consume more energy within the following aspects: Energy consumption for the transport of manufactured products. Energy consumption on the building site. Energy consumption during maintenance Energy consumption of dismantling or removal of materials during demolition

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4. 3 Fossil-fuel Depletion Fossil-fuels are used throughout a material’s life cycle to power vehicles used in extraction transportation construction maintenance

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4. 3 Fossil-fuel Depletion Fossil-fuels are used throughout a material’s life cycle to power vehicles used in extraction transportation construction maintenance

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5. Results and Discussion The matrix of environmental Impacts of materials life cycle

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6.Conclusions In order to select green building materials, the designer needs to look at the entire life cycle of building material, then answer: How is the product mining or harvested, manufactured, and transported? Is it produced at the factory in another country? Does that factory release pollution into the environment? What is the product made of? Does it contain recycled content or renewable materials? How much water consumption does it take to create the product? And, overall, is the material biodegradable or recyclable when use it in the building?

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Conclusions created that in order to reduce the environmental impacts, the selected building materials should: Provide resource savings Provide energy savings Reduce wastes (be reusable and easily recyclable). Not be harmful for human health Provide comfortable and suitable conditions for human health within the covered areas.

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Thank you