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The Global Public Opinion About Climate Change

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Global Concern about Climate Change Support for Limiting Emissions Partisan Divisions Suggest Challenges Remain


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Pew Research Center • Established 1996 • Funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts • Non-profit, non-partisan fact tank in Washington • Survey topics: U.S. domestic politics and economic conditions, values, U.S. image abroad, global views toward major powers, terrorism, democracy, country conditions, aging, economy • Since 2002, we have surveyed in 85 countries, including 40 nations in 2015 • www.pewresearch.org November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 2


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Methodology • Surveys conducted across 40 countries from March 25 to May 27, 2015, totaling 45,435 respondents • Based on nationally representative telephone and face-to-face interviews with adults 18 and older conducted under the direction of Princeton Survey Research Associates International • The margin of sampling error for the complete set of weighted data is ±2.8% - ±4.3% November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 3


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KEY TAKEAWAYS November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 4


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Brazilians Most Concerned about Climate Change Chinese Least Worried Global climate change is a very serious problem November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 5


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Latin Americans, Sub-Saharan Africans More Troubled by Climate Change than People in Other Regions Regional medians Note: Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. Asia-Pacific median includes China. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 6


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Drought Tops Climate Change Concerns across Regions Regional medians of most concerning effects of global climate change Note: Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 7


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Global Public Support for Both Personal and Policy Changes Global medians on climate change solutions November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 8


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Top Polluters Less Concerned about Climate Change But Their Publics Still Willing to Limit Greenhouse Gas Emissions Climate change is a very serious problem Support limiting greenhouse gas emissions as part of an int'l agreement China 18% 71% 45 U.S. 69 India Russia 70 33 76 65 45 Japan 83 Germany 55 GLOBAL MEDIAN 54 87 78 Note: Data shown for top six CO2 emitting nations based on 2011 emissions data from the World Bank. Median is calculated from all 40 nations surveyed. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 9


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WIDESPREAD CONCERN ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 10


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Intensity of Climate Change Concern Varies Globally Global climate change is a very serious problem November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 11


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The Most and Least Concerned Nations Global climate change is a very serious problem Brazil Burkina Faso Chile India Uganda Peru Russia Ukraine Pakistan Israel Poland China November 5, 2015 Greatest Concern 86% 79 77 76 76 75 Least Concern 33% 29 29 24 19 18 www.pewresearch.org 12


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Some Publics Less Worried than Five Years Ago, Others More Global climate change is a very serious problem 2010 % Turkey China South Korea Japan Poland Russia Argentina Indonesia Pakistan U.S. France Nigeria 2015 % 74 41 68 58 31 43 66 47 22 37 46 43 37 18 48 45 19 33 59 41 29 45 56 61 Change -37 -23 -20 -13 -12 -10 -7 -6 +7 +8 +10 +18 Note: Only statistically significant differences shown. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 13


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Concern about Personal Toll of Climate Change Greatest in Latin America Very concerned global climate change will harm me personally November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 14


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Developing Nations Most Worried About Personal Impact Advanced Nations Among Least Concerned Very concerned global climate change will harm me personally Greatest Personal Concern Uganda Brazil Burkina Faso Philippines Ghana India UK Germany Australia Poland Israel China November 5, 2015 88% 78 77 75 73 69 Least Personal Concern 19% 18 18 15 15 15 www.pewresearch.org 15


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BROAD SUPPORT FOR ACTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 16


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Europeans Most Supportive of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Do you __ our country limiting greenhouse gas emissions as part of an international agreement? Oppose Support Europe 13% Latin America 11 Africa 87% 10 Asia/Pacific Middle East 83 77 13 76 17 73 U.S. 24 GLOBAL MEDIAN 69 12 78 Note: Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. Global median is calculated from all 40 nations surveyed. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 17


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Among Many Top Polluters, the Young are the Strongest Supporters of Limiting Emissions Support limiting country’s greenhouse gas emissions as part of an international agreement Youngestoldest gap 18-29 30-49 50+ % % % U.S. 85 69 60 +25 Poland 71 65 57 +14 France 95 85 84 +11 India 74 70 64 +10 Australia 84 83 75 +9 Note: All differences shown are statistically significant. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 18


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Majority Global Support for Rich Countries Doing More Should rich countries do more to address climate change than developing countries OR should developing countries do just as much as rich countries? Developing countries should do just as much Rich countries should do more Middle East 29% Europe Latin America 62% 41 56 44 Africa Asia/Pacific 51 35 50 40 42 U.S. 50 GLOBAL MEDIAN 40 38 54 Note: Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. Global median is calculated from all 40 nations surveyed. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 19


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Generational Divide on Who Should Do More to Address Climate Change Rich countries should do more to address climate change than developing countries Youngestoldest gap 18-29 30-49 50+ % % % U.S. 51 42 34 +17 Japan 45 35 31 +14 Australia 55 55 45 +10 France 44 51 60 -16 Germany 47 56 65 -18 Note: All differences shown are statistically significant. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 20


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Majorities in Most Regions Believe Major Lifestyle Changes Necessary Do you think people will have to make major changes in the way they live to reduce the effects of climate change OR can technology solve the problem without major changes? Technology can solve Latin America Make major lifestyle changes 13% Europe 83% 21 U.S. 73 23 Africa 21 Asia/Pacific 66 23 Middle East GLOBAL MEDIAN 65 61 48 34 67 22 Note: Russia and Ukraine not included in Europe median. Global median is calculated from all 40 nations surveyed. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 21


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Women, More than Men, Say Personal Changes Necessary to Combat Global Warming To reduce the effects of global climate change people will have to make major changes in the way they live Women Men Diff % % U.S. 75 57 +18 Canada 81 66 +15 UK 74 60 +14 Australia 71 57 +14 Spain 83 71 +12 Germany 81 70 +11 South Korea 89 78 +11 Poland 53 44 +9 Ukraine 53 44 +9 France 86 80 +6 Note: All differences shown are statistically significant. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 22


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CLIMATE CHANGE IS DIVISIVE WITHIN COUNTRIES November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 23


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In Europe, U.S.: Deep Ideological Divide on Climate Change Concern Global climate change is a very serious problem Left Right % % Italy 69 42 France 70 UK Left-Right Diff Global climate change is harming people now Left-Right Diff Left Right % % +27 74 64 +10 49 +21 71 50 +21 53 34 +19 59 44 +15 Spain 60 46 +14 69 51 +18 Germany 58 57 +1 73 59 +14 Poland 16 18 -2 25 36 -11 Liberal Conservative Lib-Conserv Diff % % 59 32 Liberal Lib-Conserv Diff Conservative % U.S. % 68 30 +38 +27 Note: Statistically significant differences in bold. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 24


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Stark U.S. Partisan Differences on Climate Change November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 25


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Significant Partisan Divides in Other Major Economies November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 26


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Significant Partisan Divides in Other Major Economies November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 27


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U.S. Relatively Less Concerned about Climate Change, Less Willing to Take Action U.S. Global Median 45% Climate change is a very serious problem 54% Climate change is harming people now Very concerned climate change will harm me personally 41 51 30 40 People will have to make major lifestyle changes to reduce the effects of climate change 66 67 Support limiting country's greenhouse gas emissions 69 78 Rich countries should do more than developing countries to address climate change 40 54 Note: U.S. included in global median. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 28


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In U.S.: Lower Income, Women, Young More Concerned about Climate Change Very concerned Climate change is a Climate change is climate change will very serious problem harming people now harm me personally % % % TOTAL 45 41 30 Men Women 39 51 36 45 23 36 18-29 30-49 50+ 52 49 38 49 42 36 34 37 21 Lower income Higher income 49 41 42 40 37 21 Protestant Catholic Unaffiliated 34 50 56 33 45 49 26 39 27 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 29


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…Women and Young More Willing to Do Something about It, Lower Income Maybe Not People will have to Support limiting Rich countries make major lifestyle country’s greenhouse should do more than changes gas emissions developing countries % % % TOTAL 66 69 40 Men 57 65 38 Women 75 72 42 18-29 65 85 51 30-49 72 69 42 50+ 61 60 34 Lower income 66 70 39 Higher income 68 70 41 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 30


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In UK: Public Less Concerned about Climate Change Just as Willing as Rest of World to Do Something about It UK Global Median 41% Climate change is a very serious problem 54% 48 51 Climate change is harming people now Very concerned climate change will harm me personally 19 40 People will have to make major lifestyle changes to reduce the effects of climate change 67 67 78 78 Support limiting country's greenhouse gas emissions Rich countries should do more than developing countries to address climate change 49 54 Note: UK included in global median. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 31


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British Women, Young and Labour Supporters Most Concerned Global Warming Will Hurt Them Personally Very concerned Climate change is a Climate change is climate change will very serious problem harming people now harm me personally % % % TOTAL 41 48 19 Men 38 50 16 Women 44 46 22 18-29 48 49 30 30-49 40 53 18 50+ 39 42 15 Conservative 28 37 11 Labour 47 51 19 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 32


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… And Women, Labour Supporters Want Rich Countries to Do More about Climate Change People will have to Support limiting Rich countries make major lifestyle country’s greenhouse should do more than changes gas emissions developing countries % % % TOTAL 67 78 49 Men 60 77 45 Women 74 79 53 18-29 68 80 53 30-49 67 83 51 50+ 68 75 45 Conservatives 56 75 39 Labour 74 87 54 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 33


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Germans Not That Worried Climate Change Will Affect Them but Support Action to Slow Global Warming Germany Global Median 55% 54% Climate change is a very serious problem Climate change is harming people now Very concerned climate change will harm me personally 66 51 18 40 People will have to make major lifestyle changes to reduce the effects of climate change 75 67 87 Support limiting country's greenhouse gas emissions 78 Rich countries should do more than developing countries to address climate change 59 54 Note: Germany included in global median. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 34


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In Germany, Women and Greens Supporters Most Concerned about Climate Change Very concerned Climate change is a Climate change is climate change will very serious problem harming people now harm me personally % % % TOTAL 55 66 18 Men Women 50 60 66 65 16 20 18-29 30-49 50+ 52 56 56 68 63 66 20 23 14 CDU SPD Greens 43 62 75 62 67 86 13 17 27 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 35


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Germans: Women, Greens Support Lifestyle Changes to Address Climate Change; Greens, Older Generation Back Rich Countries Doing More People will have to Support limiting Rich countries make major lifestyle country’s greenhouse should do more than changes gas emissions developing countries % % % TOTAL 75 87 59 Men Women 70 81 86 87 58 61 18-29 30-49 50+ 70 78 75 89 83 88 47 56 65 CDU SPD Greens 68 82 89 89 85 94 57 53 78 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 36


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Japanese Say Climate Change Is Harming People Now and Want Limitations on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Japan Global Median 45% Climate change is a very serious problem 54% 71 Climate change is harming people now Very concerned climate change will harm me personally 51 34 40 People will have to make major lifestyle changes to reduce the effects of climate change 53 67 83 Support limiting country's greenhouse gas emissions Rich countries should do more than developing countries to address climate change 78 34 54 Note: Japan included in global median. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 37


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In Japan, Older Generation More Concerned about Climate Change Very concerned Climate change is a Climate change is climate change will very serious problem harming people now harm me personally % % % TOTAL 45 71 34 Men Women 82 88 69 73 32 35 18-29 30-49 50+ 29 38 52 61 74 73 27 32 36 Lower income Higher income 47 43 67 75 38 30 Secondary Post-secondary 49 40 70 73 37 29 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 38


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… But Young and Old Both Willing to Act, and Young More Likely to Say Rich Countries Should Do More to Address Climate Change People will have to Support limiting Rich countries should make major lifestyle country’s greenhouse do more than changes gas emissions developing countries % % % TOTAL 53 83 34 Men Women 52 54 86 80 36 32 18-29 30-49 50+ 48 52 54 83 85 82 45 35 31 Lower income Higher income 54 53 81 87 33 36 Secondary Post-secondary 51 57 82 86 33 36 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 39


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French Concerned about Global Warming, More Willing to Take Action France Global Median Climate change is a very serious problem 56% 54% Climate change is harming people now 59 51 35 Very concerned climate change will harm me personally 40 People will have to make major lifestyle changes to reduce the effects of climate change 83 67 Support limiting country's greenhouse gas emissions 86 78 Rich countries should do more than developing countries to address climate change 54 54 Note: France included in global median. November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 40


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In France, Young and Higher Income More Worried about Climate Change Very concerned Climate change is a Climate change is climate change will very serious problem harming people now harm me personally % % % TOTAL 56 59 35 Men 58 60 35 Women 54 57 35 18-29 61 68 40 30-49 57 67 38 50+ 52 48 31 Lower income 51 52 36 Higher income 60 64 34 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 41


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… But Younger Generation Less Likely to Say Rich Countries Should Do More to Address Global Warming’s Effects People will have to Support limiting Rich countries make major lifestyle country’s greenhouse should do more than changes gas emissions developing countries % % % TOTAL 83 86 54 Men Women 80 86 87 86 50 57 18-29 30-49 50+ 87 86 79 95 85 84 44 51 60 Lower income Higher income 82 84 83 89 56 52 November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 42


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All Pew Research Center reports and data are available online at www.pewresearch.org November 5, 2015 www.pewresearch.org 43


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