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Give me five +1! giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca 20


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Monochromatic Coloration -A. melanoleuca "black and white“ >to stand out >to hide


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Are Giant Pandas Bears? -a bear? A raccoon? Or something in their own? DNA of panda’s cells skull characteristics Brown bear Giant Panda Raccoon


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Bamboo as their. . . . . .most important food -12 hours eating (low nutrients) -carnassials -”pseudo-thumb” . . .shelter -more than just bamboo


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Effortless Swimmers sea otter Enhydra lutris 19


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Made for Water -sleek bodies (streamline) -long, slightly flattened tails (propel) -back feet (steer) webbed feet -trapped air in fur (buoyancy) two layers : 1. dense undercoat 2. waterproof topcoat -close off their ears and nose underwater -back swimmer


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Seafood Diet -sea urchins, crabs, fish, octopus, mussels, and clams -rock as tool -long, sensitive whisker for prey hunting -eat several times a day


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Don’t Mess with my hand raccoon Procyon lotor 18


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Wash Up Dude! -extreme sense of touch -mapache= Spanish word “one who takes everything in its hands” -five toes are dextrous can open door knobs, jars, and latches -ahrahkooonem= Powhatan word “one who scrubs with its hands” -very sensitive underwater examine by “rubbing” -P. lotor= “washer” literally wash their food


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Behind the Mask -black fur around eyes “bandit’s mask” -live near humans snatch food sniff in the garbage steal pet food >considered as pest expectation reality


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Please, Tail me your secret binturong Arctictis binturong 17


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It’s a Bear! It’s a Cat! It’s Neither! -like bear’s plantigrade -like cat’s scratching their claws -it’s a “Bearcat” more related to civets and fossa (Viverridae) -nocturnal -eat fruits


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Good Climber -not acrobatic -padded paws and long claws can turn 180 degrees -prehensile tail gigantic feather duster thick and muscular >extra grip


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Smell but terrible Skunk Mephitis mephitis 16


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Smelly Family -stink badger -15 to 30 inches -nocturnal -omnivorous depend in seasons eat insect, larvae, earthworm, small rodents, lizards, eggs -striped for coloration -anti-predator behavior


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World-record Holder -Smelliest Animal in the World! -chemistry behind the spray: >very volatile >smelled up to half a mile away! -wild card: >potent when hydrolyze >reminder never made a skunk mad >flammable chemicals >rabies virus S-2-butene-1-thiol S-2-quinolimethyl thioacetate S-3-methyl-1-butanethiol


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Tips on how to avoid being sprayed 1. The Face Off 3. The Stamp 2. Handstand 4. Presenting the Rear


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The f’ear’ factor bat-eared fox Otocyon megalotis 15


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Cousin of Dogs -Family Canidae (True Dogs) -nocturnal -insectivore termites (70%) -special claws and more teeth -digging ability -enormous ears


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The Bat Ears -O. megalotis= large + ear -umbrella-like 5 inches >maintaining body cool full of blood vessels >as a locator position towards the ground inside holes 6x more sensitive


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I wish I had a whisker elephant seal Mirounga leonina 14


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Marine mammals -clade Pinnipedia “fin-footed” 1. Phocidae (True Seal Family) >a.k.a. “earless seals” -sexual dimorphism in elephant seal proboscis “clap threats”


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Whiskers -sensitive vibrissae to find food -works independently can determine the size of food -detects vibration can detect hydrodynamic underwater


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Spell B-e-a-t sea lion Zalophus californianus 13


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Marine Mammals -clade Pinnipedia 2. Otaridae (Sea Lion Family) >a.k.a. “eared seals” = pinnae -have flippers for swimming -thick layer of blubber


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Acute Hearing -sensitive hearing most important sense underwater -can hear sound in range of 40 kHz humans is about 0.02 kHz -theories about echolocation no evidence to support dolphins and bats 100kHz -good directional ability -Only Animal That Can Follow the Beat!


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A Sea lion or a Seal? Sea Lion -earflaps -elongated neck -long, hairless forefilppers -hindflippers can rotate >quadrupedal -swim underneath using foreflippers like wings of a bird -long, smooth whiskers Seal -earholes -short neck -short, hairy foreflippers w/ long claws -hindflippers straight out >wiggling on belly -swim by steering with foreflippers and powering with hindflippers -crimped or beaded whiskers


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What’s my tusk? walrus Odobenus rosmarus 12


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Marine Mammals -clade Pinnipedia 3. Odobenidae (Walrus Family) -monospecific -lives in Arctic -combined phocid and otariid traits >no earflaps >moves quadrupedally on land -whiskers >mustacial vibrissae -specialize canine teeth


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The Tasks of Tusks to drag their huge body smash on ice protection social task dominance mating display to hunt breathing hole “tooth-walking” makes them vulnerable to extinction


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The Big bad wolf gray wolves Canis lupus 11


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The Wild Dog -Canidae (True Dog Family) -skull muzzle portion elongated wide zygomatic arches transverse lambdoidal suture -digitigrade -baculum present gray wolf doberman lambdoidal suture copulatory tie (bulbus glandis) digitigrade


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A Carnivore Diet -“The Three Little Pigs” -eat as much as they can spend time hunting -the old, young, or sick -work as a team


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Safety in Numbers -packs -alpha pair leaders organize the hunt -territorial boundaries pack patrol scent-marking howling


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LET’S GIVE Him A ROUND OF A NOSE polar bear Ursus maritimus 10


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The Polar Beast -Ursidae (Bear Family) -plantigrade -Largest land carnivore (10 feet) -top the food chain in Arctic


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Cool Ways to Stay Warm! FUR fiber optic tubes ->black skin outer coat =long guard hairs thick undercoat prevent heat loss (on land) FAT 4 inches thick insulate from freezing air and cold water generate heat help float on water SHELTER they dig dens do not hibernate winter sleep delayed implantation


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Noses with Legs! -Best Sense of Smell on Earth! average dog= 100x than humans blood hound= 300x than humans polar bear = 7x than a blood hound 2,100x better than humans -smell a seal 20 miles (32 kilometers) away from Malolos to Pagudpud


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acrobatic supercat caracal Caracal caracal 09


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Small, Wild Cat -Suborder Feliformia “cat-like forms” -Felidae (True Cat Family) -Felinae (Small-cats) -digitigrade -soft toe pads -retractile claws -short muzzle


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Terrific Teasels -long, black ear tufts Functions: -keep lies out of the cat’s face -camouflage in tall grass -a way to communicate


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Bird Hunting Tactics -obligate carnivores -solitary -amazing jumping ability 10 feet vertical high -scratch their claws


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The Hunting machine tiger Panthera tigris 08


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Hunting Gears -solitary -Largest Cat! -”stalk-and-ambush hunter” -inch-long claws -3-inch-long canine teeth bite in the neck to suffocate -sandpaper-rough tongues -retractile claws to keep sharp -stripes for camouflage long grass or wooded forest -paws to hide leftovers


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Making a Splash -live near water source, mangrove forest, swamps -excellent and powerful swimmers webbed feet -relaxing and ambush prey in ponds, rivers


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Gusto mo bang Majawmbag? jaguar Panthera onca 07


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One Round K.O.! -Indian ‘Yaguar’ “he who kills with one leap” -not as large as tigers -not as good as leopard in climbing -not as fast as cheetah -The Strongest Bite Force of all Mammals! 2000 PSI 150 PSI (150)


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Single-bound Killer -lion and tiger kill their prey by biting the throat suffocating until death -jaguar goes directly for the skull crushing it, piercing the brains long, sharp canines open the shells of turtles African Lion Skull Jaguar Skull


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Cobra hitman mongoose Herpestes smithii 06


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The Matrix -speed -agility -accuracy -timing -strong bites


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Are They Immune? -venom= modified saliva -digested by acids in the stomach -thick coat subcutaneous layer -acetycholine= CH3COO(CH2)2N+(CH3)3 neurotransmitter different protein sequence mutated like in snakes >thus making the venom ineffective -tolerant in small dosage of venom but not immune to it


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Tuwing hunting-gabi leopard Panthera pardus 05


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Rest In Trees -arboreal -Strongest Climber of all Big Cats! -can climb as high as 50 feet while holding a prey on its mouth >larger and heavier -not always at the top of food chain lion, tiger, hyenas can kill leopard >to keep from being noticed


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The Silent Killer -Silence and Stealth are the trademarks catch prey off guard -whiskers forward when walking backward sniffing -thick paw pads act as silencer -nocturnal -vision tapetum lucidum layer of tissue in the eye behind the retina reflects back the light to photoreceptors >eyeshine


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Hyena siya! spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta 04


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“Lick the Platter Clean” -praktikal na hayop -eat every part of the animal skin, hooves, horns, bone, and teeth some can’t digest although they still eat them >regurgitate


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Mortal Enemies -lions and hyenas -killing prey only to have lions steal it -scavenger during the day clean up everything in their path garbage collectors of the Serengeti -carnivore at night kill lion cubs kill almost anything -humans caught shooting them because of what they are


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Wild sprinter cheetah Acinonyx jubatus 03


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-Fastest Land Animal! -120 kph (75 mph) -streamlined body deep chest, small head -flexible spine unattached clavicle -high-set eyes -“tear marks” keep sunlight out of his eyes seeing long distances -long tail for balance -non-retractable claws (Acinonyx) for traction no sheath of skin and fur Build for Speed


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Dominant predator lion Panthera leo 02


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The Mane Attraction -male is larger twice heavier than females -sexual dimorphism mane in males impressive mane of hair around his neck >protection against raking claws during fight >for mating display


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One for All, All for One -Only Social in Cats! called “pride” don’t accept stranger -primary advantage hunt in group -contagious activity grooming, yawning -21 hours of sleeping unlike others sometimes sleep on tree to avoid flies and to get cool breeze -roar communication -top of the food chain but sometimes scavenge


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Tentenenen!


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The hypnotizer stoat Mustela erminea 01


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The Magnificent -Mustelidae (Weasel Family) -Smallest Carnivores! 6.8 to 8.5 inches -but hunt bigger preys rabbits, hares -special behavior


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Choreography -immobilizes prey by mesmerising them they dance -”weasel war dance” rapid movements strokes jumps wiggle


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Dance of Death -caused by Skrjabingylus -bites the nape while grasping forefeet continues mild bite >surplus kill to avoid obesity


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