The Internet of

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The Internet of Cars Things Towards the future of the connected car Jorgen Thelin

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Abstract The Internet of Cars - Towards the Future of the Connected Car No doubt you have heard the phrase “Internet of Things” and the new buzzword “IoT” been used more and more these days, but what does that mean in practice? The Tesla Model S is probably the most well-connected car on the planet at the moment, and in this presentation we will use that vehicle as a case study of some practical usage of IoT concepts and technology that is already being applied to modern automobiles. How far away are we from a future “Internet of Cars” and what will be the social and privacy impacts of more connected-car scenarios?

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Definition: Internet of Things “The Internet of Things is the network of physical objects that contain embedded technology to communicate and sense or interact with their internal states or the external environment.” Source: Gartner IT Glossary http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/internet-of-things/ Core requirements: Physical Identifiable Connected Telemetry Control

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The Connected Car – Tesla Model S Tesla Model S Source: Tesla Motors http://www.teslamotors.com/models/photo-gallery IoT requirements: Physical ? Identifiable ? Connected ? Telemetry ? Control ? Note: This is a technology case study, not a car advertisement! Full Disclosure: I am proud owner of TSLA stock since 2010 IPO, and Tesla Model S since 2013.

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Tesla Model S – Networking & Connectivity Connectivity GSM 3G with HSPA+ using the AT&T’s network (and others) and using Sierra Wireless AR8550 (TMC Forum) The Model-S hardware supports HSPA+, which AT&T considers 4G. A software update may be available in the 2014 time frame to add 4G support. The hardware does not support LTE. Display – Instrument 12.3? LCD, 1280 x 480 resolution NVidia Tegra 2 dual core CPU (Mercury News, 15-May-2013) Software – Linux, QT and custom Tesla code (PC Word interview) Display – Primary 17? LCD, 1080 x 1920 resolution Nvidia’s Visual Computing Module VCM (Nvidia) NVidia Tegra 3 quad-core +1 power-saving core (Nvidia blog) Cypress MultiTouch controller (press release) Software – Linux, QT and custom Tesla code (PC Word interview) Source: Tesla Motors

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Networked Data Services – New Possibilities Over-the-Air Software Updates & Patches Add entirely new functionality to the car For example: Hill Start Assist aka: Seattle has longer & steeper hills than Fremont, CA Make feature updates For example: improved cold weather range predictions Fix any bugs in Car OS or Infotainment Apps Data feed of near real-time traffic conditions Source: Google Maps Streaming Internet Radio Slacker TuneIn Real-time GPS location Transmit vehicle status telemetry

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Sensors & Controls: Fly-By-Wire? Software controlled switches handle all vehicle control functions Car can detects proximity of key fob, else drive train disabled. Remote door unlock and extend door handles, handles auto-present as driver approaches with key fob if Tech Package is installed. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ucwo9hnLiU8 Steering, including steering mode setting Gear selection: P-N-R-D Braking, including regen-braking Driving lights & turn signals HVAC Door sensors / unlock [with manual override for emergency use] Battery compartment temperature & air-flow Vehicle ride-height at highway speed, if Air-Suspension options is fitted. Source: Scientific American Source: JThelin

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Telemetry – Many Different Uses Vast amounts for real-time status data produced by each car – rich data mining opportunities. Various Uses of the Data: Complete fleet size and usage patterns data. Analyze usage patterns for design of new features. Example: Hill Start Assist functionality added in April 2014. Safety monitoring Examples: Any crashes detected, even if air-bags did not need deployment. http://www.gtspirit.com/2013/10/06/tesla-model-s-destroyed-in-the-usa/  Dude, Where’s My Car? Source: Tesla Motors

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Telemetry – Fraud Detection A Most Peculiar Test Drive New York Times article by John Broder http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/10/automobiles /stalled-on-the-ev-highway.html Public rebuttal of NYTimes article with full telemetry data analysis by Tesla Motors http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/most-peculiar-test-drive http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/most-peculiar-test-drive-follow When Life Gives You Lemons Milwaukee attorney Vince Megna filed “Lemon Law” case against Tesla Motors claiming defective vehicle. Tesla released public statement detailing all the remedial steps they had attempted on that vehicle. http://www.teslamotors.com/blog/when-life-gives-you-lemons The key to the rebuttal came from telemetry data: Another issue was that the car's fuse blew on numerous occasions. Each time, our engineers explored all possible explanations and were never able to find anything wrong with the car. Still, just to be sure, we replaced several parts that could have been related to the alleged problem – all at no expense to the customer. When the fuse kept blowing despite the new parts, and faced with no diagnosis showing anything wrong with the car, the engineers were moved to consider the possibility that the fuse had been tampered with. After investigating, they determined that the car's front trunk had been opened immediately before the fuse failure on each of these occasions. (The fuse is accessed through the front trunk.) Ultimately, Tesla service applied non-tamper tape to the fuse switch. From that point on, the fuse performed flawlessly! Source: Tesla Motors

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A Remote Control Car? Internet connectivity enables remote monitoring and limited control of the vehicle. Safety interlocks disable remote control fucntions while car is in motion. But no RC driving! Well, at least not yet ... ! http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Science-Fiction-News.asp?NewsNum=2627 Tesla Model S -- REST API Vehicle Status Is mobile access enabled Charge state Climate controls state Driving state and location GUI settings (preferences) Vehicle state [Doors open Vehicle Control Commands Open charge port door Set charge mode to standard Set charge mode to max-range Set charge limit to X % Start charge Stop charge Flash lights Honk horn Lock doors Unlock doors Sun roof control [open / close / vent] Set AC target temperature Start AC Stop AC Unofficial docs: http://docs.timdorr.apiary.io/ Source: Tesla Motors

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Connected Privacy? Should we be worried about the type and amount of telemetry data our cars will soon start to reveal about details of our lives? Rhetorical question: Is this any different than the data emitted by your cellphone & other mobile apps? Even if your car does not tell anyone where it is, your cellphone probably already does through various location-based services. iBeacon, Bing / Google Maps, Yelp, Facebook, etc According to Jeff Jonas (IBM Fellow & Chief Scientist for Entity Analytics) Space-Time Box data from cellphones and other portable gadgets can already be used to fairly accurately identify individual “habitrail” signals. http://jeffjonas.typepad.com/jeff_jonas/2009/08/your-movements-speak-for-themselves-spacetime-travel-data-is-analytic-superfood.html Will the benefits of a connected car out-weigh any privacy concerns? Only you can decide!

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The future of the connected car is only just beginning….. Source: Tesla Motors