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Work CITIES EDITION

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Policies that Work CITIES EDITION Hal Harvey ?? ????? ???


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?? OUTLINE ???????? Chinese cities are at the frontline ?????? Policy is required ??????????? Which policies matter for Chinese cities? ??????????? Five principles for policy design in cities


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1. ?????????????? Cities are a significant part of GDP 2. ????????? China’s cities are growing 3. ???? Air quality 4. ???? Climate change ?????? CITIES AT THE FRONTLINE


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?????? ?? ???????????????????????????? 1. ?????????????? Cities are a significant part of GDP 2. ?????????? China’s cities are growing 3. ???? Air quality 4. ???? Climate change ?????? ???? ??????????? China’s growing urban population ?????? CITIES AT THE FRONTLINE


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Haze in Wuhan, June 2012 ???? (2012?6?) Source: Phys.org 1. ?????????????? Cities are a significant part of GDP 2. ??????????China’s cities are growing 3. ???? Air quality 4. ???? Climate change ?????? CITIES AT THE FRONTLINE


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Source: The Atlantic ?????? CITIES AT THE FRONTLINE 1. ?????????????? Cities are a significant part of GDP 2. ??????????China’s cities are growing 3. ???? Air quality 4. ???? Climate change


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?? OUTLINE ???????? Chinese cities are at the frontline ?????? Policy is required ??????????? Which policies matter for Chinese cities? ??????????? Five principles for policy design in cities


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?????? To encourage R&D ???? ????????? Canary Adaptive Optics Laser – Durham University Source: ??:http://www.stfc.ac.uk/2858.aspx ?????? Policy is required


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??:????,????? SAME VIEW OF BEIJING, DIFFERENT DAYS Source: Reddit user, SallyImpossible ?????? Policy is required


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??????? ?? BEFORE BRT Guangzhou Source: www.fastcoexist.com ?????? Policy is required


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??????? ?? AFTER BRT Guangzhou ?????? Policy is required Source: ITDP


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?? OUTLINE ???????? Chinese cities are at the frontline ?????? Policy is required ??????????? Which policies matter for Chinese cities? ??????????? Five principles for policy design in cities


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????????? Which policies Matter FOR CITIES? ???? Urban form ?? Transportation ????? Car control ??? Buildings ???? Renewable energy ???? Economic quality


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????????? ?????????? ???? Urban form ?? Transportation ????? Car control ??? Buildings ???? Renewable energy ???? Economic quality ????????? Which policies Matter FOR CITIES?


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Bike paths in Bogota ???????? ????????? Which policies Matter FOR CITIES? ???? Urban form ?? Transportation ????? Car control ??? Buildings ???? Renewable energy ???? Economic quality Source: Mother Nature Network


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????????? Which policies Matter FOR CITIES? ???? Urban form ?? Transportation ????? Car control ??? Buildings ???? Renewable energy ???? Economic quality Source: http://auto.hsw.cn/system/2012/10/30/051521933.shtml


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Green building in Shenzhen ?????? ????????? Which policies Matter FOR CITIES? ???? Urban form ?? Transportation ????? Car control ??? Buildings ???? Renewable energy ???? Economic quality


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Harvard-Tsinghua study – Wind energy alone can meet China’s energy demand in 2030 (Source: http://www.technologyreview.com/news/415311/chinas-potent-wind-potential/page/1/ ) ???? ????????- ??????2030???????????- ????: ????????? Which policies Matter FOR CITIES? ???? Urban form ?? Transportation ????? Car control ??? Buildings ???? Renewable energy ???? Economic quality


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???? Urban form ?? Transportation ????? Car control ??? Buildings ???? Renewable energy ???? Economic quality ????????? Which policies Matter FOR CITIES? Source: Opli


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????????? Which policies Matter FOR CITIES? ???? Urban form ?? Transportation ????? Car control ??? Buildings ???? Renewable energy ???? Economic quality


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?? OUTLINE ???????? Chinese cities are at the frontline ?????? Policy is required ??????????? Which policies matter for Chinese cities? Five principles for policy design in cities ???????????


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??????????? FIVE policy design principles ????????,????????? Set clear policy goals with annual interim targets ????,???? Focus on performance and not investment ??????? Require continuous improvements ???????????,??????????? Influence investment in new infrastructure when it is designed, rather than waiting to retrofit or replace it ?????????????????,??????????? Invest seriously in analytics, permitting, and enforcement. Ensure that enforcement is incorruptible.


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1.????????,????????? Set Clear Policy Goals WITH Annual INTERIM TARGETS Montreal Protocol signed CFCs HCFCs HFCs ????????? Let the market find the best solution ????????????,???????????? The Montreal Protocol banned CFCs, required manufacturers to figure out alternatives for their products ???????? ???? ??? ?? 10???? ?? Source: Down to Earth Blog


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Beware unintended consequences: Cars v. trucks. Weight v. size ?????????:???vs??,??vs?? Country comparison of fuel economy standards and targets ????????????? ???????(??) (???????????) ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ??? 1.????????,????????? Set Clear Policy Goals WITH Annual INTERIM TARGETS Source: E&E Publishing


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??: ??????????? EXAMPLE: Transportation mode share targets set by Vancouver ?????(??) 2008:???40%?????????? 2020:?????????????????? 2040:???????????????????? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??????????????,??2040?????? 1.????????,????????? Set Clear Policy Goals WITH Annual INTERIM TARGETS Source: http://pricetags.wordpress.com/2012/06/22/transportation-2040-the-extraordinary-slides/


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?????? Production Tax Credit: ??????? Credit for electricity generation from wind ?????? Investment Tax Credit: ???????????? Covers portion of wind project development costs ???????????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? (?????) ??????? ?????? ??(???)|????? 2.????,???? Reward Performance, Not Investment


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?????????? UK’s Renewables Obligation ???2020?????????15%?? Committed to generating 15% of power from renewables by 2020 ?????????????????????? Generators of renewable electricity earn certificates (ROC) on a per MWh basis ??:0.9 ??/???? Onshore: 0.9 ROC/MWh ??:2 ??/????? Offshore: 2 ROC/MWh 2.????,???? Reward Performance, Not Investment Source: UK Government


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????,??????(???,?????) Avoid loopholes, value the correct metric (generation, not capacity) ????????????(2006-2012) ??(???) ????????(%) ??? ?????? Source: Business Green 2.????,???? Reward Performance, Not Investment


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3.??????? Require Continuous improvement ? ?????? Incentivizes dynamic technologies ??????????? Allocates some improvement to the public good ????? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ?1999??? ????:2004


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??????????? Example of policy without steady improvements: ?????????? CAFE Standards Nearly two decades of unimproved policy ???????? ???????? 1978-2025?????????? ???????? (1978-1985) ??????????????? (1979-1995) ????????? (1985-1989) ??????????27.5??/?? (1990-2010) ??????????20.7??/?? (1997-2001) ????????? (2005-2007) ???????????????????????????? (2008??) ???????????????? (2012-2016) ???????????????? (2017-2025) 3.??????? Require Continuous improvement ?


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??????????? Building codes that require continuous improvement ?????? 3.??????? Require Continuous improvement ?


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???????????(??)????????,?????? -????? We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. - Aristotle? 3.??????? Require Continuous improvement ?


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4. ??????????? Influence Investment in New Infrastructure ????????????,?????Infrastructure can last for decades or centuries ????????? ‘Lock in’ efficiency from the start ??????????? Synchronize investment with capital stock turnover ???????????? Avoid unnecessary upgrade or replacement costs ????????? DO NOT WAIT TO RETROFIT OR REPLACE Source: World Finance


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5.????????????????? Invest seriously in analytics, permitting, and enforcement ??:????????????? EXAMPLE: AIR QUALITY DATA ANALYSIS FOR JJJ REGION ?????????PM2.5??? Beijing Tianjin Hebei Source: Clean Air Alliance of China


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??! THANK YOU Hal Harvey www.energyinnovation.org San Francisco, CA DAVID YU / CC BY-NC-ND2.0 ?? ???


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